J Syst Evol ›› 2020, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (2): 189-199.doi: 10.1111/jse.12489

• Research Articles • Previous Articles    

Phenology and polyploidy in annual Brachypodium species (Poaceae) along the aridity gradient in Israel

Shira Penner1,2, Barak Dror1,2†, Iris Aviezer1,2‡, Yamit Bar-Lev1,2, Ayelet Salman-Minkov2, Terezie Mandakova3, Petr Šmarda4, Itay Mayrose2, and Yuval Sapir1,2*   

  1. 1Tel Aviv University Botanical Garden, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    2School of Plant Sciences and Food Security, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    3Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), and Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, CZ-62500, Czech Republic
    4Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Brno, CZ-61137, Czech Republic
  • Received:2018-08-08 Accepted:2019-02-20 Online:2019-03-03 Published:2020-03-01

Abstract:

Local adaptation of plants along environmental gradients provides strong evidence for clinal evolution mediated by natural selection. Plants have developed diverse strategies to mitigate stress, for example, drought escape is a phenological strategy to avoid drought stress, while polyploidy was proposed as a genomic adaptation to stress. Polyploidy as an adaptation to aridity (an environmental parameter integrating temperature and precipitation) was previously documented in annual Brachypodium spp. (Poaceae) in the Western Mediterranean. Here, we examined whether polyploidy or phenology are associated with aridity in annual Brachypodium spp. along the aridity gradient in the Eastern Mediterranean. Using flow cytometry, we determined ploidy levels of plants from natural populations along the Israeli gradient, spanning ∼424 km from mesic Mediterranean to extreme desert climates. In a common garden we recorded time of seedling emergence, flowering and senescence. We tested whether the proportion of allotetraploids in the populations and phenological traits were associated with aridity. Contrary to a previous study in the Western Mediterranean, we found no effect of aridity on the proportion of allotetraploids and diploids within populations. Interestingly, phenology was associated with aridity: time of emergence was later, while flowering and senescence were earlier in desert plants. Our results indicate that in the Eastern Mediterranean, adaptation of Brachypodium to aridity is mediated mainly by phenology, rather than ploidy level. Therefore, we suggest that genome duplication is not the main driver of adaptation to environmental stress; rather, phenological change as a drought escape mechanism may be the major adaptation.

Key words: abiotic stress, adaptation,  Brachypodium, climatic gradient, polyploidy

[1] Gisela M. Via do Pico, Yanina J. Pérez, María B. Angulo, and Massimiliano Dematteis. Cytotaxonomy and geographic distribution of cytotypes of species of the South American genus Chrysolaena (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(5): 451-467.
[2] Stanislav Španiel, Karol Marhold and Judita Zozomová-Lihová. Polyphyletic Alyssum cuneifolium (Brassicaceae) revisited: Morphological and genome size differentiation of recently recognized allopatric taxa . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(3): 287-301.
[3] Chang-Qiu Liu, Hang Sun. Pollination in Lilium sargentiae (Liliaceae) and the first confirmation of long-tongued hawkmoths as a pollinator niche in Asia . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(1): 81-88.
[4] Claudia Paetzold, Michael Kiehn, Kenneth R. Wood, Warren L. Wagner, and Marc S. Appelhans. The odd one out or a hidden generalist: Hawaiian Melicope (Rutaceae) do not share traits associated with successful island colonization . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(6): 621-636.
[5] Nattapon Nopporncharoenkul, Jatuporn Chanmai, Thaya Jenjittikul, Kesara Anamthawat-Jónsson, Puangpaka Soontornchainaksaeng. Chromosome number variation and polyploidy in 19 Kaempferia (Zingiberaceae) taxa from Thailand and one species from Laos . J Syst Evol, 2017, 55(5): 466-476.
[6] Harald Schneider, Hong-Mei Liu, Yan-Fen Chang, Daniel Ohlsen, Leon R. Perrie, Lara Shepherd, Michael Kessler, Dirk Karger, Sabine Hennequin, Jeannine Marquardt, Stephen Russell, Stephen Ansell, Ngan Thi Lu, Peris Kamau, Josmaily Lóriga Pineiro, Ledis Regalado, Jochen Heinrichs, Atsushi Ebihara, Alan R. Smith, Mary Gibby. Neo- and Paleopolyploidy contribute to the species diversity of Asplenium—the most species-rich genus of ferns . J Syst Evol, 2017, 55(4): 353-364.
[7] Jonathan P. Spoelhof, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis. Pure polyploidy: Closing the gaps in autopolyploid research . J Syst Evol, 2017, 55(4): 340-352.
[8] Sue Sherman-Broyles, Aureliano Bombarely, Jeff Doyle. Characterizing the allopolyploid species among the wild relatives of soybean: Utility of reduced representation genotyping methodologies . J Syst Evol, 2017, 55(4): 365-376.
[9] Michael Kessler, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Jürgen Kluge. Elevational diversity patterns as an example for evolutionary and ecological dynamics in ferns and lycophytes . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(6): 617-625.
[10] Erin M. Sigel. Genetic and genomic aspects of hybridization in ferns . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(6): 638-655.
[11] Xiao-Ming Zheng, Fu-Qing Wu, Xin Zhang, Qi-Bing Lin, Jie Wang, Xiu-Ping Guo, Cai-Lin Lei, Zhi-Jun Cheng, Cheng Zou, Jian-Min Wan. Evolution of the PEBP gene family and selective signature on FT-like clade . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(5): 502-510.
[12] Li-Na Sha, Xing Fan, Hai-Qin Zhang, Hou-Yang Kang, Yi Wang, Xiao-Li Wang, Xiao-Fang Yu, Yong-Hong Zhou. Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the DMC1 gene in the polyploid genus Leymus (Triticeae: Poaceae) and its diploid relatives . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(3): 250-263.
[13] Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Susanne S. Renner. The Gnetales: Recent insights on their morphology, reproductive biology, chromosome numbers, biogeography, and divergence times . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(1): 1-16.
[14] Weronika B. Żukowska, Witold Wachowiak. Utility of closely related taxa for genetic studies of adaptive variation and speciation: Current state and perspectives in plants with focus on forest tree species . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(1): 17-28.
[15] Zhe-Chen Qi, Yi Yu, Xiang Liu, Andrew Pais, Thomas Ranney, Ross Whetten, Qiu-Yun (Jenny) Xiang. Phylogenomics of polyploid Fothergilla (Hamamelidaceae) by RAD-tag based GBS—insights into species origin and effects of software pipelines . J Syst Evol, 2015, 53(5): 432-447.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Yan Xiao-hua Cai Zhu-ping. Effects of S-07, PP333 and Triadimefon on Peroxidaseisoentyme of Rice Seedling[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(专辑3): 109 -112 .
[2] . [J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(专辑): 13 .
[3] Xiaomin Yu;Xingguo Lan;Yuhua Li. The Ub/26S Proteasome Pathway and Self-incompatible Responses in Flowering Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2006, 23(2): 197 -206 .
[4] WANG Ling-Li LIU Wen-Zhe. Contents of Camptothecin in Camptotheca acuminata from Different Provenances[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(05): 584 -589 .
[5] Dai Yun-ling and Xu Chun-hui. Advances in Research on Protein Components of Oxygen-evolving Complex[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1992, 9(03): 1 -16 .
[6] . Advances in Research on Photosynthesis of Submerged Macrophytes[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2005, 22(增刊): 128 -138 .
[7] Shaobin Zhang;Guoqin Liu. Research Advances in Plant Actin Isoforms[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2006, 23(3): 242 -248 .
[8] BU Ren-Cang, CHANG Yu, HU Yuan-Man, LI Xiu-Zhen, HE Hong-Shi. SENSITIVITY OF CONIFEROUS TREES TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AT DIFFERENT SCALES IN THE SMALL XING’AN MOUNTAINS, CHINA[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2008, 32(1): 80 -87 .
[9] MA Li-Hui, WU Pu-Te, and WANG You-Ke. Spatial pattern of root systems of dense jujube plantation with jujube age in the semiarid loess hilly region of China[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2012, 36(4): 292 -301 .
[10] PAN Yu-De, Melillo J. M., Kicklighter D. W., XIAO Xiang-Ming, McGuire A. D.. Modeling Structural and Functional Responses of Terrestria Ecosystems in China to Changes in Climate and Atmospheric CO2[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2001, 25(2): 175 -189 .