Extensive observations were carried out in wild populations and a large number of specimens of Codonopsis
, which has long been controversial in circumscription. The authors counted chromosome numbers of Codonopsis
(mitotic metaphase and karyotype shown down right), subg. Obconicicapsula
, and Codonopsis purpurea
for the first time, and analyzed palynological and molecular data of the genus and its allies (molecular tree shown down middle). Based on integrated phylogenetic analyses, the authors established three new genera, Himalacodon
(top right), Pankycodon
(down left), and Pseudocodon
(top left). Photographed by Qiang WANG and Xin-Tang MA. See WANG et al., pp. 541–550 in this issue.