Instructions for Authors


Thank you for your interest in Journal of Systematics and Evolution. Please read the complete Author Guidelines carefully prior to submission, including the section on copyright. To ensure fast peer review and publication, manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review. Note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium.

Once you have prepared your submission in accordance with the Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at

We are looking forward to your submission.


Aims & Scope

Journal of Systematics and Evolution (JSE) is a bi-monthly international English language journal dedicated to the understanding of biodiversity and evolution. Papers in any of the following and related fields will be considered: phylogenetics and phylogenomics, biogeography (including phylogeography), biosystematics, description of well documented new taxa, taxonomic revisions and monographs (incorporating data from morphology, molecules, anatomy and ecology), molecular evolution, evolutionary development, evolutionary ecology, population biology, conservation biology, paleobiology, and related methods and theory.

The Review Process

The acceptance of papers is based on the quality and originality of the research and its significance. The Editors-in-Chief either assign Editors to handle the peer review process or handle the process themselves. All manuscripts are assessed by two or more anonymous reviewers from anywhere in the world. The Editor handling the peer review process makes the final decision on the acceptability of each manuscript based on the reviewers' comments. For most manuscripts, a decision regarding publication will be available in three months. This will take longer when a manuscript requires extensive revision and a second round of review.

We welcome submission of high quality manuscripts on controversial and frontier topics. These manuscripts may be open reviewed; that is, the reviewers' identity will be revealed to authors, and the reviewers are informed that the manuscript is under open review. If necessary, the reviews will be published together with the paper. The editors-in-chief will decide whether a manuscript goes through open review or not.

Manuscripts should be written in a clear, concise, and direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.


The journal retains the right to reject any manuscript on the basis of unethical conduct of animal studies. Any experiments involving animals must be demonstrated to be ethically acceptable and, where relevant, conform to national guidelines for animal usage in research.

Plagiarism Detection. The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Committee on Publication Ethics. The journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Authorship and Acknowledgements. The journal adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria: i) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; ii) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; iii) Final approval of the version to be published; and i) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under 'Acknowledgements'.


Pre-acceptance English-language Editing

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Optimising Your Article for Search Engines

Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimising your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximise the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.



The Journal uses the US spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the <Merriam–ebster's Collegiate Dictionary> .


All measurements must be given in SI (International System of Units) or SI-derived units. Please go to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website at for more information about SI units.


Abbreviations should be used sparingly—only where they ease the reader's task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially in the main text use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.

Trade Names

Chemical substances should be referred to by the generic name only. Trade names should not be used.

Scientific Names

Authors are requested to check that spelling and authors of scientific names are correct. Authors of plant scientific names should be abbreviated to conform to the International Plant Names Index (IPNI; available at and the Index Fungorum (available at Authors of scientific names should be given once (at first mention) in the text, or in tables. Scientific names of genera, species, subspecies, varieties and forms must be italicized. Genus names should not be abbreviated at the beginning of paragraphs.

Voucher Specimens

Voucher specimens should be deposited in a public herbarium, and cited according to the following format: country, political subdivision (typically province or state): locality, collector(s) and number (herbarium acronym). For type indication, the collection date should be included. Please use the herbarium acronyms following Thiers, B. [continuously updated]. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium. This format also applies when the material/information is tabulated.

Names of new taxa should be followed by a diagnosis and a full description in English, with the holotype indication. For all type specimens examined by the author(s), an exclamation mark should be given after the herbarium acronym (e.g., PE!). Homotypic names should form a single paragraph, in a chronological sequence, with the respective type indication at the end of each of such paragraphs.

Variables and Gene Names in Italic

Letters and numerals used as a symbol for a gene or allele should ALL be italicized: trnH but not trnH. Variables should also be set in italic through the manuscript, including in tables, figures, and figure legends.


Please refer to the following guidelines to publish taxonomy research articles.

  • Monograph or taxonomic revision of a species complex, genus, family or any taxon of higher rank for extant organisms. Extensive field observation, character analysis and herbarium specimen examination, as well as careful and thorough literature citation will be required to justify any nomenclatural changes involved.

  • Description of a new species, genus or any taxon of higher rank for extant organisms. Authors should provide the following to justify their conclusion: (i) careful comparison of as many herbarium specimens of closely related taxa as possible; (ii) extensive data on field observations and laboratory experiments; and (iii) phylogenetic, biogeographic, and/or evolutionary implications of morphological and/or molecular data.

  • Description of a new genus or any taxon of higher rank for extinct organisms. Authors should provide the following to justify their conclusion: (i) careful comparison with closely related living taxa; and (ii) phylogenetic, biogeographic, and/or evolutionary implications of well documented morphological data.


Manuscripts should be arranged in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) abstract and key words, (iii) text, (iv) acknowledgements, (v) references, (vi) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes), (vii) figure legends and (viii) figures. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical material.

Title Page

The title page should contain (i) the title of the paper, (ii) a short running title (less than 50 characters), (iii) the full names of the authors, and (iv) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with (v) the full postal and email address, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent.

Authors' names should be presented with given name first and surname last (e.g., Wen-Tsai Wang, Peter H. Raven). Given names should not be shortened to initials unless this is how the author prefers to be known.

The title should be concise, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use any abbreviation in the title. Authors of scientific names should not be included in the title.

Abstract and Key Words

All research articles should have a brief abstract that states the purpose(s), basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. Review articles should also have an abstract describing the content concisely. The abstract length should be 250 words or fewer. The abstract should not contain any abbreviation or reference.

Four to six key words (for the purpose of indexing) should be listed below the abstract in an alphabetical order.


Authors should use and number sub-headings to divide the sections of the manuscript. For example:

1 Introduction
2 Material and Methods
2.1 Phylogenetic reconstruction
2.2 Morphology and anatomy
3 Results
4 Discussion
(or Results and Discussion combined as: 3 Results and Discussion).


The source of financial support should be acknowledged, including a declaration of the authors' industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged.

When the research is carried out in areas for which research permits are required (e.g., nature reserves), or when it deals with organisms for which collection or import/export permits are required (e.g., protected species), the authors must describe clearly the process of obtaining these permits in the Acknowledgements section.


The Harvard (author, date) system of referencing is used. In the text, give the author's name, with the year followed in parentheses: Wang (1998). If there are two authors use '&': Wang & Raven (2003). When reference is made to a work by three or more authors, the first name followed by "et al." should be used: Wang et al. (2006). Order multiple citations chronologically and then alphabetically: (Iyengar, 1923; Dulberger, 1980; Ornduff, 1980; Wang & Raven, 2003).

All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list. In the reference list, arrange entries in an alphabetical order (by surname). Single author entries precede multi-authored entries by the same first author, regardless of date. Papers with the same first author and multiple other authors should be listed in an alphabetical order by the second author's surname and so on. Cite the names of all authors, regardless of the number of authors for the work. Do not use ibid. or op cit.

Reference to unpublished manuscripts, unpublished data, personal communications, reports, theses or dissertations (other than Ph.D. theses) should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g., Smith A, unpublished data).

Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references against the original source. Authors should also cross-check in-text citations against the reference list entries to ensure they agree in spelling and in year.

The following examples show punctuation and style of entries in the reference list.

Journal article

Heath TA, Hedtke SM, Hillis DM. 2008. Taxon sampling and the accuracy of phylogenetic analyses. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 48: 239–257.

Qiu Y-L, Li LB, Wang B, Chen ZD, Knoop V, Groth-Malonek M, Dombrovska O, Lee J, Kent L, Rest J, Estabrook GF, Hendry TA, Taylor DW, Testa CM, Ambros M, Crandall-Stotler B, Duff RJ, Stech M, Frey W, Quandt D, Davis CC. 2006. The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenomic evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 15511–15516.

Online article not yet published in an issue

An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.

Coelho FF, Capelo C, Ribeiro LC, Figueira JEC. 2007. Reproductive modes in Leiothrix (Eriocaulaceae) in South-eastern Brazil: The role of microenvironmental heterogeneity. Annals of Botany. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcm289.


Stuessy TF. 1990. Plant taxonomy: The systematic evaluation of comparative data. New York: Columbia University Press.

McNeill J, Barrie FR, Buck WR, Demoulin V, Greuter W, Hawksworth DL, Herendeen PS, Knapp S, Marhold K, Prado J, van Reine WFP, Smith GF, Wiersema JH, Turland NJ eds. 2012. International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code). Koenigstein: Koeltz Scientific Books.

Chapter in a book

Hamby RK, Zimmer EA. 1992. Ribosomal RNA as a phylogenetic tool in plant systematics. In: Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Doyle JJ eds. Molecular systematics of plants. New York: Chapman & Hall. 50–91.

Wang W-T, Pan K-Y, Li Z-Y. 1990. Gesneriaceae. In: Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. Beijing: Science Press. 69: 125–581. (The Chinese edition of Flora of China)

Wang ZR, He ZR, Kato M. 2013. Athyriaceae. In: Wu Z-Y, Raven PH, Hong D-Y eds. Flora of China. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 2–3: 418–534.

Paper in conference proceedings

Taylor IEP, Wallace JC. 1989. The structural association between cellulose and xyloglucan in the primary cell wall of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In: Schuerch C ed. Cellulose and Wood: Chemistry and Technology. Proceedings of the 10th Cellulose Conference, Syracuse, N.Y., 29 May–2 June, 1988. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 273–282.

Electronic material

California State Coastal Conservancy. 2000. San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project [online]. Available from [accessed 13 July 2005].

Ph.D. dissertation

Smith DM. 1967. Chemical characters as a guide to the taxonomy of Botrychium. Ph.D. Dissertation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.


Tables should be self-explanatory, and cited in consecutive order in the text with Arabic numerals. Present each table on a separate page with a concise but comprehensible title above. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

Figure Legends

Type figure legends on a separate page. Legends should be concise but comprehensible—the figure and its legend should be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations (in an alphabetical order) and units of measurement. Examples of figure legend style and format:

Figs. 1. The cell and cyst of Ensiculifera sp. 1. An empty cyst from the field, showing the organic spines. 2. A living cyst in culture. 3. Thecal plates, lateral view. 4. Thecal plates, ventral view. 5, 6. Thecal plates, dorsal view. 7. Hypotheca, showing the spine of t plate (arrow). 8. Hypotheca, showing the sulcal plates.

Fig. 1. Tuomeya americana (Küzing) Papenfuss. A, Habit of frond. B, Part of a frond, showing shape of whorls. C, The cross section through a node showing an axial cell and numerous layers of cortical cells. D, Numerous cortical filaments. E, Carposporangia. F, Apical portion of the branch with an apical cell (arrow). Abbreviations: Ac, axial cell; bc, basal cell; cc, cortical cell; pf, primary fascicle; sf, secondary fascicle.

If a map is used as a figure, the source of base map should always be acknowledged in figure legend.


All illustrations (line drawings [charts, graphs, maps, phylogenetic trees] and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text with Arabic numerals as, e.g., (Fig. 1), (Fig. 2A), (Figs. 3B, 3C, 4), (Figs. 1–3). Figures or figure plates should be sized to fit within the single column (8.0 cm X 22.5 cm) or the full text width (17.0 cm X 22.5 cm). Magnifications should be indicated using a scale bar on the illustration.

Color figure files should be set up as CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) and not as RGB (red, green, blue) so that colors as they appear on screen will be a closer representation of how they will print in the journal.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >600 dpi; half-tones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

More advice on figures can be found at Wiley's guidelines for preparation of figures:


These should be avoided. If absolutely required, they should be placed at the end of the paper, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text.

Data Sharing/Archiving

JSE requires authors to archive data underlying the main results in the paper. The data should be archived in an appropriate public archive, such as GenBank (or DDBJ, EMBL), ScienceDB, Dryad, your own institutional or funder repository, etc., or as Supporting Information on the JSE web site (see ‘Supporting Information’ section below for details).

Nucleotide sequence data can be submitted in electronic form to any of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ, EMBL or GenBank. It is only necessary to submit the sequences to one database as data are exchanged between DDBJ, EMBL and GenBank on a daily basis. The suggested wording for referring to accession number information is: ‘These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number U12345’.

Links are as follows:

DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ):

EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Submissions:


Morphological data, phylogenetic trees, taxonomy, etc. can be archived in ScienceDB, The Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity, TreeBASE, Dryad, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, Species 2000, and institutional databases.

Starting in March 2016, JSE Editorial Office has signed voucher account purchase agreement with Dryad for publication of data packages in the Dryad Repository; authors can benefit from this cooperation to archive data free in Dryad associated with accepted articles. The option is provided during the author submission process.

Supporting Information

Supporting Information is not essential to the article but provides greater depth and background and may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc. This material can be submitted with your manuscript, and will appear online, without editing or typesetting. Guidelines on how to prepare this material and which formats and file sizes are acceptable can be found at:


The journal depends in part on the payment of page charges for its operation. Payment of RMB500 per printed page is required from all authors who have funds available for such purposes. Requests for the waiver of page charges should be submitted to the Editorial Office ( Manuscripts are accepted or rejected purely on the basis of scientific merit. A form requesting payment will be sent to the corresponding author after printing.


  • A cover letter should be included in the 'Cover Letter Field' of the ScholarOne system. The text can be entered directly into the field or uploader as a file.

  • The cover letter must contain:

    • An acknowledgment that all authors have contributed significantly.

    • A statement confirming that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium.

    • If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, the cover letter must include a statement confirming that the authors have permission to reproduce the material and that appropriate acknowledgments have been included in the text.

    • Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest, for more detail refer to the section 'Conflict of Interest Declaration' above.

  • Two Word-files need to be included upon submission: A title page file and a main text file that includes all parts of the text in the sequence indicated in the section 'Parts of the manuscript', including tables and figure legends but excluding figures which should be supplied separately.

  • The main text file should be prepared using Microsoft Word, doubled-spaced. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the first page of the main text file.

  • Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files will be required.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley's production team for publication. The author identified as the corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley's Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. More details on the copyright and licencing options for the journal appear below.

Wiley's Author Services: Tracking your Paper's Progress

Author Services also enables authors to track their article through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Accepted Articles

The journal offers Wiley's Accepted Articles service for all manuscripts. This service ensures that accepted 'in press' manuscripts are published online very soon after acceptance, prior to copy-editing or typesetting. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only, are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked, and are indexed by PubMed. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

The Accepted Articles service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research papers after acceptance. Given that copyright licensing is a condition of publication, a completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

Accepted articles will be indexed by PubMed; therefore the submitting author must carefully check the names and affiliations of all authors provided in the cover page of the manuscript, as it will not be possible to alter these once a paper is made available online in Accepted Article format. Subsequently the final copyedited and proofed articles will appear in an issue on Wiley Online Library; the link to the article in PubMed will automatically be updated.

E-annotation Proof Corrections

Once your paper has been typeset the corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a website from which the proof can be downloaded as a PDF. Authors will need to ensure that they have Acrobat Reader version 7.0 or above, or Acrobat Professional in order to use the annotation functionality. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the Adobe website. This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and any corrections to be added in electronically using the annotation toolbar. Electronic annotations can be used to cross out, replace or insert text, and even insert an attachment (such as a new abstract or figure). Detailed instructions and links to the Adobe website will be sent with the proof. It is therefore essential that a working e-mail address is provided for the corresponding author.


The corresponding author will receive an email with details on how to provide proof corrections. It is therefore essential that a working email address be providing for the corresponding author.

Early View

The journal offers rapid speed to publication via Wiley's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. Early View articles are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before allocation to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.


A PDF reprint of the article will be supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Additional printed offprints may be ordered online for a fee. Within China, please contact the Editorial Office. Outside of China, please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: If you have queries about offprints please e-mail:

Author Marketing Toolkit

The Wiley Author Marketing Toolkit provide authors with support on how to use social media, publicity, conferences, multimedia, email and the web to promote their article.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley's production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley's Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Authors may choose to publish under the terms of the journal's standard copyright transfer agreement (CTA), or under open access terms made available via Wiley OnlineOpen.

Standard Copyright Transfer Agreement: FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard CTA in place for the journal, including standard terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs. Note that in signing the journal's licence agreement authors agree that consent to reproduce figures from another source has been obtained.

OnlineOpen—Wiley's Open Access Option: OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons license. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access. Authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on their personal website, and in an institutional repository or other free public server immediately after publication. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

OnlineOpen licenses: Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND). To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

Funder Open Access and Self-Archiving Compliance: Please click here for more information on Wiley's compliance with specific Funder Open Access and Self Archiving Policies, and click here for more detailed information specifically about Self-Archiving definitions and policies.


Visit the Journal of Systematics and Evolution home page at and for more information, and Wiley's web pages for manuscript submission ( and illustration submission ( information.


Journal of Systematics and Evolution

Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences

20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan,

Beijing 100093


Tel.: +86 10 6283 6572, +86 10 6283 6132

Fax: +86 10 6283 6132


Pubdate: 2023-02-15    Viewed: 181