Table of Contents

18 December 1986, Volume 24 Issue 6
    Research Articles
  • Li Ying, Wang Fu-Hsiung, Chen Zu-Keng
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 411-422.
    The tapetum is of the secretory type. After breakdown of callose wall around tetrads, tapetal cells degenerate quickly and disappear completely at the late stage of microspore development. The mature male gametophyte is of a tube cell and a generative cell, without prothallial cells. The pollen tube lodging in the nucellus contains a spermatogenous cell, a tube nucleus and a sterile cell before entering domancy. In the following spring the pollen tube grows fast, and reachs the female gametophyte when the archegonia are mature. The spermatogenous cell enlarges obviously, and the cytoplasm is very dense in the centre of the cell and shows well-marked radiations from this region to the periphery, when it divides to form two sperm cells of unequal size, while the tube nucleus and the sterile cell degenerates and subsequently disappears. After 12th simultaneous divisions the cell wall of the female gametophyte forms from the periphery to the centre. When the central cell has divided to form the egg and the ventral canal nucleus ,its cytoplasm becomes very dense and numerous bodies, similar to nucleoli in appearance, occurs. The sperm and the egg come together at metaphase of the first division of the zygote. The wall formation of proembryo initiates at the 16-nucleate stage. The features of the mature embryo are as follows: (a) The cotyledons are very long, with their length about four fifths of that of the whole embryo, (b) the embryonal axis is so short as to cover only about one sixth of the cotyledons, (c) there is no typical pith, (d) the root cap is well-developed and consists of about 10-15 layers of cells which are very large and are full of starch grains and (e) the epidermis cells only extend to the upper part of the root cap. It is concluded that Fu's (1984) suggestion, that the Cephalotaxus be divided into two sections, Cephalotaxus and Pectinatae, is supported by the present embryological investigation on C. oliveri. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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  • 1Hu Yu-Shi, 2Shao Wei
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 423-427.
    The family Cephalotaxaceae contains only one genus, Cephalotaxus, with 9 species and some varieties, mostly endemic to China. The present paper deals with the comparative anatomy of secondary phloem of stems in 4 species and I cultivar, of this genus under light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The main results are as follows: (1) The structure of secondary phloem is rather uniform in the various species of this genus. In cross section, sieve cells, phloem parenchyma cells form continuous tangential rows of one cell in width respectively, which occur alternately. Sclerenchyma cells also form continuous tangential rows, each with a radial width of 1-4 cells. The interval between the rows is rather wide. (2) The type of phloem fiber and the quantity of sclereids can be served as the characters for identification of species and the evidence for the separation of two sections of Cephalotaxus, namely: Cephalotaxus and Pectinatae. (3) The secondary phloem of this genus contains more or less crystalliferous parenchyma cells, in the inner tangential walls of which calcium oxalate crystals are embedded. So far this character has not been reported in the other families and the genera of conifers. Our conclusion, therefore, agrees with the opinion that Cephalotaxaceae is a natural taxon and includes only one genus, Cephalotaxus.
  • Ma Hong, Zhang Zheng-Dong, Li Liang-Bi, Ma Gui-Zhi, Zhai Xiao-Jing, Zhou Pei-Zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 428-433.
    Three species of evergreen Cephalotaxus (C. fortunei Hook. f., C. sinensis Li and C. harringtonia cv. Fastigiata) were used as materials to study some functional properties of chloroplasts. It is found that the oxygenevolving capacity of the chloroplasts from these plants is inhibited but partial reaction of PS-II and effect of Mg2+ on energy distribution between two photosystems are detectable during the winter. Seasonal effects on the functional properties of chloroplasts from evergreen Cephalotaxus are similar to that of conifer chloroplasts. The ratio between F685, F695 and F735 of fluorescence emission spectra at 77°K of chloroplasts is different among these three species. It is found by using SDS-PAGE that the number of polypeptide resolved from thylakoid membrane of C. harringtonia cv. Fastigiata substantially differs from that of C. fortunei Hook.f. and C. sinensis Li. The result shows that the fluorescence emission spectrum feature and polypeptide composition of thylakoid membrane may be used as a tool for systematics of the genus Cephalotaxus.
  • Xi Yi-Zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 434-438.
    The pollen morphology and ultrastructure of exine of Podocarpaceae in China were examined with light microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The pollen grains of Podocarpus have rather large and prominent sacs on both sides of body, and are 53.9-74.8 μm long in total, with their bodies 29.6-45.2 μm long and 19.1-31.3 μm wide. The sacs are smooth on outer surface with perforation, but reticulate inside. On distal view, they are obviously of radial muri from its base. The body is oblate or spheroidal, laddershaped on distal face. The exine of the capis tuberculate, but more distinctly on the margin than in the centre. The pollen grains of Dacrydium are of small and indistinct sacs around body, which are composed of many small bladders. The body is subcircular in outline. Both body and sacs are irrugulate tuberculate under SEM. Examination of thin sections of Podocarpus macrophyllus var. maki with TEM reveals that the exine includes ectexine and endexine. It is interesting to note that foot layer of ectexine possesses lamellar stru cture, but endexine is homogeneous in structure and lighter in colour. This character is specific in the gymnosperms. Based on informations of fossil pollen grains, Podocarpaceae is rather primitive and of ancient origin.
  • Xi Yi-Zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 439-442.
    Amentotaxus consists of three species distributed in southern, central, western mainland and southern Taiwan of China. Its pollen grains were examined by LM, SEM and TEM. The pollen grains of this genus are suhsphaeroidal, sometimes suboblate or irregular, 27.8 μm to 45.4 μm in diameter, at tenuate towards distal pole. It is worthy of note that a number of pollen grains in Amentotaxus argotaenia possess relic saccuses. The exine surface conrains tuberculate ornamentation of two sizes, i,e. sparse and coarse tuberculae and rather dense and fine tuberculae under SEM. TEM examination reveals that endexine is of lamellate structure containing 7-9 lamellae. Ectexine is composed of tectum, granulate layer and food layer. Tectum is very irrigular, consisting of tuberculae which are linked up forming strings of beads or fused into a number of masses. The granulae of granular layer under the tectum are distributed in heaps. These granulae are easily fallen in some cases. The foot layer is made of 1-2 thick and dark lamellae which are as dark as the tectum and possess tripartite structure, i,e. with a central white line and coarse and dark lines on both lateral sides. But lamellae of endexine are thin and light and have no tripartite structure. Ultrastructure of pollen exine of Amentotaxus is obviously distinguished from that of Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae. The characteristics of ultrastructure of pollen exine in Amentotaxus support its being seperated from Taxaceae and treated as an independent family, Amentotaxaceae.
  • Ma Zhong-Wu, He Guan-Fu, Yin Wan-Fen
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 443-446.
    Eight crystalline substances are isolated from leaves of Amentotaxus argotaenia native to China. Five of them are identified as known A-homo-5-cholest-6-en-3-One, cyclobalanone, nonacosan-10-ol, r-sitosterol and β-sitosterol. The others seem to be new components, whose structures will be studied further.
  • 1Tang Zhong-Xun, 2Chen Zu-Keng, 2Wang Fu-Hsiung
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 447-453.
    Before May the first, the ovular primordium of Torreya grandis has differentiated. From this early moment the primordium look like the parabolic form and it is surrounded by many pairs of scales, of which a pair of the inner scales are lying at the same level as the primordium of ovule. About May the first of the second year, the differentiation of the various tissues in the ovule has essentially completed. And the fertilization takes place from the end of August to the beginning of September. After overwintering, the proembryo developes into a young embryo in April of the third year, and at the last stage both the seed and the embryo become mature from September to November. In the Taxaceae, the embryogenesis is similar in Amentotaxus,Austrotaxus, Taxus, and Pseudotaxus; their proembryos form cell wall all at the stage of 16-free nuclei and simple polyembryony is common among them. In Torreya, however, the cell wall of proembryo appear at the stage of 4 or 8-free nuclei, and cleavage polyembryony is its feature. On the basis of our observation, the sexual reproductive cycle of Torreya grandis seems to have two important features, one of which is rather long (31 moths from ovular primordium to seed maturity; about 4 months from pollination to fertilization and 7-8 months for development of proembryo). The state of the long sexual cycle in Amentotaxus and Austrotaxus is different from each other; in the former development of young embryo lasts 10-11 months, and in the latter the interval between pollination and fertilization is 13.5 months. The second feature of the sexual cycle in Torreya grandis is over two winters: development of the sporogenous cells in the first, and the proembryo development in the second. From the point of view of phylogenesis, some primitive characters are present in the sexual cycle of Torreya grandis although a specialized feature of the embryogenesis occurs in some degree.
  • He Guan-Fu, Ma Zhong-Wu, Yin Wan-Fen, Xu Zhi-Ling, Pan Jiong-Guang, Zhu Qi-Cong
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 454-457.
    The chemical components of different genera and species of Taxaceac have been analyzed in order to provide the data for discussion of the systematic position of this family. A characteristic component kayaflavone from the leaves of Torreya grandis cv. ‘Merrillii' has been reported in our previous paper. Recently we have obtained also a new diterpene torreyagrandate from the leaves of this species. The present paper deals with our preliminary study on essential oil composition of the leaves in the same species. 26 components have been identified. Three of them, limonene, α-pinene and δ-3-carene, are the main ones, with their contents being 44.24%, 20.75% and 4% respectively. The essential oilalso contains torreyol which is a characteristiccomponent in this species.
  • Chen Zu-Keng, Wang Fu-Hsiung
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 458-463.
    Except for Pseudolarix, which is endemic to China, the late embryogeny of ten genera of Pinaceae has been reported before in the diffferent degree. Among them the mature embryos of Keteleeria evelyniana are different from those of the others in having well-developed cotyledons and a very short hypocotyl. As far as information we have is concerned there are three types in structure of the mature embryos of Pinaceae. The first type occurs in Keteleeria and Cedrus, which have very well-developed cotyledons; the second one appears in Picea and Larix, in which the hypocotyl and the root cap are equal in length; the third one, to which Pinus bungeana belongs, includes all the other genera of Pinaceae. The last type is of a prominent hypocotyl in the mature embryos. It is interesting to note that the mature embryos of Torreya grandis and Keteleeria evelyniana are very similar in having specially developed cotyledons, while the proportions of the various tissues in the mature embryo in Fokienia of Cupressaceae as well as Taxus and Amentotaxus of Taxaceae are similar to those of Pinus bungeana. The pith and secretory cells are usually present in the mature embryos of Pinaceae. Although no pith is present in those of Metasequoia and Taiwania of Taxodiaceae, the secretory cells generally occur in their embryos in Fokienia of Cupressaceae and Taxus and Pseudotaxus of Taxaceae, neither pith nor secretory cells are present in their hypocotyl. From above, the structures of mature embryos among Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae are different from one another to some degree. The most outstanding feature of the matur embryos in Pinus bungeana is that the shoot apex is very well developed, with a high H/D ratio, about 0.83 on an average, even up to 0.96 in some case. Above-mentioned H/D ratio of Pinus bungeana is rare in the mature embryos of conifers. Gifford (1943) reports that the average H/D ratio of shoot apex of Ephedra altissima is from 0.44 to 0.68, while in 5-year-old branch apex of Pinus ponderosa, the average ratio is about 0.25, and that in l5-year-old branch apex is about 0.35. For the apex of the dormant short shoots of Pinus densiflora the average ratio is about 0.35, but that of shoot apex is about 0.52 when new buds have just formed. According to the present data about shoot apices of both branches and mature embryos, the average ratio of shoot apex of mature embryos in Pinus bungeana is the largest one. From the present investigation the shoot apex of mature embryos of Pinus bungeana exhibits four distinct tissue zones, i.e. the apical initials, the central mother cell zone, the peripheral tissue zone and the rib meristem. It is worthy of note that the shoot apex of Pinus strobus may be divided into five zones, including transition zone between central mother cells and rib meristem (Owston, 1968). Four zones are recognized in the shoot apex of Pinus lambertiana and P. ponderosa, without transition one (Sacher, 1954). From cytological zonation, the shoot apex of mature embryos in Pinus bungeana is rather similar to that of Pinuslambertiana and P. ponderosa.
  • Hu Yu-Shi
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 464-468.
    Comparative investigation on the inner surfaces of needle cuticle of Pinus was made for 17 species and two varieties under SEM. It is shown that the differences in protrusions and depressions of the internal cuticle surfaces of needles in the genus are not remarkable. However, the features of intercellular flanges are rather distinct and three types can be distinguished. They are: (1) Subgen. Strobus (Sweet) Rehd (except Sect. Parrya) is of the Pinus koraiensis type; (2) Subgen. Pinus is of the P. tabulaeformis type; (3) Sect. Parrya Mayr of Subgen. Strobus (Sweet) Rehd is of the P. bungeana type. The character may provide taxonomy of the genus Pinus with a new piece of evidence. Based on the features mentioned above, together with many others, such as wood anatomy, warts of wood tracheids, bark structure, needle anatomy and cuticle structure as well as karyotypic analysis in Pinus, the author considers that division of Pinus into two subgeuera is natural and that separation of Sect. Parrya Mayr from Subgen. Strobus (Sweet) Rehd. and thesubsequent establishment of the subgenus Parrya of its own are also reasonable.
  • Wang Fu-Hsiung, Chen Zu-Keng
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 469-470.
    There are two prothallial cells in Cathaya, but their formation is different from that of the other genera of Pinaceae. A primary prothallial cell is cut off first and the division of this cell gives rise to 2 prothallial cells which remain intact in mature pollen grains. 3-celled pollen grains are formed. The interval between polination and fertilization is about 13 months. The two sperms are different in size.
  • Hu Zhi-Ang, Wang Hong-Xin, Liu Chang-Jiang
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 471-474.
    An analysis of seed protein peptides by using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicates that all members in Taxodiaxeae share three peptides with molecular weights of 24, 32 and 10 kilodaltons. Generally, seeds of this family contain 2 to 4 major peptides, and their molecular weights are distributed in two regions: 24-26 K and 29-36 K respectively. The quantity of these major peptides is near or even more than 50% of seed total protein content. This kind of protein profiles is similar to that of Taxaceae and Cephalotaxaceae rather than to that of Pinaceae. On the other hand, a considerable difference was observed in peptides with higher molecular weights. Among different species within a genus, no difference has been found both in their seed protein profiles and in their needle peroxidases. Based on the data cited here, it seems that the relationships among most genera of Taxodiaceae are not so closed as the rela-tionship among following genera: Sequoia, Sequoiadendron and Taxodium.
  • Hu Zhi-Ang, Wang Hong-Xin
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 475-475.
  • Wang Fu-Hsiung
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 476-476.
  • Chen Wei-Chiu
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(6): 477-478.