J Syst Evol ›› 2012, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (5): 443-453.doi: 10.1111/j.1759-6831.2012.00202.x

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Limited divergence among populations of rice striped stem borer in southeast China caused by gene flow: Implications for resistance management

1Chao YANG 1Xiao YANG 2Qiang FU 1Kai XU 1Bao-Rong LU*   

  1. 1(Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Handan Road 220, Shanghai 200433, China)
    2(Ministry of Agriculture Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection Center for Genetically Modified Plants in Hangzhou, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, China)
  • Received:2012-02-14 Online:2012-05-04 Published:2012-07-11

Abstract: Rice striped stem borer (RSSB, Chilo suppressalis) is a serious lepidopteron pest occurring in rice ecosystems of Asia and Europe. Genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant Bt rice has been developed to deter lepidopteron pests including RSSB. The concern of resistance evolution to the Bt toxin by the pests under commercial cultivation of GM Bt rice and the need of effective management of the resistance encourage the studies of genetic variation and divergence, as well as gene flow of RSSB populations. We analyzed 13 RSSB populations fed on water-oats or rice plants, respectively, from southeast China applying the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprints. A generally moderate level of genetic variation was detected in the populations, as estimated by Nei's genetic diversity (0.27) and Shannon's index (0.42). The FST and amova values indicated a low level (∼12%) of genetic divergence among the RSSB populations. A relatively frequent gene flow (an average Nm = 2.62) was detected among the 12 RSSB populations, which may explain the limited genetic divergence among the rice-feeding populations. This explanation gains support by the assignment test of the corresponding populations, suggesting that a considerable proportion of individuals was contributed from non-native populations. Our results revealed that the moderate level of genetic diversity combined with relatively frequent gene flow among RSSB populations across a large geographical range may slow down the resistance evolution of the RSSB populations, given that a proper measure of resistance management is taken.

Key words: assignment, Chilo suppressalis, genetic differentiation, migration, molecular fingerprint, polymorphism.

[1] Jing-Jing Sun, Tao Zhou, Rui-Ting Zhang, Yun Jia, Yue-Mei Zhao, Jia Yang, and Gui-Fang Zhao. Comparative transcriptomes and development of expressed sequence tag‐simple sequence repeat markers for two closely related oak species . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(5): 440-450.
[2] Alan Graham. The role of land bridges, ancient environments, and migrations in the assembly of the North American flora . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(5): 405-429.
[3] GaneshPrasad ArunKumar, Lan-Hai Wei, Valampuri John Kavitha, Adhikarla Syama, Varatharajan Santhakumari Arun, Surendra Sathua, Raghunath Sahoo, R. Balakrishnan, Tomo Riba, Jharna Chakravarthy, Bapukan Chaudhury, Premanada Panda, Pradipta K Das, Prasanna K Nayak, Hui Li, Ramasamy Pitchappan, The Genographic Consortium. A late Neolithic expansion of Y chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95 from east to west . J Syst Evol, 2015, 53(6): 546-560.
[4] Zhuo-Jun Song, Zhe Wang, Yang Feng, Nan Yao, Ji Yang, Bao-Rong Lu. Genetic divergence of weedy rice populations associated with their geographic location and coexisting conspecific crop: Implications on adaptive evolution of agricultural weeds . J Syst Evol, 2015, 53(4): 330-338.
[5] Xiang-Guang MA, Cai ZHAO, Chang-Bao WANG, Qian-Long LIANG,Xing-Jin HE. Phylogenetic analyses and chromosome counts reveal multiple cryptic species in Bupleurum commelynoideum (Apiaceae) . J Syst Evol, 2015, 53(1): 104-116.
[6] Yi-Xuan KOU, Yu-Xia WU, Yu-Jin WANG, Dong-Rui JIA, Zhong-Hu LI. Range expansion, genetic differentiation, and phenotypic adaption of Hippophaë neurocarpa (Elaeagnaceae) on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(3): 303-312.
[7] Yi-Ying LIAO, You-Hao GUO, Jin-Ming CHEN, Qing-Feng WANG. Phylogeography of the widespread plant Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) in China indicated by three chloroplast DNA regions . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(2): 175-185.
[8] Liang LENG, De-Xing ZHANG. Time matters: Some interesting properties of the population differentiation measures GST and D overlooked in the equilibrium perspective . J Syst Evol, 2013, 51(1): 44-60.
[9] Jia-Bin ZOU, Xiao-Li PENG, Long LI, Jian-Quan LIU, Georg MIEHE, Lars OPGENOORTH. Molecular phylogeography and evolutionary history of Picea likiangensis in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau inferred from mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequence variation . J Syst Evol, 2012, 50(4): 341-350.
[10] Ping LIU, Xing-Xing CAI, Bao-Rong LU. Single-seeded InDel fingerprints in rice: An effective tool for indica-japonica rice classification and evolutionary studies . J Syst Evol, 2012, 50(1): 1-11.
[11] Jun-Xia YUAN, Jin PAN, Bao-Sheng WANG, Da-Ming ZHANG. Genetic differentiation of Wolffia globosa in China . J Syst Evol, 2011, 49(6): 509-517.
[12] Yu-Rong DU, Song-Chang GUO, Zhao-Feng WANG,Hai-Xing CI,Zhen-Yuan CAI,Qian ZHANG,Jian-Ping SU, Jian-Quan LIU. Demographic history of the Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni (chiru) . J Syst Evol, 2010, 48(6): 490-496.
[13] Yuan HUANG, Chang-Qin ZHANG, De-Zhu LI. Low genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation in the critically endangered Omphalogramma souliei (Primulaceae): implications for its conservation . J Syst Evol, 2009, 47(2): 103-109.
[14] ZHAO Gui-Fang, Francois Felber, Philippe Kuepfer. Subpopulation differentiation of Anthoxanthum alpinum (Poaceae) along an altitudinal gradient detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA . J Syst Evol, 2000, 38(1): 64-70.
[15] Lu Ling-ti. The Evolution and Distribution of Subfam. Spiraeoideae (Rosaceae) of China, with Special Reference to Distribution of the Subfamily in the World . J Syst Evol, 1996, 34(4): 361-375.
Full text



[1] Jianguo Wu, Jiajia Lü, Qiaofu Zhou. Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Six Desert Plants in China[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2010, 45(06): 723 -738 .
[2] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 39 .
[3] Zhang Peng-Zhi Xu Ji-zhen Zhang Yu-hua Wang Hong-da. Influences of the Cold-Resister on the Germination of Vegetable Seeds and the Growth of Cabbage[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(特辑): 152 -153 .
[4] Gao Lan and Zhang Zhi-yu. The Chromosome Numbers of Some Seed Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(01): 45 -46 .
[5] Haiyan Pei, Xinchun Lin, Wei Fang, Lichun Huang. A Preliminary Study of Somatic Embryogenesis of Phyllostachys violascens In Vitro[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2011, 46(2): 170 -178 .
[6] . Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oils Isolated from Leaves of Mentha × piperita, M. haplocalyx and M. × gentilis[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2011, 46(1): 37 -43 .
[7] Jiang Yue-ling and Pan Rui-chi. Effects of Indole Butyric Acid, Naphthoxyacatic Acid and PP333 on Root of Hypocotyl Cuttings of Mumg Bean Seedlings[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(增刊): 57 -58 .
[8] Chen Shao-yu. Membrane-Lipid Peroxidation and Plant Stress[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1989, 6(04): 211 -217 .
[9] Yang Li-rui and Cheng Mu-chu. Relationship between Plant Stress Resistance and Photorespiration[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1991, 8(01): 43 -47 .
[10] Lingcheng Jian;Hong Wang. Ca2+ Signaling in Plant Cell Response and Adaptation to Low Temperature, Drought and Salt Stresses[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2008, 25(03): 257 -267 .