Table of Contents

18 June 1987, Volume 25 Issue 3
    Research Articles
  • Tsui Hung-Pin
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 161-171.
    This paper is an attempt to discuss the relationship and phylogeny within the genus Lindera, based upon on analysis of shortened brachlets, on which the inflorescences are inserted, and other morphological characters. The shortened branchlets are metamorphic shoots which are often at the transitional stage between branchles and inflorescences. The advanced shortened branchlets usually with an undeveloped terminal bud, posses scale-like leaves, and the inflorescences so formed are sessile and aggregate. In primitive taxa, such as Lindera nacusua (Don) Merr., L. gracilipes H. W. Li and L. tanchuanensis Feng et H. S. Kung, the branchlet is usually not shortened, with well-developed terminal bud, forming a single axillary pseudo-umbel, while its peducle is usually very slender and stamens of pistillate flower sometimes more or less developed. The leaves on the upper part of branchlet are normal and the lower part of branchlet becoming bracteal, In the genus the development of shortened branchlets (Fig. 1.) from the ones in the primitive taxa to the ones in the advanced taxa may be found. Other important morphological characters are the length of peducles. The peduncle is usually slender in the primitive taxa, short or even sessile in the adanced taxa. There are two types of venation in the genus: the pinnate and trinerved. As the primitive group trib. Perseeae Mez shows pinnate veins, pinnate ventation in Lindera is more primitive than trinerved one. It might be possible that a transition occure in the genus from evergereen habit to deciduous one as shown in Lindera glauca B1., L. angustifolia Cheng and L. praecox B1., whose leaves tardily wither but persistent over winter. The relationships within Lindera are shown in a hypothetical genealogical tree (Fig. 4), which includes the system of Litsea, developed parallelly with Lindera. From the study of morphological characters, the author infers that both Lindera and Litsea have originated from a common ancestory related to the tribe Cinnamomeae Baill. which has a single axillary inflorescence, with hermaphrodite flowers, 4-locular anthers and penninerved to trinerved leaves.
  • Yu Jin, Xiao Pei-Gen
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 172-179.
    Abstract From the root of Paeonia suffruticosa and P. lactiflora seven compounds have been isolated. They are identified as paeoniflorin I, benzoylpaeoniflorin II, oxypaeoniflorin III, paeonol IV, paeonoside V, paeonolide VI and apiopaeonoside VII. The contents of the seven constituents in the root of 23 Paeonia taxa, including 19 species and 6 varieties, are determined by means of the quantitative HPTLC scanning method. The results show that paeoniflorin occurs ubiquitously in all the species examined and is the characteristic constituent of the family Paeoniaceae; The paeonol compounds (IV, V. VI, VII) are found to be restricted to the woody Sect. Moutan and notably absent in the herbaceous Sect. Paeon. This differentiation gives a support to the division of sections in Paeoniaceae. The chemical comparison between Paeoniaceae and 15 possibly related families shows that Paeoniaceae is different from Ranunculaceae, Ranunculales of Magnoliales and is similar to Dilleniaceae, Theaceae and Rosaceae in some respects. The chemical data support the suggestion that Paeoniaceae be elevated to the order rank, Paeoniales.
  • Fu Cheng-Xin, Liu Ming-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 180-188.
    This paper is a cytological part of biosystematic studies on Adenophora Fisch. in Heilongjiang, China. Chromosomal numbers and karyotypes of 10 spp. and 1 var. are reported. The results are summarized in Table 1. The chromosomal numbers and karyotypes of 6 spp. and 1 var. are first reported, including tetraploid species (2n=68) (A. pereskiifolia var. alternifolia, A. amurica and A. gmelinii). The basic number of chromosomes in the genus is mainly 17 (x=17), but that of A. trachelioides and A. remotiflora (2n=36) is 18 (x=18), an unique one in the genus. The karyotypes of all the species examined are relatively uniform, which means that they are derived from a common ancestral type. The chromosomes are smaller, varying between 2-4 μm. The majority of chromosomes are m and sm ones. And a pair of sat-chromosomes and a pair of st chromosomes are always present. The centromeric terminalization value of chromosomes is 57.5-61.9%, showing higher symmetry of karyotypes in the genus. The karyotype of A. tetraphylla (2n=34) is the most symmetrical among these species. Based on its morphological characters and distribution, the species may be considered as a relatively primitive member of the genus. The results show two revolutionary trends in karyotypes of the genus: number variation (including polyploidy and aneuploidy) and structural variation. The polyploidy is one of the principal patterns of speciation in the genus. Combined with the other characters, these species are taxonomically discussed, and two new taxa (A. amurica Fu et Liu and A. pereskiifolia ssp. alternifolia (Fuh ex Y. Z. Zhao) Fu et Liu) are confirmed. A. trachelioides and A. remotiflora (both 2n=36) with obvious petioles seems more advanced than the other species (2n 34).
  • Shih Chu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 189-203.
    After having examined all specimens of the genus Prenanthes L. of Compositae in the Herbarium of Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, I find that the classic concept on the genus Prenanthes established by G. Bentham in 1873 has not been held exactly by some of European, American, Japanese and Chinese botanists. For example, W. B. Hemsley, S. T. Dunn, A. Franchet, S. Kitamura and C. C. Chang placed plants from China which belong to other groups into the genus; I also find that the classic concept of the genus is not clear. The present paper makes a revision not only on the classic concept of the genus, but also on its concept assumed by the above-mentionded botanists. With the combination of numerous (25-35), white or yellow ligular florets, numerous ribs of achenes, Prenanthes alba L. (Nabalus albus (L.) Shih, comb. nov.) is distinctly different from Prenanthes purpurea L., which has the combination of purple, few (5-15) ligular florests and few ribs of achenes. Nabalus Cass., as a genus established early (1825) by H. Cassini, should be restored. It is not reasonable to treat Nabalus as a subgenus (E. B. Babcock et al. 1947) or a section (S. Kitamura, 1956) or as a synonym (G. Bentham, 1983) of the genus Preanathes L. The present author recognizes seven species in the new revised genus Prenanthes L. in China, 4 of which are described as new. In the genus Nabalus Cass. only one species, N. ochroleuca Maxim., is distributed in Northeast China. As Lactuca melanantha Franch. (1895), Prenanthes henryi Dunn (1903), P. glandulosa Dunn (1903), Lactuca triflora Hemsl. (1888) (it was transferred to Prenanthes L. by C. C. Chang in 1934), Prenanthes formosana Kitam. (1934) and P. wilsoni Chang (1934) all have campanulate involucres, purple phyllaries, purple dorsi-ventrally compressed achenes, longitudinal rids 6-9 on each side of achene truncate and beakless at its apex and pilose tubes of corollae, they should be placed neither into the genus Prenanthes with obtusely tri-or pentagonous, subterete achenes and glabrous tubes of corollae, nor into the genus Lactuca with beak achenes. Besides the above-mentioned species misnamed by some of foreign and Chinese botanists, 6 other species also have the same structure in achenes and corollae. Evidently, they fall into a new genus with the name Notoseris Shih. The new genus Notoseris Shih of the tribe Lactuceae of Compositae seems to be more reminiscent of Lactuca L. than of Prenanthes L. emend. All the 12 species of the genus Notoseris Shih are endemic to China and distributed in the area of south of Yantze River. Of them 6 are new combinations and 6 are described as new.
  • Zhang Yu-Hua
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 204-219.
    The genus Yinshania was established by Ma Yu-chuan and Zhao Yi-zhi in 1979, when only one species, Y. albiflora Ma et Y. Z. Zhao, was discribed from Nei Monggol. In the present paper the genus Yinshania is revised and four new species, two new varieties and four new combinetions are reported. There are so far eight species and two varieties in total in this genus. Important morphological characters of the genus are analysed, which shows that the lateral nectariferous glands positioned at lateral base of the brevistamens are triangularovoid; there are dense minute pustules on the surface of valves, which is easily neglected because the pustules disappear or shrinked when dry; simple or furcate hairs are present in the most species, seldom absent; the shape of pollen grains is relatively steady, elliptic or long-elliptic, with the polar view trifidcircular, the equatorial view elliptic or long elliptic, the aperture 3-colpate, exine reticular. The type of genus Yinshania is changed. Cochlearia acutangula O. E. Schulz was published in 1929, but Y. albiflora Ma et Y. Z. Zhao in 1979. They are the same species and a new combinetion, Y. acutangula (O. E. Schulz) Y. H. Zhang, is made. Thus, the type of genus Yinshania should be changed to Y. acutangula (O. E. Schulz) Y. H. Zhang. Besides, He Ye-qi 6121 (paratype, PE), which is different from Y. acutangula var. albiflora, is separated from it and transferred the typical variety, Y. acutangula. According to the characters of fruit shape the genus Yinshania is divided into two sections, namely, Sect. Microcarpa and Sect. Yinshania, and then Sect. Yinshania is subdivided into two series. Sect. 1. Microcarpa. Silicles widely ovoid or subglobose, 1-2.2 mm long, 0.8-2.2 mm wide, the ratio of length and width about 1.1. Sect. 2. Yinshania. Silicles oblong, oblong-ovoid or long-lanceolate, ellipsoidal, 1.5-4.5 mm long, 0.3-1.5 mm wide, the ratio of length and width about 2.5-3.3. Ser. 1. Henryanae. Raches flexuose; plants densely hairy; leaves 3-5-foliolate, seldom pinnatipartite or pinnatisect. Ser. 2. Yinshania. Raches non flexuose; plants sparsely hairy; leaves pinnatisect or pinnatipartite. The genus Yinshania is a genus endemic to China, with their range from eastern Xizang to western Hubei from northern Guizhou to central Nei Monggol. The taxa are mostly of a small area. Sect. Microcarpa is concentrated in Sichuan and southern Gansu; Sect. Yinshania is spread from Xizang and Sichuan, nouthwards to Gansu, Ningxia, Shanxi, Hebei and Nei Monggol (Ser. Yinshania); and from Sichuan south-eastwards to Guizhou and Hebei (Ser. Henryanae). There are five species in Sichuan. The present paper conjectures that the distribution centre of the genus is in the Hengduan Mountains and its adjacent areas.
  • Li Zhen-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 220-230.
    The genus Hemiboea is a curious genus of the tribe Didymocarpeae (Cyrtandroideae), characterized by its peculiar pistil with one fertile carpel and its follicle-like capsule. This genus has not yet been thoroughly studied since its establishment by C. B. Clarke in 1888. In the present paper, the taxonomic history is briefly reviewed; the external morphology, leaf histology, pollen morphology and geographical distribution are discussed; a key to the 21 species recognized by the author is provided; and the economic uses reported in various publications are summarized. I. Morphology (1) Sclereids The foliar sclereids, occurring in this genus and defined by their forms, fall into two types. (A) Vermiform selereids This type of sclereids is noted in 15 species and may be classified into two groups according to their positions in leaf tissues. Those of the first group are interspersed in the ground tissue around the vascular bundles of leaves and noted in 12 species, i.e.H. longisepala, H. cavaleriei, H. bicornuta, H. fangii, H. omeiensis, H. gracilis, H. glandulosa, H. mollifolia, H. pingbianensis, H. parviflora, H. strigosa and H. gamosepala, and those of the second group are dispersed in the mesophyll, occurring in H. subcapitata, H. henryi and H. latisepala. (B) Astrosclereids The sclereids of this type are discovered for the first time in Hemiboea, dispersed in the mesophyll of a single species, i.e.H. lungzhouensis. No foliar sclereids are found in the remaining 5 species, i.e.H. integra, H. flaccida, H. longgangensis, H. subacaulis and H. follicularis. The differences in forms and positions of the foliar sclereids and their absence or presence are of great help in understanding the relationship between the infrageneric taxa. (2) Pollen grains The pollen grains of 19 species were examined with LM and SEM. They are 3-colporate, subglobose or prolate, 20-38.8×22-28μm. The exine is 1.3-2μm thick and the sculpture is foveolate (e.g.H. cavaleriei) to reticulate (e.g.H. omeiensis). In Sect. Subcapitatae the pollen grains are subglobose or prolate, while those of Sect. Hemiboea are prolate. No pollen grains are observed in anthers of 13 speciemens of H. subacaulis var. subacaulis and var. jiangxiensis. (3) Seed-coat Under SEM the seed-coat exhibits considerable diversity in the genus, furnishing useful characters for explaining the relationship between the two sections. 2. Geographical distribution The genus Hemiboea ranges from the eastern border of the Xizang Plateau and Yunnan Plateau eastwards to Ryu Kyu Islands, and from the southern slope of the Qinling Range southwards to northern Vietnam. The karst region of S. E. Yunnan and W. Guangxi is the centre of maximum variation of the genus and is probably its origin centre, where the most primitive taxon exists, and where more species (13 species, i.e. 61.9 per cent of the sum total) and more endemic species (8 species) are found than elsewhere. 3. Classification The genus consists of 21 species and 6 varieties which are classified into 2 sections. The Clarke's classification is accepted, but emended here as follows: Sect. 1. Subcapitatae Clarke Sepals free or posterior ones connate. Muri of the seed-coat laevigate or rugose; bottom of meshes flat, smooth or with few verrucae. Pollen grains subglobose or prolate. Sect. 2. Hemiboea Sepals connate. Muri of the seed-coat tuberculate or aliform-tuberculate; bottom of meshes flat or concave, with dense verrucae. Pollen grains prolate. Based on the analysis of external and internal morphological characters, the main evolutionary trends in the genus are discussed and enumerated, and a hypothesis indicating the relationships between the two sections is given. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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  • Ni Zhi-Cheng
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 231-234.
  • Chang Roh-Hwei
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 235-236.
  • Yang Guang-Hui
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 237-238.
  • Wu Su-Kung
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 239-240.
  • Guo Xin-Hu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 241-241.
  • Wang Shu-Song
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(3): 242-244.