J Syst Evol ›› 2018, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (3): 231-242.doi: 10.1111/jse.12306

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Towards a better understanding of the Chenopodium album aggregate (Amaranthaceae) in the Middle East: A karyological, cytometric and morphometric investigation

Farzaneh Habibi1,2, Petr Vít1,3, Mohammadreza Rahiminejad2, and Bohumil Mandák1,3*   

  1. 1The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany, Zámek 1, CZ-252 43, Průhonice, Czech Republic 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran 3Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Praha 6 – Suchdol, CZ-165 21, Czech Republic
  • Received:2017-12-11 Accepted:2018-01-31 Online:2018-07-11 Published:2018-05-10

Abstract:

The study of variation in nuclear genome size, especially when combined with common garden experiments, significantly contributes to disentangling interspecies relationships within taxonomically complicated plant groups. The Chenopodium album aggregate is among the morphologically most variable groups and consists of many weakly differentiated cosmopolitan entities. We analysed nuclear genome size variation in diploid and polyploid species of the aggregate from Iran using flow cytometry of 282 accessions from 88 populations of 7 species. To this end, we also determined chromosome numbers and performed a morphometric study to reveal the extent of intraspecific morphological variation. We found that Iranian species are exclusively diploid (C. vulvaria), tetraploid (C. novopokrovskyanum, C. strictum, C. sosnowskyi and C. chaldoranicum) or hexaploid (C. album subsp. album, C. album subsp. iranicum and C. opulifolium). Six homogeneous relative genome size groups were distinguished among the species studied. Our morphometric study surprisingly revealed that under similar ecological conditions Chenopodium species are morphologically stable and well distinguishable, exhibited very little morphological variation. Hence, immense variation in leaf shapes, branching and inflorescence organization seen in the field has not been repeated under greenhouse conditions. The only exception was C. album s. str. which exhibited numerous morphotypes, covering the variation of remaining species.

Key words: Chenopodium, chromosome numbers, flow cytometry, multivariate morphometrics, taxonomy.

[1] Gisela M. Via do Pico, Yanina J. Pérez, María B. Angulo, and Massimiliano Dematteis. Cytotaxonomy and geographic distribution of cytotypes of species of the South American genus Chrysolaena (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(5): 451-467.
[2] Zhao-Fu Chu, Jun Wen, Yong-Ping Yang, Ze-Long Nie, Ying Meng. Genome size variation and evolution in the grape family Vitaceae . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(4): 273-282.
[3] Partha Sarathi Saha, Mainak Sengupta, Sumita Jha. Ribosomal DNA ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 secondary structure, nuclear DNA content and phytochemical analyses reveal distinctive characteristics of four subclades of Protasparagus . J Syst Evol, 2017, 55(1): 54-70.
[4] Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Susanne S. Renner. The Gnetales: Recent insights on their morphology, reproductive biology, chromosome numbers, biogeography, and divergence times . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(1): 1-16.
[5] Zi-Yi CHEN, Zhu-Jun XIONG, Xiao-Yun PAN, Su-Qin SHEN, Yu-Peng GENG, Cheng-Yuan XU, Jia-Kuan CHEN, Wen-Ju ZHANG. Variation of genome size and the ribosomal DNA ITS region of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Amaranthaceae) in Argentina, the USA, and China . J Syst Evol, 2015, 53(1): 82-87.
[6] Hai-Qin ZHANG, Rui-Wu YANG, Cai-Rong YANG,Yan HUANG,Xing FAN,Li-Na SHA,Hou-Yang KANG,Yi WANG, Yong-Hong ZHOU. What became of Hystrix? . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(6): 712-715.
[7] Xue-Ping Wei, Xian-Chun Zhang. Species delimitation in the fern genus Lemmaphyllum (Polypodiaceae) based on multivariate analysis of morphological variation . J Syst Evol, 2013, 51(4): 485-496.
[8] Jing LI, Qian WAN, Richard J. ABBOTT, Guang-Yuan RAO. Geographical distribution of cytotypes in the Chrysanthemum indicum complex as evidenced by ploidy level and genome-size variation . J Syst Evol, 2013, 51(2): 196-204.
[9] Li-Song WANG. A revision of the genus Pternopetalum Franch. (Apiaceae) . J Syst Evol, 2012, 50(6): 550-572.
[10] Syed Mudassir JEELANI, Santosh KUMARI, Raghbir Chand GUPTA. Meiotic studies in some selected angiosperms from the Kashmir Himalayas . J Syst Evol, 2012, 50(3): 244-257.
[11] Saúl BLANCO, Irene ÁLVAREZ-BLANCO,Cristina CEJUDO-FIGUEIRAS,Eloy BÉCARES. Contribution to the diatom flora of Cambodia: Five new recent freshwater taxa . J Syst Evol, 2012, 50(3): 258-266.
[12] Ying-Wen SHENG, Wen ZHANG, Dan ZHAO, Hong-Wei WANG. A morphological and molecular assessment of the genus Sinotubimorpha (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) . J Syst Evol, 2012, 50(2): 146-152.
[13] Beata PASZKO, Haiying MA. Taxonomic revision of the Calamagrostis epigeios complex with particular reference to China . J Syst Evol, 2011, 49(5): 495-504.
[14] Li-Li ZANG, Xin-Hui ZOU, Fu-Min ZHANG, Ziheng YANG, Song GE. Phylogeny and species delimitation of the C-genome diploid species in Oryza . J Syst Evol, 2011, 49(5): 386-395.
[15] Ongkarn VANIJAJIVA, Joachim W. KADEREIT. A revision of Gynura (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) . J Syst Evol, 2011, 49(4): 285-314.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Zhang Zhen-jue. Some Principles Governing Shedding of Flowers and Fruits in Vanilla fragrans[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(05): 36 -37 .
[2] Qian Gao;Yuying Liu;Yinan Fei;Dapeng Li;Xianglin Liu* . Research Advances into the Root Radial Patterning Gene SHORT-ROOT[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2008, 25(03): 363 -372 .
[3] Wang Bao-shan;Zou Qi and Zhao Ke-fu. Advances in Mechanism of Crop Salt Tolerance and Strategies for Raising Crop Salt Tolerance[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1997, 14(增刊): 25 -30 .
[4] HE Feng WU Zhen-Bin. Application of Aquatic Plants in Sewage Treatment and Water Quality Improvement[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2003, 20(06): 641 -647 .
[5] TIAN Bao-Lin WANG Shi-Jun LI Cheng-Sen CHEN Gui-Ren. An Approach on the Origin Center, Evolution Center and the Mechanics of Evolution and Extinction of the Late Palaeozoic Cathaysian Flora[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(专辑): 21 -33 .
[6] ZHANG Yan FANG Li LI Tian-Fei YAO Zhao-BingJIANG Jin-Hui. Effect of Calcium on the Heat Tolerance and Active Oxygen Metabolism of Tobacco Leaves[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2002, 19(06): 721 -726 .
[7] JIA Hu-Sen LI De-QuanHAN Ya-Qin. Cytochrome b-559 in Chloroplasts[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(02): 158 -162 .
[8] Wei Sun;Chonghui Li;Liangsheng Wang;Silan Dai*. Analysis of Anthocyanins and Flavones in Different-colored Flowers of Chrysanthemum[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2010, 45(03): 327 -336 .
[9] Dapeng Li;Min Zhang;Qian Gao;Yong Hu;Yikun He*. An Emerging Picture of Plastid Division in Higher Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2009, 44(01): 43 -51 .
[10] . Phosphate_Stress Protein and Iron_Stress Protein in Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2001, 18(05): 571 -576 .