Table of Contents

18 June 1988, Volume 26 Issue 3
    Research Articles
  • Wang Jin-Wu, Yang Ji, Li Mao-Xue
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 165-172.
    This paper deals with the morphological and cytological variation in various forms of P. odoratum complex. A quantitative analysis on the correlation between some diagnostic characteristics was also made with pictorialized scatter diagram and histogram. The results show that the presence or absence of angles on stems is closely correlated with smooth or verrucate lower surface of leaves and the position of stamens (above or below the middle). With chromosome numbers, they heve 2n=18 and 2n=20 respectively. It is suggested to treat them as two distinct species and restore P. simizui Kitag as species status.
  • Lang Kai-Yung
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 173-188.
    Herminium is a genus of about 26 species, mainly distributed in the temperate and subtropical regions of Asia and Europe. Yunnan, Sichuan and Xizang in China are the present distribution centre as well as differentiation centre of the genus. In the present paper, taxa of Herminium hitherto recorded in China are taxonomically and phytogeographically discussed and revised, and, as a result, 18 species are recongnized, including two newly recorded species, H. angustilabre King et Pantl. and H. quinquelobum King et Pantl., and 12 species endemic to China. A full list of synonyms is given, a key to the species is provided and the distribution areas of all taxa are mapped.
  • Li Liang-Qian
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 189-204.
    The geographical distribution of Aconitum in the Sino-Himalayan subregion is analysed in the present paper on the basis of taxonomy and relationship between the infrageneric taxa. Asaresult, some conclusions may be arrived as follows: 1. The Sino-Himalayan subregion is the frequency centre and the diversity centre of the genus. For analysis, the distribution area of the genus are assigned to three floristic regions, viz. 1) the East-Asian floristic region, consisting of the Sino-Himalayan subregion and SinoJapanese subregion, 2) the Euro-Siberian region and 3) the North-American region (Table 1). In the East-Asian floristic region, the Sino-Himalayan subregion comprises 3 subgenera, about 5 sections, about 13 series and nearly 180 species. However, the Sino-Japanese subregion has only 2 subgenera, 2 sections. 6 series and about 50 species. The Euro-Siberian region has 2 subgenera, 2 sections, about 9 series and nearly 70 species. The North-American region has 2 subgenera (one of the 2 subgenera has only 1 species), 1 section, 1-2 series and about 26 species. Obviously, the Sino-Himalayan subregion is the richest in taxa. 2. The Sino-Himalayan subregion is not only the preservation centre of the primitive groups and species, but also an actively differentiating region. Largely in the Sino-Himalayan subregion occurs primitive or more primitive tava in the genus, such as Sect. Fletcherum, Sect. Alatosperum and Sect. Sinaconitum, Ser. Tangutica and Ser. Brunnea etc.: A fletcherianum, A. novoluridum, A. chrysotricum, A. brevicalcaratum, A. polycarpus, A. nagarum, A. tanguti cum, A. hookeri, A. naviculare, A. violaceum, etc. On the other hand, the Sino-Himalayan subregion also has the most or relatively advanced taxa, represented by the annual monotypic subgenus Gymnaconitum, A. spiripetalum, A. hamatipetalum and A. bulbitiferum ect. About 50 infraspecific taxa occur in the subregion. For example, A. hemsleyanum has 8 varities, A. franchetii has varities and A. nagarum 1 varity and 2 forms, ect. 3. In the region under discussion the genus Aconitum shows remarkable endemism. The endemic taxa include 3 sections (Sect. Fletcherum, Sect. Alatosperum and Sect. Sina conitum), 3 series (Ser. Brevicalcarata, Ser. Crassiflora and Ser. Bullatifolia) and nearly 150 species, among which primitive and advanced ones are both present. 4. The pattern of geographical distribution of the genus Aconitum shows remarkable relationship between latitude and altitude. The majority of species of this genus prefer habi tats with a cool and more or less constantly moist climate. In the Sino-Japanese subregion, with a higher latitude, the genus has an altitude range of 500-1500 m, whereas in the Sino-Hima-layan subregion the range is 2900-5000 m. To sum up, the Sino-Himalayan subregion is the diversity centre, the frequency centre, the differentiation centre, the preservation centre of the primitive taxa and the centre of endemism of the genus Aconitum, and its development in this subregion has probably been accelerated by the lift of the Himalayas and the complicated environmental conditions.
  • But Paul Pui-Hay, Kong Yun-Cheung, Li Qian, Chang Hong-Ta, Chang Kiaw-Lan, Wong Khoon-Meng, Gray Alexander I., Waterman Peter G.
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 205-210.
    Swingle[14-15] divided Aurantioideac into two tribes, one of which, Clausereae was further divided into three subtribes, namely, Micromelinae, Clauseninae and Merrilliinae. Mic romelinae and Merrilliinae each have one genus, whereas Clauseninae has three genera. Morphologically, the Clauseneae is a natural tribe, the five genera are related in a linear sequence, starting with Micromelum as the most primitive and progressing in sequence to Glycosmis, Clausena, Murraya and Merrillia. Chemical studies also support this linear relationship, as revealed by the degree of oxygenation and complexity of the 3-methyl carbazole alkaloids, from CH3 and C13 in Glycosmis to CHO and C18 in Clausena and COOH and C23 in Murraya[20-21]. Distribution of flavonoids also indicates the progression from Clauseninae to Merrilliinae[18-19]. Extensive work has been conducted on the chemistry and taxonomy of the genus Murraya [1,5,7-13,16], and the data from these studies clearly indicate the presence of two distinct groups. Based on a combination of morphological and chemical differences, we agreed with Tanaka[16-17] in dividing Murraya into two sections, i.e. section Murraya and section Bergera[1]. However, our previous study[1] has not touched on the relationship between the two sections. Tanaka[16-17] placed section Bergera before section Murraya, and indicated that the former is close to Micromelum and the latter to Merrillia. Swingle[14-15], on the other hand, put taxa of section Murraya ahead of those of section Bergera, presumably suggesting that plants of section Murraya are more primitive than those of section Bergera, this arrangement was followed by Huang[2-3]. The two conflicting viewpoints would have direct bearings on the interpretation of the trends of biogenesis of prenylated indole and carbazole alkaloids, as well as on the weighing of the relative advancement of the morphological characters within the genus, such as in the assignment of indices of divergence and in the construction of Wagner Divergence Diagrams. Without more objective criteria, we find it difficult to select one of the two systems. In order to determine the relationship between the two sections of Murraya, we decided to study plants of related genera, with the hope that the chemical data may shed light on the problem. A plant that attracted our attention is Merrillia caloxylon (Ridley) Swingle. So far, only eupatorin and a few other flavonoids have been reported from the fruit of this species[4,6]. Although Me. caloxylon belongs to Merrilliinae, a subtribe next to Clauseninae, Tanaka[16-17] believes that it is close to Murraya section Murraya. Swingle[15], also suggested that this species might have developed from the same stock that gave rise to Mu. paniculata. If their interpretations were accurate, we would expect that Me. caloxylon would also contain yuehchukene and 8-prenylated coumarins. The presence of the antiimplantation agent would not only open up a new source of the compound but also help us judge the relationship between the two sections of Murraya. It is in this context that we studied the chemical composition of Me. caloxylon. Indeed, root and stem bark of Me. caloxylon were found to contain the antiimplantation indole alkaloid yuehchukene (1), and the 8-prenylated coumarins sibiricin (II) and phebalosin (III), as well as 3-(3-methy1-buta-1,3-diene) indole (IV) and eupatorin (V.) Details on the chemical profiles are reported in another paper. Through this exercise, we have confirmed the close relationship between Merrilliinae and Murraya section Murraya, plants of both taxa contain yuehchukene and 8-prenylated coumarins, but no carbazole alkaloid. Root and stem bark of Me. caloxylon, like those of plants of section Murraya, are strawcolored to pale whitish. Its leaves also bear wings along the rachis an in Mu. alata, and the seeds are also villous. However, Me. caloxylon has long trumpetshaped flowers 55-60 mm long, much larger than those found in other rutaceous plants. Its fruit is ob long, up to 11 cm long and 8 cm across, bearing a thick and warty pericarp, exuding a very stick mucilage when cut, and containing numerous seeds (>30). The plant was known to exist in the Malay Peninsula and north Sumatra[15], but, according to David Jones (per. comm.) of the University of Malaya, is now only available in cultivation in Malaysia and Singapore, a limitation to any further exploitation as an additional source of yuehchukene. Besides confirming the close relationship between Merrillia and section Murraya, we may also conclude that section Bergera is close to Glycosmis and Clausena, since they are known to contain carbazole alkaloids but no yuehchukene. Accordingly, we find Tanaka’s arrangement more acceptable: plants of section Bergera are more primitive than those of section Murraya, the former is close to Clausena whereas the latter (notably Mu. alata) to Merrillia. The relationship among the gonera with in Clauseneae may be illustrated as follow: Micromelum→ Glycosmis→Clausena→Murraya sect. Bergera→Murraya sect. Murraya→Marrillia. Accordingly, we may decide that the following character states are more primitive among plants of Murraya and Merrillia: root and stem bark dark brown, leaf rachis wingless, flower small, fruit purple-black with few seeds, and seed coat glabrous. In contrast, strawcolored or pale whitish bark, winged leaf rachis, large flower, red or yellow fruit with many seeds and villous seed coat can be regarded as more advanced characters. Acknowledgments Partial support was received from the World Health Organization Special Programme on Human Reproduction and the Kevin Hsu Research Fund (to YCK) and Commonwealth Science Council (to PPHB). The staff of the Singapore Botanic Gardens and the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia are thanked for their assistance in collecting plantmaterial.
  • Chia Liang-Chi, Fung Hok-Lam, Yang Ya-Ling
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 211-216.
  • Chen Shou-Liang, Jin Yue-Xing
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 217-223.
    Our observations on characters of leaf epidermis, lemma, palea etc. in the genera Acroceras Stapf (many species), Neohusnotia tonkinensis (Balansa) A. Camus (the type of Neohusnotia), Setiacis diffusa (Chia) S. L. Chen & Y. X. Jin (the type of Setiacis), Lasiacis divaricata (L.) Hitchc. (the type of Lasiacis[4]) and Psilochloa pilgerana (Schweick.) Launert (the type of Psilochloa[4]) in Subtribe Paspalinae[1] Keng& Keng f. show that Setiacis diffusa differs from the others by several characters, which merits establishing a new genus—Setiacis S. L. Chen & Y. X. Jin in this subtribe[1]. The Latin description of the new genus is given in this paper.
  • Lin Wan-Tao
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 224-234.
  • Lian Yong-Shan
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 235-237.
    This paper represents new discoveries of the genus Hippophae L, including two new sections: i. e. Sect. I. Hippophae and Sect. II. Gyantsenses Lian, a new rank species H. gyantsensis (Rousi) Lian, as well as a new record of H. rhamnoides L. subsp. turkestanica Rousi in Gansu. Besides, a key to the sections and species is provided and an account of the new classification scheme on the genus is given.
  • Chen Sing-Chi
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 238-240.
  • Miao Bo-Mao
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 241-242.
  • Liu Da-Ji
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 243-244.
  • Xiong Zhi-Ting, Huang Ren-Huang
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(3): 245-247.
    Somatic chromosome numbers of 10 species and 3 varieties in Actinidia Lindl. are reported for the first time, except A. polygama (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim. Two ploidy levels, diploid and tetraploid, are found both in A. polygama and A. kolomikta (Maxim. et Rupr.) Maxim. Chromosome numbers are listed as follows: A. kolomikta (Maxim. et Rupr.) Maxim. 2n=58, 116, A. polygama (Sieb. et Zucc. Maxim. 2n=58, 116, A. macrosperma Liang 2n=116, A. callosa var. henryi Maxim. 2n=116, A. callosa var. discoler Liang 2n =116, A. cylindrica Liang 2n=58, A. chrysantha Liang 2n=116, A. sabiaefolia Dunn 2n= 58, A. melliana Hand.-Mazz. 2n=58, A. hemsleyana Dunn 2n=58, A. fulvicoma var. lanata (Hemsl.) Liang 2n=58, A. latifolia (Gardn. et Champ.) Merr. 2n=58, and A. lanceolata Dunn 2n=58.