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  • Raman Patel, Ashif Ali, Rafael F. de Almeida, Rajendra S. Rana, and Mahasin A. Khan
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13078
    预出版日期: 2024-06-02
    Eucalypt fossils were widely reported from the Cenozoic deposits across the Southern Hemisphere (Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina). However, no attached reproductive and vegetative fossil remains of this myrtaceous clade have been discovered till now. We report and describe for the first time a fossil eucalypt twig with attached foliage, flower buds, and mature flowers from the early Eocene (~55-52 Ma) sediments (Palana Formation) of Rajasthan, western India. As both vegetative and reproductive organs are in organic connection, they clearly represent the same species. In addition, here we also introduce fossil materials of isolated leaves, flower buds, inflorescence, and flowers recovered from the same stratigraphic level. Our Eocene fossils and extant members of the eucalypt clade are related morphologically by means of robust, thick petiolate lanceolate-shaped leaves with intramarginal secondary veins; operculate flower buds consisting of imbricate petals with discernable margins; solitary inflorescence with three flowers per umbellaster, epigynous and bisexual flowers. Based upon combined characteristics of leaf, flower, and bud morphology, these fossils conform to the Eucalypt clade and are recognized as a new fossil genus and species: Hindeucalyptus eocenicus Patel, R.F. Almeida, Ali et Khan gen. nov. et sp. nov. We also compare it with extant and extinct eucalypts using morphological phylogeny and character mapping analyses. In addition, we briefly discuss its phytogeographic and paleoclimatic implications regarding the distribution and habitat of fossil and modern eucalypts.
  • Xing-Hao Li, Ru-Fan Li, Fang-Jing Hu, Shuai Zheng, Fu-Qiang Rao, Rong An, Yong-Hong Li, and De-Guang Liu
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13079
    预出版日期: 2024-05-27
    The Cucujiformia, with remarkable morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity, is the most evolutionarily successful group within Coleoptera. However, the phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies within Cucujiformia remain elusive. To address the issues, we conducted a transcriptome-based macro-evolutionary study of this lineage. We sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of three species from the superfamily Curculionoidea (two from Curculionidae and one from Brentidae), and obtained a data set of more than 569 990 amino acid alignments from 143 species of Cucujiformia. With the most complete collection of whole genomes and transcriptomes so far, we compared the performance of different data matrices with universal-single-copy orthologs (USCO). The resultant trees based on different data sets were consistent for the majority of deep nodes. Two USCO amino acid matrices (i.e., USCO75 and USCO750-abs80) provided well-resolved topology. The analyses confirm that Cucujoidea sensu Robertson et al. 2015 is a nonmonophyletic group, consisting of Erotyloidea, Nitiduloidea, and Cucujoidea sensu Cai et al. 2022. Moreover, Erotyloidea is the early-diverging group, followed by the clade Nitiduloidea. The preferred topologies supported a “basal” split of Coccinelloidea from the remaining superfamilies, and Cleroidea formed the second splitting group. The following phylogeny was supported at the superfamily level in Cucujiformia: (Coccinelloidea, (Cleroidea, ((Lymexyloidea, Tenebrionoidea), (Erotyloidea, (Nitiduloidea, (Cucujoidea, (Chrysomeloidea, Curculionoidea))))))). Our comprehensive analyses recovered well-resolved higher-level phylogenetic relationships within the Cucujiformia, providing a stable framework for comprehending its evolutionary history.
  • Enzo Jugieau, Victor Talmot, Cybill Staentzel, Sandra Noir, and Laurent Hardion
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13075
    预出版日期: 2024-05-13
    The two invasive Reynoutria species, Reynoutria japonica var. japonica and Reynoutria sachalinensis, and their hybrid Reynoutria x bohemica are often misidentified by managers and nonspecialists. The taxonomic confusions are all the more exacerbated by the infraspecific variability of introduced populations in terms of morphology, genetic diversity, and ploidy level. We resolved the identity of North-Eastern French invasive populations using 4582 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a RADseq analysis, DNA contents estimated by flow cytometry, and 12 vegetative morphometric variables. The SNPs supported only one single genotype for R. japonica over 11 localities, while the nine localities of Reynoutria x bohemica were represented by one genotype each. Estimation of genome size using DAPI staining and flow cytometry revealed only octoploid cytotypes for R. japonica and hexaploid cytotypes for R. x bohemica, whereas R. sachalinensis was represented by tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes. Among morphometric variables, no single one allows for a clear differentiation of the three taxa. We propose a combination of characters to easily and quickly identify these three invasive taxa based on six vegetative criteria including leaf and apex length, as well as leaf shape, leaf base, and apex shape, and the extrafloral nectaries on the node.
  • Ryan A. Folk, Aliasghar A. Maassoumi, Carolina M. Siniscalchi, Heather R. Kates, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis, Michael B. Belitz, and Robert P. Guralnick
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13077
    预出版日期: 2024-05-13
    Astragalus (Fabaceae) is astoundingly diverse in temperate, cold arid regions of Earth, positioning this group as a model clade for investigating the distribution of plant diversity in the face of environmental challenges. Here, we identify the spatial distribution of diversity and endemism in Astragalus using species distribution models for 752 species and a phylogenetic tree comprising 847 species. We integrated these to map centers of species richness (SR) and relative phylogenetic diversity (RPD) and used randomization approaches to investigate centers of endemism. We also used clustering methods to identify phylogenetic regionalizations. We then assembled predictor variables of current climate conditions to test environmental factors predicting these phylogenetic diversity results, especially temperature and precipitation seasonality. We find that SR centers are distributed globally at temperate middle latitudes in arid regions, but the Mediterranean Basin is the most important center of RPD. Endemism centers also occur globally, but Iran represents a key endemic area with a concentration of both paleo- and neoendemism. Phylogenetic regionalization recovered an east-west gradient in Eurasia and an amphitropical disjunction across North and South America; American phyloregions are overall most closely related to east and central Asia. SR, RPD, and lineage turnover are driven mostly by precipitation and seasonality, but endemism is driven primarily by diurnal temperature variation. Endemism and regionalization results point to western Asia and especially Iran as a biogeographic gateway between Europe and Asia. RPD and endemism highlight the importance of temperature and drought stress in determining plant diversity and endemism centers.
  • Ya-Nan Cao, Meng-Hao Wang, Hang Ran, Bin Tian, Lu-Xian Liu, Qing-Nan Wu, Yan-Yan Liu, Hong-Wei Wang, and Shan-Shan Zhu
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13076
    预出版日期: 2024-04-28
    Dipelta Maxim. (Caprifoliaceae) is a Tertiary relic genus endemic to China, which includes three extant species, Dipelta floribunda, Dipelta yunnanensis, and Dipelta elegans. Recent progress in the systematics and phylogeographics of Dipelta has greatly broadened our knowledge about its origin and evolution, however, conflicted phylogenetic relationships and divergence times have been reported and warrant further investigation. Here, we utilized chloroplast genomes and population-level genomic data restriction site-associated DNA-single nucleotide polymorphisms (RAD-SNPs) to evaluate the interspecific relationships, population genetic structure and demographic histories of this genus. Our results confirmed the sister relationship between D. elegans and the D. yunnanensis-D. floribunda group, but with cyto-nuclear phylogenetic discordance observed in the latter. Coalescent simulations suggested that this discordance might be attributed to asymmetric “chloroplast capture” through introgressive hybridization between the two parapatric species. Our fossil-calibrated plastid chronogram of Dipsacales and the coalescent modeling based on nuclear RAD-SNPs simultaneously suggested that the three species of Dipelta diversified at the late Miocene, which may be related to the uplift of the eastern part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and adjacent southwest China, and increasing Asian interior aridification since the late Miocene; while in the mid-Pleistocene, the climatic transition and continuous uplift of the QTP, triggered allopatric speciation via geographical isolation for D. floribunda and D. yunnanensis regardless of bidirectional gene flow. Based on both plastid and nuclear genome-scale data, our findings provide the most comprehensive and reliable phylogeny and evolutionary histories for Dipelta and enable further understanding of the origin and evolution of floristic endemisms of China.
  • Jia-Xuan Mi, Jin-Liang Huang, Yu-Jie Shi, Fei-Fei Tian, Jing Li, Fan-Yu Meng, Fang He, Yu Zhong, Han-Bo Yang, Fan Zhang, Liang-Hua Chen, and Xue-Qin Wan
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13074
    预出版日期: 2024-04-26
    Taxonomy of Populus is a challenging task, especially in regions with complex topography, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau because of the effect of hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, phenotypic plasticity, and convergence. In the Flora of China, Populus pseudoglanca and Populus wuana are classified into sect. Leucoides and sect. Tacamahaca, respectively, but their taxonomy remains unclear. By conducting a systematic investigation for all taxa of Populus on the plateau, we found 31 taxa from the two sections. Through identification based on morphology and habitats, we confirmed that the “P. pseudoglanca” recorded in the Flora of Sichuan is not true P. pseudoglanca, while P. pseudoglanca and P. wuana recorded in the Flora of China may refer to the same species. By performing whole-genome re-sequencing of 150 individuals from the 31 taxa, we derived 2.28 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Further genetic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the genetic structure of P. wuana is extremely consistent with P. pseudoglanca, and they all originate through the natural hybridization between Populus ciliata in sect. Leucoides and Populus curviserrata in sect. Tacamahaca. Our results suggested that P. wuana should be merged with P. pseudoglanca taxonomically. This study not only clarifies the taxonomic confusions related to P. pseudoglanca and P. wuana but also provides a new framework based on the integration of morphology, distribution, habitat, and genome to solve complex taxonomic problems.
  • Oyetola Oyebanji, Gregory W. Stull, Rong Zhang, Fabien R. Rahaingoson, De-Zhu Li, and Ting-Shuang Yi
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13072
    预出版日期: 2024-04-24
    The Millettioid/Phaseoloid (or the Millettioid) clade is a major lineage of the subfamily Papilionoideae (Fabaceae) that is poorly understood in terms of its diversification and biogeographic history.To fill this gap,we generated a time-calibrated phylogeny for 749 species representing c.80% of the genera of this clade using nrDNA ITS,plastid matK,and plastome sequence (including 38 newly sequenced plastomes).Using this phylogenetic framework,we explored the clade's temporal diversification and reconstructed its ancestral areas and dispersal events.Our phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Millettioid/Phaseoloid clade and four of its tribal lineages (Abreae,Desmodieae,Indigofereae,and Psoraleeae),while two tribal lineages sensu lato millettioids and phaseoloids are polyphyletic.The fossil-calibrated dating analysis showed a nearly simultaneous divergence between the stem node (c.62 Ma) and the crown node (c.61 Ma) of the Millettioid/Phaseoloid clade in the Paleocene.The biogeographic analysis suggested that the clade originated in Africa and dispersed to Asia,Europe,Australia,and the Americas at different periods in the Cenozoic.We found evidence for shifts in diversification rates across the phylogeny of the Millettioid/Phaseoloid clade throughout the Cenozoic,with a rapid increase in net diversification rates since c.10 Ma.Possible explanations for the present-day species richness and distribution of the Millettioid/Phaseoloid clade include boreotropical migration,frequent intra-and intercontinental long-distance dispersals throughout the Cenozoic,and elevated speciation rates following the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum.Together,these results provide novel insights into major diversification patterns of the Millettioid/Phaseoloid clade,setting the stage for future evolutionary research on this important legume clade.
  • Bowen Kong, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren, and Yongjie Wang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13071
    预出版日期: 2024-04-21
    Neuroptera, as a small relic group of Insecta undergoing a rapid species diversification during the Mesozoic Era, is known by diverse extinct endemic lineages preserved as impression fossils and in amber. The current understanding of Mesozoic neuropterans' diversity has mainly focused on the adults, because the contemporaneous larvae have been fairly rare especially for the Jurassic lacewings. Herein, a new giant lacewing larva, Natator giganteus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou Beds of China. The remarkable larva is characterized by its impressively large body size, distinctively elongated cervix, and presence of swimming hairs on legs, which provide direct evidence to reveal an aquatic habit for the Jurassic lacewing larva. The morphological analysis indicates this giant larva would have probably inhabited the benthic environments of Jurassic montane rivers and streams. In addition, its morphological specialization suggests that it might have adopted an ambush predation strategy to catch its prey. The finding enhances our knowledge of the species diversity and morphological plasticity for the Jurassic lacewing larvae, and reveals that the aquatic lineages of Neuroptera exhibited dramatically structural and ecological convergence across the evolutionary process.
  • Xin-Lin Yan, Sheng-Long Kan, Mei-Xia Wang, Yong-Yao Li, Luke R. Tembrock, Wen-Chuang He, Li-Yun Nie, Guan-Jing Hu, Dao-Jun Yuan, Xiong-Feng Ma, and Zhi-Qiang Wu
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13070
    预出版日期: 2024-04-16
    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a vital global source of renewable fiber and ranks among the world's most important cash crops. While extensive nuclear genomic data of Gossypium has been explored, the organellar genomic resources of allotetraploid cotton, remain largely untapped at the population level. The plastid genome (plastome) is well suited for studying plant species relationships and diversity due to its nonrecombinant uniparental inheritance. Here, we conducted de novo assembly of 336 Gossypium plastomes, mainly from domesticated cultivars, and generated a pan-plastome level resource for population structure and genetic diversity analyses. The assembled plastomes exhibited a typical quadripartite structure and varied in length from 160 103 to 160 597 bp. At the species level, seven allotetraploid species were resolved into three clades, where Gossypium tomentosum and Gossypium mustelinum formed an early diverging clade rooted by diploids, followed by splitting two sister clades of Gossypium darwiniiGossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutumGossypium ekmanianumGossypium stephensii. Within the G. hirsutum clade the resolution of cultivated accessions was less polyphyletic with landrace and wild accessions than in G. barbadense suggesting some selection on plastome in the domestication of this adaptable species of cotton. The nucleotide diversity of G. hirsutum was higher than that of G. barbadense. We specifically compared the plastomes of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense to find mutational hotspots within each species as potential molecular markers. These findings contribute a valuable resource for exploring cotton evolution as well as in the breeding of new cotton cultivars and the preservation of wild and cultivated germplasm.
  • Qiang He, Yuqing Miao, Xinyuan Zheng, Yaru Wang, Yitao Wang, Zheng Jia, Hongyu Zhang, Yu Wang, Yao Xiao, Cailian Du, Wei Li, Longsheng Xing, and Huilong Du
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13068
    预出版日期: 2024-04-01
    Reynoutria multiflora is a widely used medicinal plant in China. Its medicinal compounds are mainly stilbenes and anthraquinones which possess important pharmacological activities in anti‐aging, anti‐inflammatory and anti‐oxidation, but their biosynthetic pathways are still largely unresolved. Here, we reported a near‐complete genome assembly of R. multiflora consisting of 1.39 Gb with a contig N50 of 122.91 Mb and only one gap left. Genome evolution analysis revealed that two recent bursts of long terminal repeats (LTRs) contributed significantly to the increased genome size of R. multiflora, and numerous large chromosome rearrangements were observed between R. multiflora and Fagopyrum tataricum genomes. Comparative genomics analysis revealed that a recent whole‐genome duplication specific to Polygonaceae led to a significant expansion of gene families associated with disease tolerance and the biosynthesis of stilbenes and anthraquinones in R. multiflora. Combining transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses, we elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic changes in content of medicinal ingredients in R. multiflora roots across different growth years. Additionally, we identified several putative key genes responsible for anthraquinone and stilbene biosynthesis. We identified a stilbene synthase gene PM0G05131 highly expressed in roost, which may exhibit an important role in the accumulation of stilbenes in R. multiflora. These genomic data will expedite the discovery of anthraquinone and stilbenes biosynthesis pathways in medicinal plants.
  • Zhi-Fang Liu, Shi-Fang Zhang, Alex D. Twyford, Xiu-Qin Ci, Lang Li, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Jian-Lin Hu, Jia-Chuan Tan, Guang-Da Tang, Sheng-Yuan Qin, Ling Hu, Xin Ding, Hong-Hu Meng, Li-Na Dong, Ting Huang, Hui Ma, Jian-Hua Xiao, Chao-Nan Cai, John G. Conran, Qi Wang, Peter M. Hollingsworth, and Jie Li
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13069
    预出版日期: 2024-03-31
    Species delimitation remains a challenge worldwide, especially in highly diverse tropical and subtropical regions. Here, we use an integrative approach that combines morphology, phylogenomics, and species distribution modeling (SDM) to clarify the cryptic differentiation within the enigmatic hemiparasitic love vine Cassytha filiformis (Lauraceae) in China and adjacent regions. We generated complete plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal sequences for diverse samples from across the species range and compared results with previously published plastid data, recovering two well-supported monophyletic clades. Further, the analysis revealed significant differences in two morphological characters and SDM, indicating distinct environmental factors influencing their distributions. Fossil-calibrated analyses to estimate the origins and diversification patterns for the cryptic species gave divergence age estimates corresponding to the Oligo-Miocene; a period of new ecological opportunities associated with the prevailing East Asian monsoon. Multivariate analyses support the conclusion that southern China and adjacent regions have a different, previously unknown, cryptic lineage of C. filiformis. Our study highlights the importance of using multivariate approach to characterize plant species, as well as the significant role that past climatic changes have played in driving speciation in parasitic plants in tropical and subtropical zones.
  • Qi-Rui Li, Kamran Habib, You-Peng Wu, Si-Han Long, Xu Zhang, Hong-Min Hu, Qian-Zhen Wu, Li-Li Liu, Yan Lin, Xiang-Chun Shen, and Ji-Chuan Kang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13058
    预出版日期: 2024-03-26
    The genus Xylaria comprises a diverse group of fungi with a global distribution and significant ecological importance, known for being a source of bioactive secondary metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, and additional properties. In this study, we present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of the species of Xylaria found in some parts of southern China, characterized by an extensive multilocus phylogeny analysis based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS), TUB2 (β-tubulin), and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit 2 (rpb2) gene regions. Morphological examination and detailed comparative analyses of the collected specimens were conducted to determine the distinctiveness of each species. The multilocus phylogeny approach allowed us to infer evolutionary relationships and assess species boundaries accurately, leading to the identification of 40 novel Xylaria species hitherto unknown to science. The newly described species are: X. baoshanensis, X. bawanglingensis, X. botryoidalis, X. dadugangensis, X. doupengshanensis, X. fanglanii, X. glaucae, X. guizhouensis, X. japonica, X. jinghongensis, X. jinshanensis, X. kuankuoshuiensis, X. liboensis, X. negundinis, X. orbiculati, X. ovata, X. pseudoanisopleura, X. pseudocubensis, X. pseudobambusicola, X. pseudoglobosa, X. pseudohemisphaerica, X. pseudohypoxylon, X. puerensis, X. qianensis, X. qiongzhouensis, X. rhombostroma, X. serratifoliae, X. shishangensis, X. shuqunii, X. shuangjiangensis, X. sinensis, X. tongrenensis, X. umbellata, X. xishuiensis, X. yaorenshanensis, X. yinggelingensis, X. yumingii, X. yunnanensis, X. zangmui, and X. zonghuangii. The study's findings shed light on the distinctiveness of the newly described species, supported by both morphological distinctions and phylogenetic relationships with their close relatives. This taxonomic revision significantly contributes to our understanding the diversity of Xylaria in China and enriches the knowledge of fungal biodiversity worldwide.
  • Lone Aagesen, Diego L. Salariato, María A. Scataglini, Juan M. Acosta, Silvia S. Denham, and Carolina Delfini
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13067
    预出版日期: 2024-03-17
    In this study, we explored the distributions of grass genera in the Southern Cone (SC) of South America, applying several phylogenetic diversity (PD) metrics and randomization tests. Grasses appear to have been present in South America since their early evolution as tropical understory species more than 60 Ma. During the course of evolution, grasses have adapted to all terrestrial biomes and become one of the most successful plant families on earth. At present, the SC contains nearly all terrestrial biomes and a wide range of humid to arid ecoregions. Analyzing 126.514 point occurrences and four plastid markers for 148 genera (91% of the native grass genera), we found that tropical humid regions hold the highest PD, with no observed bias in branch lengths. These results indicate that niche conservatism dominates the diversity pattern of grasses in the SC. We found significantly low PD in the Dry Chaco and in the Patagonian Steppe, which suggest ecological filtering in both warm and cold arid regions. The Patagonian Steppe also holds significantly longer branches than expected by chance, as the native grass flora is mainly composed of distantly related Pooideae genera with a northern hemisphere origin. Short branches are found in the Uruguayan Savanna, suggesting that these grasslands could be a cradle for grass diversity within the SC. The dated phylogeny supported the current view of a relatively recent evolution of the family within the SC, with most diversification taking place from the middle Miocene and onwards.
  • Lian‐Sheng Xu, Zhu‐Qiu Song, Shu‐Yuan Liao, and You‐Sheng Chen
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13066
    预出版日期: 2024-03-12
    The Crepidinae are the largest subtribe of the Cichorieae (Asteraceae). Debate remains over the circumscription and phylogeny of this subtribe, mainly due to its complex morphology and the poor phylogenetic signal provided by traditional Sanger sequencing markers. In this study, a well-resolved phylogeny of the subtribe Crepidinae, consisting of seven highly supported clades, was obtained for the first time using nuclear data with a phylogenomics approach (Hyb-Seq). Using this phylogeny along with other evidence, we propose a new taxonomic framework for the Crepidinae with seven lines and 29 genera, which merges subtribe Chondrillinae with the Crepidinae. We also describe a new monotypic genus, Qineryangia, that is characterized by broad involucres, loose imbricate phyllaries with wavy margins, and thick pappus bristles.
  • Yun‐Feng Li, Lian Luo, Yang Liu, Qiang He, Ning‐Ning Yu, Naren Gaowa, Zhao‐Qin Yi, Jun‐Jie Wang, Wei Han, Tao Peng, Boon‐Chuan Ho, Xiaolan He, Li Zhang, Zhi‐Duan Chen, Yu Jia, and Qing‐Hua Wang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13063
    预出版日期: 2024-03-12
    Bryophytes, a monophyletic group comprising three major lineages, diversified soon after the terrestrialization of land plants. However, their internal phylogenetic relationships remain controversial. In this study, we reconstructed the ordinal and familial phylogeny of bryophytes using the largest plastid data set to date, including 549 taxa that represent almost all known orders and two-thirds of families. The strongly supported phylogenetic inference enabled us to propose in mosses seven newly segregated families, that is, Baldwiniellaceae, Calyptrochaetaceae, Ctenidiaceae, Herpetineuraceae, Isodrepaniaceae, Pseudotaxiphyllaceae, and Rozeaceae, and one reduced family, that is, Climaciaceae. We also transferred the liverwort family Calyculariaceae from Fossombroniales to Pelliales. Recent advancements in molecular phylogeny have revolutionized bryophyte classification, tending to be more fragmental. Hence, we further propose a revised familial classification system for bryophytes that includes 45 orders and 142 families in mosses, 23 orders and 85 families in liverworts, and five orders and five families in hornworts.
  • Xin Wang, Jiang‐Bao Xia, Jun‐Hong Bai, Shuo Yin, Wei Wang, Da‐Wei Wang, Xin‐Xin Yi, and Sheng‐Hong Dai
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13064
    预出版日期: 2024-03-12
    As an important halophyte in the Yellow River Delta, the Amaranthaceae C3 Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. has attracted much attention for the “red carpet” landscape, and could be simply divided into red and green phenotypes according to the betacyanin content in the fleshy leaves. However, S. salsa has not been sequenced yet, which limited people's understanding of this species at the molecular level. We constructed a high-quality chromosome-scale reference genome by combining high-throughput sequencing, PacBio single molecule real-time sequencing, and Hi-C sequencing techniques with a genome size of 445.10?Mb and contigs N50 of 2.94?Mb. Through the annotation of the S. salsa genome, 298.76?Mb of the repetitive sequences and 23?965 protein-coding genes were identified, of which the proportion of long terminal repeats type in the repetitive sequences was the most abundant, about 50.74% of the S. salsa genome. Comparative genomics indicated that S. salsa underwent a whole-genome duplication event about 146.15 million years ago (Ma), and the estimated divergence time between S. salsa and Suaeda aralocaspica was about 16.9?Ma. A total of four betacyanins including betanidin, celosianin II, amaranthin and 6′-O-malonyl-celosianin II were identified and purified in both phenotypes, while two significantly up-regulated betacyanins (celosianin II and amaranthin) may be the main reason for the red color in red phenotype. In addition, we also performed transcriptomics and metabolomics in both phenotypes to explore the molecular mechanisms of pigment synthesis, and a series of structural genes and transcription factors concerning with betacyanin production were selected in S. salsa.
  • Meng Yang, Shu-Feng Zhang, Bin Li, Yun-Xin Lan, Yi-Han Yang, and Meng-Jun Liu
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13065
    预出版日期: 2024-03-01
    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), renowned for its nutritional value and health benefits, is believed to have originated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in China, where it underwent domestication from wild jujube. Nonetheless, the evolutionary trajectory and species differentiation between wild jujube and cultivated jujube still require further elucidation. The chloroplast genome (plastome), characterized by its relatively lower mutation rate compared to the nuclear genome, serves as an excellent model for evolutionary and comparative genomic research. In this study, we analyzed 326 nonredundant plastomes, encompassing 133 jujube cultivars and 193 wild jujube genotypes distributed throughout China. Noteworthy variations in the large single copy region primarily account for the size differences among these plastomes, impacting the evolution from wild jujube to cultivated varieties. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) unveiled a unique chloroplast-to-nucleus transfer event, with transferred fragments predominantly influencing the evolution of the nuclear genome while leaving the plastome relatively unaffected. Population genetics analysis revealed two distinct evolutionary pathways from wild jujube to cultivated jujube: one driven by natural selection with minimal human interference, and the other resulting from human domestication and cultivation. Molecular dating, based on phylogenetic analysis, supported the likelihood that wild jujube and cultivated jujube fall within the same taxonomic category, Z. jujuba. In summary, our study comprehensively examined jujube plastome structures and HGT events, simultaneously contributing novel insights into the intricate processes that govern the evolution and domestication of jujube species.
  • Ming‐Xia Xie, Xing‐Yue Hu, Qi‐Yang Wang, Zheng Ren, Yu‐Bo Liu, Mei‐Qing Yang, Xiao‐Ye Jin, Xiao‐Min Yang, Rui Wang, Chuan‐Chao Wang, and Jiang Huang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13056
    预出版日期: 2024-02-28
    The Sui people living in Guizhou province have a unique ethnic culture and population history due to their long-time isolation from other populations. To investigate the genetic structure of Sui populations in different regions of Guizhou, we genotyped 89 individuals from four Sui populations using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms arrays. We analyzed the data using principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE analysis, f-statistics, qpWave/qpAdm, TreeMix analysis, fineSTRUCTURE, and GLOBETROTTER. We found that Sui populations in Guizhou were genetically homogeneous and had a close genetic affinity with Tai-Kadai-speaking populations, Hmong-Mien-speaking Hmong, and some ancient populations from southern China. The Sui populations could be modeled as an admixture of 33.5%–37.9% of Yellow River Basin farmer-related ancestry and 62.1%–66.5% of Southeast Asian-related ancestry, indicating that the southward expansion of northern East Asian-related ancestry influenced the formation of the Tai-Kadai-speaking Sui people. Future publications of more ancient genomics in southern China could effectively provide further insight into the demographic history and population structure of the Sui people.
  • Fang‐Dong Geng, Meng‐Fan Lei, Nai‐Yu Zhang, Yao‐Lei Fu, Hang Ye, Meng Dang, Xue‐Dong Zhang, Miao‐Qing Liu, Meng‐Di Li, Zhan‐Lin Liu, and Peng Zhao
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13061
    预出版日期: 2024-02-28
    East Asia constitutes one of the largest and most complex areas of plant diversity globally. This complexity is attributable to the geological history and climatic diversity of East Asia. However, controversy persists over the biogeographical hypotheses and different studies on this topic. The demographical complexity of temperate deciduous woody plants and heterogeneity of geological and climatic fluctuations in East Asia remain poorly understood. We aimed to assemble the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of 360 individuals from five walnut (Juglans) species in East Asia and comprehensively analyze the phylogenetic inference, genetic structure, population demographic, and selection pressure. The results showed that East Asian walnuts could be divided into two major groups, that is, section Juglans/Dioscaryon and sect. Cardiocaryon. Within sect. Cardiocaryon, the samples were categorized into the northern clade and southern clade, both of which were affected by Quaternary glaciation; however, the southern clade was affected to a lesser extent. The population expansion events observed in sect. Cardiocaryon and sect. Dioscaryon since the late Miocene indicated that Neogene climate cooling substantially affected the distribution of Tertiary relict plants in East Asia. Biogeographic analysis results showed that the uplift of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP) might have contributed to the divergence within sect. Dioscaryon. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of climatic fluctuations in the northern and southern regions of East Asia during the late Neogene and Quaternary periods and suggest that the uplift of QTP could have facilitated the divergence of temperate deciduous woody plants.
  • Yang Yue, Da‐Hu Zou, Shi‐Lin Tian, Heng‐Wu Jiao, and Hua‐Bin Zhao
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13060
    预出版日期: 2024-02-28
    Dietary specialization stands as a major factor in the study of adaptive evolution and the field of conservation biology among animals. Although bats show unparalleled dietary diversification among mammals, specialized carnivory remains relatively rare within this group. Consequently, our comprehension of the genetic and conservation aspects associated with this specific dietary niche in bats has largely remained uncharted. To investigate molecular adaptations and conservation genetics in carnivorous bats, we produced a new draft genome assembly for the carnivorous bat Vampyrum spectrum. Furthermore, we utilized this genome alongside another distantly related carnivorous bat Megaderma lyra, to conduct genome-wide comparative analyses with other bat species. Our findings unveil that genes linked to lipid metabolism exhibit signatures of positive selection and convergent molecular adaptation in the two divergent lineages of carnivorous bats. Intriguingly, we have uncovered that the evolution of dietary specialization in carnivorous bats is accompanied by molecular adaptations acting on genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors pathways, which are crucial in regulating plasma lipid metabolism and sustaining lipid homeostasis. Additionally, our genomic analyses also reveal low genetic diversity in both carnivorous bat species. This pattern is attributed to their continuously declining population sizes and low levels of heterozygosity, signaling their vulnerability and emphasizing the pressing need for conservation efforts. These genomic discoveries advance our understanding of genetic underpinnings of carnivory in bats and underscore substantial conservation concerns associated with carnivorous bat species.
  • Yi‐Ran Xu, Ying‐Can Li, Hui‐Qiao Hu, Heng‐Wu Jiao, and Hua‐Bin Zhao
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13059
    预出版日期: 2024-02-28
    The most significant driver of adaptive radiation in the New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) is their remarkably diverse feeding habits, yet there remains a notable scarcity of studies addressing the genetic underpinnings of dietary diversification in this family. In this study, we have assembled a new genome for a representative species of phyllostomid bat, the fringe-lipped bat (Trachops cirrhosis), and integrated it with eight published phyllostomid genomes, along with an additional 10 genomes of other bat species. Comparative genomic analysis across 10 200 orthologus genes has unveiled that those genes subject to divergent selection within the Phyllostomidae clade are notably enriched in metabolism-related pathways. Furthermore, we identified molecular signatures of divergent selection in the bitter receptor gene Tas2r1, as well as 14 genes involved in digesting key nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In addition, our cell-based functional assays conducted on Tas2r1 showed a broader spectrum of perception for bitter compounds in phyllostomids compared to nonphyllostomid bats, suggesting functional diversification of bitter taste in Phyllostomidae. Together, our genomic and functional analyses lead us to propose that divergent selection of genes associated with taste, digestion and absorption, and metabolism assumes a pivotal role in steering the extreme dietary diversification in Phyllostomidae. This study not only illuminates the genetic mechanisms underlying dietary adaptations in Phyllostomidae bats but also enhances our understanding of their extraordinary adaptive radiation.
  • Roser Vilatersana, Juan Antonio Calleja, Sonia Herrando‐Moraira, Núria Garcia‐Jacas, and Alfonso Susanna
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13057
    预出版日期: 2024-02-24
    Understanding the richness and diversification processes in the Mediterranean basin requires both knowledge of the current environmental complexity and paleogeographic and paleoclimate events and information from studies that introduce the temporal dimension. The Carthamus–Carduncellus complex (Cardueae, Compositae) constitutes a good case study to investigate the biogeographic history of this region because it evolved throughout the basin. We performed molecular dating, ancestral area estimation, and diversification analyses based on previous phylogenetic studies of a nearly complete taxon sampling of the complex. The main aims were to determine the role of tectonic and climatic events in the disjunction of the complex and the expansion route of the two main lineages, Carduncellus s.l. and Carthamus. Our results suggest that the main lineages in the complex originated during the Miocene. Later, all main paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events during the Neogene and Pleistocene in the Mediterranean basin had an important imprint on the evolutionary history of the complex. The Messinian Salinity Crisis facilitated the dispersion of the genus Carduncellus from North Africa to the Iberian Peninsula and the split of the genera Phonus and Femeniasia from the Carduncellus lineage. The onset of the Mediterranean climate in the Pliocene together with some orogenic processes could be the main causes of the diversification of the genus Carduncellus. In contrast, Pleistocene glaciations played a key role in the species diversification of Carthamus. In addition, we emphasize the problems derived from secondary dating and the existing differences between two previous dating analyses of the tribe Cardueae.
  • Hua Yan, Peng Zhou, Wei Wang, Jian‐Fei Ye, Shao‐Lin Tan, Chun‐Ce Guo, Wen‐Gen Zhang, Zi‐Wei Zhu, Yi‐Zhen Liu, and Xiao‐Guo Xiang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13055
    预出版日期: 2024-02-22
    Pterocarya (Juglandaceae) is disjunctly distributed in East Asia and the Caucasus region today, but its fossils are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. We first inferred phylogeny with time estimation of Pterocarya under node-dating (ND) based on plastomes of all eight extant species and tip-dating (TD) based on plastomes and 69 morphological characters of 19 extant and extinct species, respectively. We compared the biogeographical reconstructions on the timetrees from ND and TD, respectively, and then compiled 83 fossil records and 599 current occurrences for predicting the potential distributions for the past and the future. The most recent comment ancestor of Pterocarya is inferred in East Asia at 40.46 Ma (95% highest posterior density [HPD]: 28.04–54.86) under TD and 26.81 Ma (95% HPD: 23.03–33.12) under ND. The current distribution was attributed to one dispersal and one vicariant event without fossils, but as many as six dispersal, six vicariant, and 11 local extinction events when considering fossils. Pterocarya migrated between East Asia and North America via the Bering Land Bridge during the early Oligocene and the early Miocene periods. With the closure of Turgai Strait, Pterocarya dispersed between East Asia and Europe through the Miocene. The potential distribution analyses indicated that Pterocarya preferred warm temperate regions across the Northern Hemisphere since the Oligocene, but the drastic temperature decline caused its extinction in high latitudes. Except for Pterocarya fraxinifolia and Pterocarya stenoptera, suitable habitats for this genus are predicted to contract by 2070 due to climate change.
  • Ana M. Bossa‐Castro, Matheus Colli‐Silva, José R. Pirani, Barbara A. Whitlock, Laura T. Morales Mancera, Natalia Contreras‐Ortiz, Martha L. Cepeda‐Hernández, Federica Di Palma, Martha Vives, and James E. Richardson
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13045
    预出版日期: 2024-02-18
    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) of cultivated species may provide a source of genetic variation that can contribute to improving product quantity and quality. To adequately use these potential resources, it is useful to understand how CWRs are related to the cultivated species and to each other to determine how key crop traits have evolved and discover potentially usable genetic information. The chocolate industry is expanding and yet is under threat from a variety of causes, including pathogens and climate change. Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae), the source of chocolate, is a representative of the tribe Theobromateae that consists of four genera and c. 40 species that began to diversify over 25 million years ago. The great diversity within the tribe suggests that its representatives could exhibit advantageous agronomic traits. In this study, we present the most taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny of Theobromateae to date. DNA sequence data from WRKY genes were assembled into a matrix that included 56 morphological characters and analyzed using a Bayesian approach. The inclusion of a morphological data set increased resolution and support for some branches of the phylogenetic tree. The evolutionary trajectory of selected morphological characters was reconstructed onto the phylogeny. This phylogeny provides a framework for the study of morphological and physiological trait evolution, which can facilitate the search for agronomically relevant traits.
  • Darya Khan, AJ Harris, Qamar U. Zaman, Hong-Xin Wang, Jun Wen, Jacob B. Landis, and Hua-Feng Wang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13042
    预出版日期: 2024-01-25
    The angiosperm family Cactaceae, a member of the Caryophyllales, is a large and diverse group of stem succulents comprising 1438-1870 species within approximately 130 genera predominantly distributed from northern Canada to Patagonia. Four centers of diversity from Central and North America (Chihuahua, Puebla- Oaxaca, Sonora-Sinaloan, and Jalisco) and three centers of diversity from South America (Southern Central Andes, Caatinga, and Mara Atlantica) have played a pivotal role in disbursing cacti around the globe. Mexico is considered the richest area in cacti species with close to 563 species grouped into 50 genera. Approximately 118 species have been domesticated by Mesoamerican people as food crops and for ornamental purposes. Cacti inhabit a wide range of ecosystems and climate regions, ranging from tropical to subtropical and from arid to semiarid regions. Species belonging to the genus Opuntia are the major food crop producers in the family. Cacti have derived characteristics from familial synapomorphies within the Caryophyllales. Reproduction occurs through pollination facilitated by birds, bats, bees, and other insects. Climate variability, whether natural or human-induced threatens global crop production including high temperatures, salinity, drought, flood, changes in soil pH, and urbanization. Cacti have several adaptations that are important for coping with abiotic stresses, such as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM photosynthesis), as well as modifications to root and stem physiological pathways. This review aims to provide a comprehensive view of the fruit crops in Cactaceae, including their evolution, worldwide distribution, and the environmental factors impacting cultivation.
  • Heng-Ling Zhou, Lei Wang, Yun-Xia Yue, Zhi Luo, Shun-Jie Wang, Li-Guo Zhou, Li-Jun Luo, Hui Xia, and Ming Yan
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13046
    预出版日期: 2024-01-25
    The soil-nitrogen condition, which differs greatly between paddy fields (mainly in the form of ammonium, NH4+) and dry fields (mainly in the form of nitrate, NO3-), is a main environmental factor that drives the adaptive differentiation between upland and lowland rice ecotypes. However, the adaptive differentiation in terms of the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) between upland and lowland rice has not been well addressed. In this study, we evaluated NUE-related traits among rice landraces as well as the genetic differentiation between NUE- associated genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The japonica upland and lowland rice ecotypes showed large differences in their NUE-related traits such as the absorption ability for NH4+ and NO3-. The indica upland and lowland rice exhibited similar performances when cultivated in solutions containing NH4+ or NO3- or when planted in paddy or dry fields. However, the indica upland rice possessed a greater ability to absorb NO3-. We identified 76 QTLs for 25 measured traits using genome-wide association analysis. The highly differentiated NUE- associated genes or QTLs between ecotypes were rarely shared by japonica and indica subspecies, indicating an independent genetic basis for their soil-nitrogen adaptations. We suggested four genes in three QTLs as the candidates contributing to rice NUE during the ecotypic differentiation. In summary, the soil-nitrogen condition drives the adaptive differentiation of NUE between upland and lowland rice independently within the japonica and indica subspecies. These findings can strengthen our understanding of rice adaptation to divergent soil-nitrogen conditions and have implications for the improvement of NUE.
  • Michael D. Crisp, Bui Q. Minh, Bokyung Choi, Robert D. Edwards, James Hereward, Carsten Kulheim, Yen Po Lin, Karen Meusemann, Andrew H. Thornhill, Alicia Toon, and Lyn G. Cook
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13047
    预出版日期: 2024-01-23
    Eucalypts (Myrtaceae tribe Eucalypteae) are currently placed in seven genera. Traditionally, Eucalyptus was defined by its operculum, but when phylogenies placed Angophora, with free sepals and petals, as sister to the operculate bloodwood eucalypts, the latter were segregated into a new genus, Corymbia. Yet, generic delimitation in the tribe Eucalypteae remains uncertain. Here, we address these problems using phylogenetic analysis with the largest molecular data set to date. We captured 101 low-copy nuclear exons from 392 samples representing 266 species. Our phylogenetic analysis used maximum likelihood (IQtree) and multispecies coalescent (Astral). At two nodes critical to generic delimitation, we tested alternative relationships among Arillastrum, Angophora, Eucalyptus, and Corymbia using Shimodaira's approximately unbiased test. Phylogenetic mapping was used to explore the evolution of perianth traits. Monophyly of Corymbia relative to Angophora was decisively rejected. All alternative relationships among the seven currently recognized Eucalypteae genera imply homoplasy in the evolutionary origins of the operculum. Inferred evolutionary transitions in perianth traits are congruent with divergences between major clades, except that the expression of separate sepals and petals in Angophora, which is nested within the operculate genus Corymbia, appears to be a reversal to the plesiomorphic perianth structure. Here, we formally raise Corymbia subg. Blakella to genus rank and make the relevant new combinations. We also define and name three sections within Blakella (Blakella sect. Blakella, Blakella sect. Naviculares, and Blakella sect. Maculatae), and two series within Blakella sect. Maculatae (Blakella ser. Maculatae and Blakella ser. Torellianae). Corymbia is reduced to the red bloodwoods.
  • Zhi-Qiang Lu, Yong-Zhi Yang, and Jian-Quan Liu
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13044
    预出版日期: 2024-01-23
    Both hybridization and intraspecific morphological variation across environmental gradients complicate species delineation. We aimed to discern both possibilities that may blur species boundaries in the Carpinus viminea-Carpinus laxiflora-Carpinus londoniana species complex. We conducted statistical analyses on 535 specimens encompassing the entire distribution of this species complex to identify phenotypic clusters. Additionally, we analyzed genetic divergence and probable hybridization between clusters using 76 individuals from 37 populations. Based on phenotypic and genetic clusters, we tentatively recognized four species: C. viminea, C. fargesii, C. laxiflora, and C. londoniana. Except for rare overlapping distributions between C. fargesii and C. londoniana, the redefined four species are mostly allopatric to each another based on their distributions. The morphological delimitation, species boundary and distribution of each species differ distinctly from past taxonomic treatments. For example, specimens previously identified under C. viminea, in fact, belong to three different species. Hybrids between C. fargesii and C. londoniana exhibit morphological traits similar to C. viminea, thereby contributing to difficulties in determining species boundaries and outlining species distributions. These findings suggest that local selection and geographical isolation may together have promoted both phenotypic and genetic divergences within this species complex. However, interspecific hybridization blurs species boundaries by producing hybrids with phenotypic similarity in addition to intraspecific variation. This study emphasizes the importance of statistical analyses of population-level morphological and genetic variations across major distributional ranges for an integrative delimitation of species boundaries and the identification of hybridization and hybrids.
  • Yu‐Qian Niu, Yu‐Xin Zhang, Xin‐Feng Wang, Jun Wen, Zhen‐Hui Wang, Ji Yang, Yu‐Guo Wang, Wen‐Ju Zhang, Zhi‐Ping Song, and Lin‐Feng Li
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13043
    预出版日期: 2023-12-21
    Elucidating how plant species respond to variable light conditions is essential to understanding the ecological adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Plant performance and gene regulatory network underpinning the adaptation have been well documented in heliophytic species. However, it remains largely unclear how the sciophytic plants respond to distinct light conditions. We measured phenotypic and transcriptomic features of four sciophytic (Fatsia japonica, Metapanax delavayi, Heptapleurum arboricola, and Heptapleurum delavayi) and one heliophytic woody species (Tetrapanax papyrifer) of the Araliaceae family under distinct light conditions. Our phenotypic comparisons demonstrate that the four sciophytic species maintain similar photosynthesis efficiency between high light and low light conditions. However, a significantly decreased photosynthesis rate was observed under the low light conditions of the heliophytic species compared with the high light conditions. In addition, our leaf anatomical analyses revealed that, while all five species showed different anatomical structures under distinct light conditions, the sciophytic species possessed a lower degree of phenotypic plasticity relative to the heliophytic species. Further comparisons of the transcriptome profiling showed that differentially expressed genes identified in the five species were functionally related to photosynthesis, secondary metabolites, and other basic metabolisms. In particular, differential regulation of the photosynthesis-related and photomorphogenesis-related genes were potentially correlated with the phenotypic responses to the distinct light conditions of the five species. Our study provides evolutionary and ecological perspectives on how the heliophytic and sciophytic woody species respond to shade and sunlight environments.
  • Si Xu, Lu Meng, and Ying Bao
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13039
    预出版日期: 2023-12-21
    Rubisco is assembled from large subunits (encoded by chloroplast gene rbcL) and small subunits (encoded by the nuclear rbcS multigene family), which are involved in the processes of carbon dioxide fixation in the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis. Although Rubisco has been studied in many plants, the evolutionary divergences among the different rbcS genes are still largely unknown. Here, using a rice closely related wild species, Oryza punctata Kotschy ex Steud, we investigated the differential properties of the rbcS genes in the species. We identified five rbcS genes (OprbcS1 through OprbcS5), OprbcS1 showed a different evolutionary pattern from the remaining four genes in terms of chromosome location, gene structure, and sequence homology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that plant rbcS1 and other non-rbcS1 genes originated from a common ancient duplication event that occurred at least in seed plants ancestor. RbcS1 was then retained in a few plant lineages, including Oryza, whereas non-rbcS1 was mainly amplified in angiosperms. OprbcS1, OprbcS2–OprbcS4, and OprbcS5 were prominently expressed in stems and seeds, young leaves, and mature leaves, respectively. The yeast two-hybrid assay detected a significant decrease in the interaction between OprbcS1 and OprbcL compared to the other four pairs of proteins (OprbcS2–OprbcS5 and OprbcL). We propose that OprbcS1 might be assigned a divergent function that was predominantly specific to nonphotosynthetic organs, whereas OprbcS2–OprbcS5, having different affinity in the assembly process of Rubisco, might be subfunctionalized in photosynthetic organs. This study not only deepens our understanding of the fine assembly of Rubisco, but also sheds some light on future de novo domestication of wild rice.
  • Pablo Aguado‐Ramsay, Tamara Villaverde, Ricardo Garilleti, J. Gordon Burleigh, Stuart F. McDaniel, Maren Flagmeier, Jurgen Nieuwkoop, Arno van der Pluijm, Florian Hans, Francisco Lara, and Isabel Draper
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13040
    预出版日期: 2023-12-19
    Currently, a wide range of genomic techniques is available at a relatively affordable price. However, not all of them have been equally explored in bryophyte systematics. In the present study, we apply next-generation sequencing to identify samples that cannot be assigned to a taxon by morphological analysis or by Sanger sequencing methods. These samples correspond to a moss with an enigmatic morphology that has been found throughout Western Europe over the last two decades. They exhibit several anomalies in the gametophyte and, on the rare occasions that they appear, also in the sporophyte. The most significant alterations are related to the shape of the leaves. Morphologically, all specimens correspond to mosses of the genus Lewinskya, and the least modified samples are potentially attributable to the Lewinskya affinis complex. Specimen identifications were first attempted using up to seven molecular markers with no satisfactory results. Thus, we employed data generated from targeted enrichment using the GoFlag 408 flagellate land plant probe set to elucidate their identity. Our results demonstrate that all the enigmatic samples correspond to a single species, L. affinis s.str. This approach provided the necessary resolution to confidently identify these challenging samples and may be a powerful tool for similar cases, especially in bryophytes.
  • Hong‐Xin Wang, Diego F. Morales‐Briones, Jacob B. Landis, Jun Wen, and Hua‐Feng Wang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13036
    预出版日期: 2023-12-18
    The small subfamily Linnaeoideae of Caprifoliaceae exhibits a disjunct distribution in Eurasia and North America, including Mexico, with most taxa occurring in eastern Asia or Mexico and the monospecific Linnaea Gronov. ex L. having a circumboreal to north temperate distribution. We sampled 17 of the 20 species representing all Linnaeoideae genera and used nuclear (target enrichment) and complete plastome sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny. Our results show strong topological conflicts between nuclear and plastid data, especially concerning Dipelta Maxim. and Diabelia Landrein, supporting hybridization events complicating the deep diversification. Nuclear data were used for divergence time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction. The divergence time between the Mexican Vesalea M. Martens & Galeotti and the Linnaea clade was dated to 39.5 Ma, with a 95% highest posterior density of 28.2 Ma (mid-Oligocene) to 45.2 Ma (mid-Eocene). Reconstructed ancestral areas support a widespread common ancestor of Linnaea plus Vesalea in Mexico and at least another area (eastern Asia, North America, or Europe). The biogeographic analysis, including fossils, supports the ancestral range of Linnaeoideae to be widespread in central and western China + Europe + Mexico, or eastern and northern Asia + central and western China + Mexico, or central and western China + North America + Mexico. The North Atlantic and/or the Bering land bridges may be important in the widespread distribution across continents in the Northern Hemisphere. Our study highlights the importance of utilizing fossils in biogeographic inferences andusing data from different genomes while reconstructing deep and shallow phylogenies of organisms.
  • Hong Zhang, Yu‐Tao Mao, Ming‐Xia Ma, Guang‐Can Tao, Tian‐Peng Wei, and Yu‐Lan Jiang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13035
    预出版日期: 2023-12-07
    Rosa-associated fungi are rich in species and diverse in function, with many potential new taxa. However, only a few publications have reported Rosa-associated endophytic fungi using a combination of molecular systematics and morphology. Rosa roxburghii is an economically important source of medicine and food. We reported earlier the diversity and antimicrobial activities of the fungal endophytes of this plant, but further confirmation is needed for possible new taxa. In this study, we describe 10 novel species and two new host records isolated from healthy tissues of R. roxburghii while identifying three new combinations, all belonging to the Sordariomycetes. The new species described herein include Chaetomium rosifloricola, Chaetomium rosiradicicola, Chrysofolia fructicola, Coniella cili, Hypoxylon florendophyticum, Hypoxylon rosicaulendophyticum, Ilyonectria radicigena, Neopestalotiopsis caulicola, Neopestalotiopsis fructicola, and Seimatosporium endophyticum. Monochaetia bulbophylli, Neopestalotiopsis anacardii, and Neopestalotiopsis termitarii were introduced as new combinations, while Coniella quercicola and Hypoxylon pulicicidum were described as new host records on R. roxburghii. All the taxa have been described, illustrated, and phylogenetically analyzed, in addition to the lifestyles of each genus. Altogether, the results of this study have important implications for identifying novel endophytic fungi and developing potential applications of these fungi in the future.
  • Xiu‐Yan Feng, Yi‐Qing Gong, Khang Sinh Nguyen, Hiep Tien Nguyen, Yong‐Bo Liu, Jian Liu, and Xun Gong
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13031
    预出版日期: 2023-12-07
    Understanding the driving forces of speciation is a central question in evolutionary biology. Cycas bifida (Dyer) K. D. Hill and Cycas micholitzii Dyer are two morphologically similar Cycas (Cycadaceae) species with deeply pectinate megasporophylls and dichotomously divided leaflets. Geographically, they are isolated by the Red River Fault Zone (RRFZ), which acts as a biogeographical barrier for many Cycas species. In this study, we investigated the divergence, genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history of C. bifida and C. micholitzii to uncover the speciation mechanisms for the two endangered species. Results revealed high historical gene flow but low contemporary gene flow between the two species, with a deep divergence occurring in the Late Miocene. The long-term geographical isolation and ecological niche differentiation were identified as important factors in driving the divergence of the two species, supported by significant isolation by distance testing, barrier analysis, and niche consistency detection. Geographical isolation by the RRFZ played a pivotal role in facilitating their divergence by constraining gene flow. Conservation genetic analyses indicated high genetic diversity within both species, coupled with disparate responses to Pleistocene climate fluctuations: C. micholitzii experienced population expansion, while C. bifida displayed a mild bottleneck effect. To ensure the protection and long-term sustainability of two threatened species, relevant conservation guidelines were proposed based on the assessment of their genetic diversity and structure. This study furnishes valuable insights into the mechanisms underpinning species divergence and delivers actionable recommendations for cycad conservation.
  • Li‐Ying Luo, Gui‐Hua Jin, Peng‐Fei Ma, and De‐Zhu Li
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13038
    预出版日期: 2023-12-05
    Many examples of phenotypic modifications resulting from high-elevation adaptation have been documented, however, the underlying processes responsible for these modifications and whether the continuity of the adaptation process remain elusive, particularly in plants. The alpine plants distributed along wide elevational gradients provide an ideal system to address this question. Here, we collected transcriptomes from multiple tissues of three species with different elevations (~1500, ~2500, and ~3600 m in the Hengduan Mountains, Southwest China) in two genera Fargesia and Yushania of alpine bamboos, respectively, and conducted evolutionary and expressional analyses. Results showed that high-elevation adaptation emerged earlier in the evolutionary history of both genera and evolved continuously as the elevation increased. Moreover, convergence of genetic changes was observed in the two genera, with amounts of candidate genes responsible for high-elevation adaptation identified under positive selection. Overall, our study provides an empirical example and valuable genetic resource for further investigation of high-elevation adaptation in plants and sheds new light on how plants adapting to high-elevation environments in a biodiversity hotspot.
  • Eliise Kara, Jérémie Bardin, Dario De Franceschi, and Cédric Del Rio
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13033
    预出版日期: 2023-11-27
    Menispermaceae are an angiosperm family of mostly climbing plants distributed throughout tropical regions. The fruits in this family have a strong sclerified endocarp and can be used for reliable species-level identifications, even in a fossilized form. New Paleocene-age menispermaceous endocarps have recently been discovered in South America and Asia, while in Europe, they are mostly found in the Eocene. This paper focuses on the study of fossil endocarps belonging to Menispermaceae, found in the Petit-Pâtis locality, which is one of the few Paleocene localities in Europe. The locality is dated to the late Paleocene (57–56 Ma) and the fossils represent flora and fauna in the Paris Basin before the onset of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. Lignitized fossils were photographed and their morphology was analyzed using computed tomography, scanning electron microscope, and geometric morphometric analysis. The analysis of 36 fossils belonging to Menispermaceae revealed that three genera (Stephania, Palaeosinomenium, Tinospora) were present in the late Paleocene of Paris Basin. Differences in internal morphology and a more inflated endocarp base led to a description of a new fossil species—Palaeosinomenium oisensis sp. nov. The occurrence of these genera in the Paleocene of France is consistent with the suggestion that megathermal flora was present in the Paris Basin before the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. These three genera are currently the oldest occurrences in Europe, highlighting the connection between paleofloras of the Americas, Europe, and Asia in the Paleocene.
  • Ling-Jian Gui, Deng-Feng Xie, Chang Peng, Ting Ren, Li-Ying Yu, Song-Dong Zhou, and Xing-Jin He
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13028
    预出版日期: 2023-11-27
    Tongoloa is a herbaceous genus of East Asia Clade (Apiaceae) distributed in the alpine regions. The use of DNA fragments has not provided a well-resolved evolutionary history. For this research, we primarily collected samples from the type localities of Tongoloa and closely related taxa in the Hengduan Mountains. The chloroplast (cp) genomes and nuclear ribosomal (nr) DNA repeats of 27 taxa were assembled using genome skimming sequencing reads. We analyzed the characteristics of the Tongoloa cp genome, and found a remarkable expansion of the Inverted Repeats. Three genes (ndhC, ndhJ, and petG) related to photosynthesis appear to have undergone significant selective pressure. Through high-resolution phylogenetic analysis, the cpDNA provided compelling evidence supporting the inclusion of Sinolimprichtia as an early taxon within Tongoloa. However, the nrDNA suggested that Tongoloa and Sinolimprichtia belong to distinct branches. Morphological analysis showed that Tongoloa has broadly oval fruits with a cordate base, whereas the fruits of Sinolimprichtia are long-obovate with an obtuse base. The specific fruit morphology of Sinolimprichtia was found to be nested within Tongoloa in the cpDNA phylogenetic tree. Ancient introgression and chloroplast capture provide the most plausible explanation for the significant conflict between the nrDNA and cpDNA phylogenies. Our study highlights the potential impact of the complex evolutionary history of Tongoloa on the challenges encountered in previous taxonomic treatments.
  • Kong-Yang Zhu, Zhi-Ping Zhang, Le Tao, Run-Qi Jiang, Wen-Bo Huang, Yong-Gang Sun, Hai-Feng He, Hui-Lin Fu, Hao Ma, Xiao-Min Yang, Jian-Xin Guo, Xin Jia, and Chuan-Chao Wang
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13029
    预出版日期: 2023-11-05
    The West Liao River (WLR) and Yellow River (YR) basins are two major centers of millet farming in northern China. The result from flotation analyses and the spatial distribution of archeological sites indicate that two distinct survival strategies—agriculture and pastoralism were adopted in the southern and western regions of the WLR. Previous studies of ancient populations from the western area of the WLR suggested a correlation between a pastoral economy in the Bronze Age Upper Xiajiadian culture with a decreased genetic affinity with YR farmers. However, the population history of the southern WLR is unknown mainly due to the lack of ancient genetic data. Here we report the genomic data of an ancient individual from the Majiazishan site from the Late Bronze Age southern WLR region associated with Upper Xiajiadian culture. Unlike individuals from western WLR, this individual derived ancestry entirely from Late Neolithic YR farmers. We found a genetic substructure of the ancient human population of Upper Xiajiadian culture, which is consistent with the differences in the subsistence strategies of western and southern WLR. Climate deterioration led to different populations occupying the west and the south, respectively, in the WLR: the nomadic population from the Amur River (AR) in the west and the agricultural population from the YR in the south.
  • Suellen M. Gales, Kristene T. Parsons, Ellen E. Biesack, Jonathan Ready, Raquel Siccha-Ramirez, Leonardo C. Rosa, Ricardo Rosa, Matheus M. Rotundo, Roger Bills, Alan Erik S. Rodrigues, Luis Fernando S. Rodrigues-Filho, Jan McDowell, and João Bráullio L. Sales
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13027
    预出版日期: 2023-11-05
    Gymnurid rays are found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions around the world, where they are associated with sandy or muddy bottoms in coastal areas, being easily distinguished from other rays by the width of the disc. In recent years, the systematics of this family have been revised extensively. However, there has been no comprehensive molecular review of the family based on an adequate sample of species and localities, which may have obscured the presence of distinct evolutionary lineages. The present study was based on samples of 12 of the 13 valid species of the genus Gymnura, which were used for a multilocus reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the family Gymnuridae. Our results indicate the existence of several cryptic gymnurid lineages, within the species Gymnura micrura, Gymnura lessae, Gymnura altavela, and Gymnura poecilura. Also, we indicate that only half of the species that compose the genus are known, as well their conservation status. The analyses also indicate that the gymnurids originated during the Paleocene, with events of dispersal and vicariance occurring through the formation of oceanographic barriers, and species diversification peaking during the Oligocene and Miocene. The results of the present study reinforce the need for a comprehensive revision of the systematics of the family, in particular, the widely distributed species that are considered valid taxa, but may, in fact, represent different cryptic species. The inadequate classification of this cryptic diversity may have negative implications for the development of effective conservation measures.
  • Jacopo Franzoni, Giovanni Astuti, Gianluigi Bacchetta, Giulio Barone, Fabrizio Bartolucci, Liliana Bernardo, Angelino Carta, Fabio Conti, Gianniantonio Domina, Božo Frajman, Gianpietro Giusso del Galdo, Duilio Iamonico, Mauro Iberite, Luigi Minuto, Marco Sarigu, Ana Terlević, Alessia Turini, Lucia Varaldo, Daniel Volgger, and Lorenzo Peruzzi
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13025
    预出版日期: 2023-10-23
    European wild carnations (Dianthus) are represented by a high number of taxa organized in unresolved taxonomies. In particular, taxa belonging to the Dianthus virgineus L. complex in the Central Mediterranean have been delimited mainly with qualitative morphological data and still await quantitative investigations, which are vital to understand boundaries and relations among plant diversity groups. Here, we examine the phenotypic features of nuclear genome organization testing for species boundaries in this complex. We have studied the chromosome number, the total haploid length (THL), and the relative genome size (RGS) in 122 populations belonging to 25 out of 33 taxa of the complex. All the studied populations have 2n = 2x = 30 chromosomes, and the THL ranges from 14.09 to 20.71 μm. Genome size estimations support the absence of polyploidization events, but show a certain degree of variation (0.318-0.423 arbitrary units). The RGS variation is not in agreement with current taxonomic treatment, but rather shows a geographical pattern, with higher values in Sicily and Sardinia. No correlation between the THL and the RGS was detected, possibly due to the stable chromosome number and the small size of chromosomes. A number of evolutionary unique groups lower than the number of currently accepted taxa may be hypothesized.