J Syst Evol ›› 2014, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (6): 794-806.doi: 10.1111/jse.12107

• Reviews & Research Articles • Previous Articles    

Epichloë fungal endophytes and the formation of synthetic symbioses in Hordeeae (=Triticeae) grasses

1,2Wayne R. SIMPSON* 1Marty J. FAVILLE 1Roger A. MORAGA 1,2Warren M. WILLIAMS 2Michael T. MCMANUS 1Richard D. JOHNSON   

  1. 1(AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand)
    2(Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand)
  • Received:2014-02-14 Online:2014-04-30 Published:2014-11-13

Abstract: This review examines two classes of organism that live in symbiosis; grasses, and fungi. Specifically it deals with grasses of the tribe Hordeeae (formerly Triticeae) of the subfamily Poöideae and the Epichloë fungi of family Clavicipitaceae. Epichloë endophytes, particularly asexual forms, have important roles in pastoral agricultural systems in the Americas, Australia, and New Zealand. Selected strains add value to some grass-based forage systems by providing both biotic and abiotic stress resistance. The importance of cereal grasses such as wheat, barley, rye, and oats to human and animal nutrition and indeed to the foundation and maintenance of human civilization is well documented. Both organism classes, Epichloë endophytes and cereal grasses, are of great importance in their own contexts. Here, we seek to review these two classes of organism and examine the possibility of bringing them together in symbiosis with the ultimate goal of improving cereal production systems.

Key words: endophyte, Epichloë, Hordeeae, Neotyphodium, Poö, ideae, symbiosis, Triticeae.

[1] Qian-Ru Zhao, Jing Zhou, Hua Peng, and Zhen-Wen Liu. Resurrection of the East Asian genus Eremotropa (Monotropoideae, Ericaceae), based on molecular and morphological data . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(1): 75-80.
[2] Ming-He Li, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Si-Ren Lan, Zhong-Jian Liu, China Phylogeny Consortium. A molecular phylogeny of Chinese orchids . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(4): 349-362.
[3] Xiao-Yan Liu, Qi Gao, Jian-Hua Jin. Late Eocene leaves of Nageia (section Dammaroideae) from Maoming Basin, South China and their implications on phytogeography . J Syst Evol, 2015, 53(4): 297-307.
[4] AJ Harris, Sue Lutz, Pedro Acevedo, Jun Wen. The utility of the morphological variation of pollen for resolving the evolutionary history of Billia (subfam. Hippocastanoideae, Sapindaceae) . J Syst Evol, 2015, 53(3): 228-238.
[5] Mary E. BARKWORTH, Roland von BOTHMER. History of the Triticeae Symposia . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(6): 667-672.
[6] Yun-Rui MAO, Yong-Hua ZHANG, Koh NAKAMURA, Bi-Cai GUAN, Ying-Xiong QIU. Developing DNA barcodes for species identification in Podophylloideae (Berberidaceae) . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(4): 487-499.
[7] Changkyun KIM, Hong-Guang ZHA, Tao DENG, Hang SUN, Su-Gong WU. Phylogenetic position of Kontumia (Polypodiaceae) inferred from four chloroplast DNA regions . J Syst Evol, 2013, 51(2): 154-163.
[8] Jinling HUANG, Jipei YUE. Horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes . J Syst Evol, 2013, 51(1): 13-29.
[9] Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB, Ahmad Mohammad M., MEKAWY, Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetical relationships by Giemsa C-banding . J Syst Evol, 2012, 50(1): 58-63.
[10] He REN, Lu LU, Hong WANG, De-Zhu LI. DNA Barcoding of Gaultheria L. in China (Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae) . J Syst Evol, 2011, 49(5): 411-424.
[11] Paul Pui-Hay BUT, Alice Wing-Sem POON, Pang-Chui SHAW, Mark P. SIMMONS, Harald GREGER. Contribution of molecular cladistics to the taxonomy of Rutaceae in China* . J Syst Evol, 2009, 47(2): 144-150.
[12] 1Jia-Xi LIU; 2Yi-Zhen XI*; 2Yu-Long ZHANG; 2Jian-Chang NING; 1Xiao-Rui LIU. Pollen morphology of Heliotropioideae in Boraginaceae from China and its systematic significance . J Syst Evol, 2008, 46(6): 891-898.
[13] CHEN Song-He, WANG Zhen-Zhong. Drepanostachyum stoloniforme S. H. Chen & Z. Z. Wang, a new species of Bambusoideae from China . J Syst Evol, 2007, 45(3): 307-310.
[14] TANG Sai-Chun, XIA Nian-He, LIN Ru-Shun. Morphological development of the spikelet and the floret in Dendrocalamus ronganensis (Gramineae: Bambusoideae) . J Syst Evol, 2006, 44(5): 551-558.
[15] LU Shu-Gang, LI Chun-Xiang. Phylogenetic position of the monotypic genus Metapolypo- dium Ching endemic to Asia: evidence from chloroplast DNA sequences of rbcL gene and rps4-trnS region . J Syst Evol, 2006, 44(5): 494-502.
Full text



[1] WANG You-Qun and DU Zhong. Two Simple Methods for observing of the Vessels and Sieve Tubes[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1999, 16(05): 618 -621 .
[2] Zhiying Sun;Jiqing Zheng;Fazeng Li* . Taxonomic Position of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae): Evidence from Seed-coat Micromorphology and Chloroplast DNA trnL-F Sequencing[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2008, 25(05): 565 -573 .
[3] . Progresses on Transcription Factors Related to Plant Stress-Tolerance[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2004, 21(06): 700 -708 .
[4] Qijiang Xu;Lufei Guan;Xiaonü Wu;Li Sun;Wenbo Tan;Yuzhe Nie;Yuhua Li. Cloning and Expression Analysis of MADS-box Genes from Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum)[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2008, 25(04): 415 -429 .
[5] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(专辑): 59 -62 .
[6] SUN Bao-Wei, YANG Xiao-Dong, ZHANG Zhi-Hao, MA Wen-Ji, Ali ARSHAD, HUANG Hai-Xia, YAN En-Rong. Relationships between soil carbon pool and vegetation carbon return through succession of evergreen broad-leaved forests in Tiantong region, Zhejiang Province, Eastern China[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2013, 37(9): 803 -810 .
[7] Hui Liu, Danli Guo, Darun Cai, Xianzhong Huang. Heterologous overexpression of ApZFP Promotes Flowering and Improves Abiotic Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2016, 51(3): 296 -305 .
[8] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 51 .
[9] WANG Guo-Dong CHEN Xiao-Ya. The Properties, Functions, Catalytic Mechanism and Applicability of Laccase[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(04): 469 -475 .
[10] . [J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 1964, (2): 246 -252 .