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Plant Diversity and Resources

Journal of Systematics and Evolution

Volume 54 Issue 6, Pages 563C603.

Published Online: 14 Dec. 2016

DOI: 10.1111/jse.12229

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A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns

The Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group

1Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

2Institute of Ecology and Evolution, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University & Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London

3University Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley

4Research & Education, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden

5Herb│rio, Instituto de Botânica, São Paulo

6Institut de Syst└matique, Evolution, Biodiversit└, Sorbonne Universit└s, Mus└um National d'Histoire Naturelle, Herbier National, Paris

7Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

8Pringle Herbarium, Department of Plant Biology, University of Vermont

9Herb│rio HSTM, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Par│

10Fern Research Foundation, Kerikeri

11Department of Biology, University of Florida

12Queensland Herbarium; Department of Science and Innovation and Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University

13Departamento de Ci┷ncias Naturais, Universidade Regional de Blumenau

14University Herbarium and Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley

15Department of Biology, Duke University

16Nees-Institut f┨r Biodiversität der Pflanzen, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

17Laboratoire de Botanique Évolutive, Institut de Biologie, Universit└ de Neuchâtel

18Department of Botany, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo

19Department of Biology, University of Turku

20Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Viçosa

21Museum of the North, University of Alaska Fairbanks

22Missouri Botanical Garden

23Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University

24Collections, Research, and Learning, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa

25Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de R┴o Cuarto

26Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona

27Division of Botany, Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute

28Hengchun Research Center, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute

29Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University

30Division of Botanical Garden, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute

31College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University

32Herbarium, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute

33Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora

34Department of Botany, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University

35Institut de Syst└matique, Evolution, Biodiversit└, Sorbonne Universit└s, Universit└ Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris

36Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University

37Departamento de Biolog┴a Vegetal I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

38Department of Biology, University of Minnesota Duluth

39Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Kansas

40Department of Biology, Denison University

41Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Zurich

42Department of Organismal Biology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University

43Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal do Paran│

44Plant Resources Center, University of Texas at Austin

45State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

46Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University

47Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, Fairylake Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences

48Department of Biology, Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Hanoi

49Instituto de Bot│nica del Nordeste, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient┴ficas y T└cnicas

50New York Botanical Garden

51Diretoria de Pesquisa, Instituto de Pesquisa Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

52National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust

53Section for Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, Aarhus University

54Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London

55Department of Evolution and Biodiversity of Plants, Ruhr-Universität Bochum

56Instituto de Bot│nica Darwinion, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient┴ficas y T└cnicas

57Department of Botany, University of Hawaii at Manoa

58Faculty of Education, Kagawa University

59South-Siberian Botanical Garden, Altai State University

60Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

61Departamento de Ciencias Biol┏gicas, Universidad de Caldas

62Departamento de Bot│nica, Universidad de Panam│

63Instituto de Biolog┴a, Universidad Nacional Aut┏noma de M└xico

64UNC Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

65Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences

66Department of Biology, Utah State University

67Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences

68Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Keywords: classification; ferns; lycophytes; monophyly; phylogeny; pteridophytes


Phylogeny has long informed pteridophyte classification. As our ability to infer evolutionary trees has improved, classifications aimed at recognizing natural groups have become increasingly predictive and stable. Here, we provide a modern, comprehensive classification for lycophytes and ferns, down to the genus level, utilizing a community-based approach. We use monophyly as the primary criterion for the recognition of taxa, but also aim to preserve existing taxa and circumscriptions that are both widely accepted and consistent with our understanding of pteridophyte phylogeny. In total, this classification treats an estimated 11 916 species in 337 genera, 51 families, 14 orders, and two classes. This classification is not intended as the final word on lycophyte and fern taxonomy, but rather a summary statement of current hypotheses, derived from the best available data and shaped by those most familiar with the plants in question. We hope that it will serve as a resource for those wanting references to the recent literature on pteridophyte phylogeny and classification, a framework for guiding future investigations, and a stimulus to further discourse.


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