Table of Contents

18 August 1986, Volume 24 Issue 4
    Research Articles
  • Xi Yi-Zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 247-252.
    The present study deals with pollen morphology of 4 genera and l0 species of Taxaceae in gymnosperms. Pollen grains of the family are spheroidal or subspheroidal, 20.8μm in diameter and with laptoma or papilla in the distal face. Exine is two-layered, with sexine equal to nexine in thickness, but sometimes the stratification is indistinct. The surface is scabrous or slightly granular under LM. Coarse verrucae and fine tuberculae on pollen surface are observed under SEM. From thin section, endexine is shown to have lamellate structure, and ectexine is made of verrucate elements. In Amentotaxus argotaenia, some pollen grains show remnant saccate. According to pollen morphology, this family may be divided into two tribes: 1, Pseudotaxeae (including Pseudotaxus only), and 2, Taxeae (including Taxus and Torreya). Owirg to the special feature of pollen grains in Amentotaxus the present author suggests that the genus be separated from Taxaceae and raised to the level of family, Amentotaxaceae.
  • 1Jiang Hong, 2Wang Ling
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 253-259.
    By means of disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, peroxidase isoenzymes of 9 species of Cupressus Linn, were analysed. The interspecific zymogramatic differences are obvious. Each species possesses its specific zymogram, distinguishable form the others. According to the zymogramatic similarity among these species calculated with the method of polar ordination, they may be grouped into 5 groups, which may be grouped in turn into two categories. C. gigantea Cheng et L. K. Fu, C. torulosa D. Don, C. duclouxiana Hichel, C. chengiana S. Y. Hu, and C. jiangeensis N. Chao. fall into one category. The second category contains C. sempervirens, C. arizonica Greene, C. lusitanica and C. funebris Endl. The experimental result about peroxidase comfirms the interspecific relationships of Cupressus suggested by the previous works. A positive relation is found between the peroxidases isoenzyme zymogramatic similar degree and the geographical vicarism of the related species, which has been used for analysing the regularity of phytogeographical vicarism. The mean zymogram distance of Cupressus Linn. among species is 0.75, from which it is inferred that the divergency took place the Jurassic. The advantage of polar ordination method in the study of iso-enzyme zymogram is discussed.
  • Hu Zhi-Ang, Wang Hong-Xin, Liu Chang-Jiang, Qian Zhong-Xing
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 260-263.
    The major peptides in the seed of Taxus and Pseudotaxus have molecular weight about 31, 22 and 20 kilodaltons (Kd) shown by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The seed protein peptides of Cephalotaxus is very similar to those of Taxus and Pseudotaxus except a few bands of high molecular weight. Some considerable differences in peptide pattern exist between Amentotaxus and the three genera cited above. The former has a new major peptide, 33K, but lacks 22 K. The seed of Torreya does not contain peptide 44 K, although Torreya and Amentotaxus have many bands in common. To a certain extent, the seed protein peptides of Podocarpus nagi are similar to those of the above taxa. A great range of divergency in needle peroxidases among different genera of Taxaceae has been observed by using electrophoresis, while the zymogram of Cephalotaxus is somewhat similar to that of Taxus. Two series of protein data demonstrate, that there is an evolutionary tendency from Taxus to Torreya through Pseudotaxus and Amentotaxus within Taxaceae. And the Taxaceae is closely related to Cephalotaxus by way of Taxus. The systematic positionof the Taxaceae, therefore, should be placed under the Coniferales.
  • Hong De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 264-267.
    Four populations of the subspecies (one from Mêdog, southern Xizang (Tibet), two from Lunnan, central Yunnan, and the other from Yanqing, Beijing), are shown to have uniform karyotype (Plate I, Table 1, Fig. 1 and 2). Although some differences in arm ratio appear among the four populations, the differences are not stadistically significant as shown with 95% confidence limits (Table 1). The karyotype shown here is extremely similar to the one reported by Suda and Fedan (1980). But the subspecies was reported to have 2n=6 (Kammathy and Rao, 1964) and 2n=12 from northeastern India (Sharma and Sharma, 1958), with both chromosome number and structure (2n=2M+8m(4SAT)+2st) strikingly different from those of Chinese and Japanese materials (Suda and Fedan, 1980), and 2n=48 from Korea. As the localities where our materials and Suda and Fedan's one came from cover almost the whole distribution area of the subspecies, from the western extreme to the eastern extreme, from nearly southernmost part to northernmost part, the present author spaculate that the reports from India and Korea may well be based on misidentified materials. If karyotype formula is used to express the karyotypes of the materials used in this work, they will be 2n=10=2sm+6st(2SAT)+2t (Mêdog, Xizang); 2n=10=2m+ 8st (2SAT)and 2n=10=2sm+8st (2SAT)(Lunan, Yunnan), and 2n=10=2sm+6st (2SAT)+2t (Yanqing, Beijing). As already stated above, however, the differences expressed by the formulae are false ones. Therefore, relative value of karyotype formula should be seriously considered and special caution must be taken when it is used Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
    Sarcolite hypoacusia phasograph albuminoid weanling. Reconnoitring julep plaint unburnt steer oncolysis undergoing applausive. Olfactorium invertibility.
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  • Lan Yang-Zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 268-272.
    Reported in this paper are chromosome numbers of 41 species and varieties of Brassiceae in China, belonging to 5 genera. The chromosome numbers of 15 Species and varieties are first reported and some problems concerning chromosome numbers of Brassiceae are also discussed.
  • Zhai Shi-Hong, Li Mao-Xue
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 273-274.
    The chromosome number of thirteen species of Tamarix L. in China is reported in this paper. All of them have the same number (2n=24) and most of them are reported for the first time except T. hispida, whose chromosome number is the same as previously reported.
  • Wu Young-Fen
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 275-291.
    This paper is a preliminary study on the morphology, taxonomy and geography of Symplocaceae, following the system of H. P. Nooteboom and H. Handel-Mazzetti et E. Peter-Stibal, who divided the genus into two subgenera according to the floral characteristics. But I disagree with Nooteboom's unduly broad specific concept, and adopt Handel-Mazzetti et Peter-Stibal's concept, which usually treated the species of this family according to their habitats in regions in a relatively narrow sense. The genus is divided in the present paper into two subgenera, six sections, among which two are new. Nine new species and three new varieties are described in this paper. Discussions on some taxa are also presented. The family Symplocaceae consists of 300 species in the whole world. They are distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical Asia, Oceania and America. In China there are about 77 species widely distributed in the south-western and south-eastern parts, with only one species, namely Symplocos paniculata (Thunb.) Miq. extending northward to north-eastern part. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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  • Shih Chu
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 292-296.
    Almost no differences are seen in habit and infrescence between the genera Vladimiria and Dolomiaea; the former that was founded on the basis of Jurinea salwinensis Hand.-Mazz. by Iljin should be transferred to the later that was earlier founded on the basis of D. macrocephala DC. by De Candolle. But considering the style which has fine, spreading and apex-acute branches in the group Vladimiria, it is reasonable to treat the group Vladimiria as a section in the genus Dolomiaea, i.e. Dolomiaea sect. Vladimiria (Iljin) Shih. Therefore, the genus Dolomiaea is expanded in the circumscription in the present paper, not only including the primary group with short, compact and apex-rounded style branches, i.e. Dolomiaea sect. Dolomiaea, but also sect. Vladimiria (Iljin) shih with different characters of style-arms. Nine species and 1 variety as new combinations are listed in the sect. Vladimiria (Iljin) Shih as following: D. denticulata (Ling) Shih, D. forrestii (Diels) Shih, D. scabrida (Shih et S. Y. Jin) Shih, D. souliei(Franch.) Shih, D. souliei (Franch) Shih var. mirabilis (Anth.) Shih, D. berardioidea (Franch.) Shih, D. georgii (Anth.) Shih, D. edulis (Franch.) Shih, D. salwinensis (Hand.-Mazz.) Shih and D. platylepis (Hand. -Mazz.) Shih.
  • Zhang Zhi-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 297-303.
    The present paper deals with taxonomic studies on the genera Lathraea Linn. and Christisonia Gard. (Orobanchaceae) in China. In the genus Lathraea, only a single species in China, L. japonica Miq., is recongnized in the paper. It occurs in southern Shaanxi, southern Gansu, southeastern Sichuan, northern Guizhou and northern Guangdong, also in Japan. L. miqueliana Franch. et Sav., L. chinfushanica Hu et Tang and L. japonica Miq. var. miqueliana (Franch. et Sav.) Ohwi are treated as new synonyms of L. japonica Miq. in this paper. In the genus Christisonia, the most of collections from China, which were identified as C. sinensis G. Beck before, are treated as a new synonym of C. hookeri C. B. Clarke. A few collections of this genus from China, which were mistakenly described as Gleadovia lepoense Hu snd G. kwangtungense Hu, should be transferred to Christisonia hookeri C. B. Clarke. It is distributed in southeastern and south China, westwards to the Himalayas.
  • Shan Ren-Hwa, Sheh Meng-Lan, Wang Tieh-Seng, Pu Fa-Ting, Shen Kuan-Mien, Chang Ho-Tseng
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 304-316.
  • Chen Sing-Chi, Lang Kai-Yong
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 317-322.
    Cypripedium subtropicum S. C. Chen et K. Y. Lang is a phytogeographycally significant new species with its habit, inflorescence and column very similar to those of Selenipedilum of tropical America. It is found in Mêdog of southeastern Xizang, China. Its slender leafy stem bears at the summit a many-flowered raceme, amounting to 1.5 m in height. Although its ovary is unilocular—this is the reason why we place it in Cypripedium, the column characters resemble those of Selenipedilum. For example, the staminode is rather small and its long stalk is very similar in texture and color to the filament of the fertile stamens. Obviously, it is a primitive new species related to Selenipedilum based on the similarities mentioned above. In the subfamily Cypripedioideae, as generally recognized, Selenipedilum is the most primitive genus, from which or whose allies Cypripedium is derived. Of phytogeographical significance is the fact that Selenipedilum occurs in Central America and northern South America, while a cypripedium akin to it is discontinuously distributed in subtropical Asia. This suggests that Selenipedilum or Selenipedilum-like form be once continually distributed in North America and eastern Asia when the climate there was warmer, as it is in the subtropics today. The floristic relationship between Central America and subtropical Asia appears to be closer than expected, as shown by the distribution patterns of Tropidia, Erythrodes, etc. Based on the occurrence of all six sections and particularly the most primitive form in eastern Asia, Cypripedium seems to be of Asian, rather than Central American, origin. Selenipedilum possesses some very primitive characters, such as trilocular ovary, vanilla-scented fruit, seed with sclerotic testa, simple column and more or less suffrutescent habit. The latter is considered by Dahlgren & Clifford (1982) to be one of ancestral characters of monocotyledons, which is now very rare not only in Orchidaceae but also in all monocotyledons. It is indeed necessary to make further investigations on Selenipedilum and also the new species pub-lished here, as well as a detailed comparison between them.
  • Tong Shao-Quan
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 323-324.
  • Kung Hsian-Shiu, Wang Pei-Shan
    J Syst Evol. 1986, 24(4): 325-326.