J Syst Evol ›› 2008, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (6): 861-873.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1002.2008.08002

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Adaptive significances of sexual system in andromonoecious Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae)

Tao ZHANG; Dun-Yan TAN *   

  1. (Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Grassland Resources and Ecology, College of Grassland and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Ürümqi 830052, China)tandunyan@163.com
  • Received:2008-01-10 Online:2008-09-24 Published:2008-11-18

Abstract: The sexual system of the perennial shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae), which is distributed in arid deserts of northern Xinjiang, was investigated. The main results can be summarized as follows. (1) The species is andromonoecious, i.e. individuals possess both male and perfect flowers. Stamens of two floral morphs are normal and can be divided into long and short ones in each flower. The perfect flowers have well developed pistils, but male flowers have aborted pistils and only function as males. (2) There were very significant differ-ences among the populations in daily ratio of the two floral morphs, number of long and short stamens of perfect flowers and length of filaments and anthers of short stamens in male flowers (P<0.01), but no significant differ-ences occurred in biomass of floral organ (P>0.05). (3) Anthesis was nocturnal and lasted 15–16 h. Both male and perfect flowers opened about 18:00 at dusk. The number of two floral morphs produced on each individual was indeterminate every day during flowering, which would make the individual temporally androdioecious. However, the total number of male flowers was more than that of perfect flowers within the population every day. (4) The P/O ratios of perfect flowers in three populations were 1.57×104, 1.65×104 and 1.71×104. There was no significant difference in pollen numbers (P>0.05) within population between male and perfect flowers or between long and short stamens, and also no significant difference among the populations in pollen numbers of male and perfect flowers, and in ovule numbers and P/O ratios of perfect flowers (P>0.05). (5) Dynamic curves of pollen viability of long and short stamens in the two floral morphs were similar in three populations. Pollen longevity of both long and short stamens was about 18–20 h, and duration of stigmatic receptivity was about 16–18 h. (6) Floral visitors were hymenopterous and lepidopterous insects. There was a total of seven species of floral visitors in the three populations. The activities of them were greatly affected by the climate of the desert environment. (7) Perfect flowers were not apomictic and could produce fruits after self-pollination (autogamy and geitonogamy) and cross-pollination; thus they had a mixed mating system. These results suggest that the sexual system of andro-monoecy may reflect an environment-heredity interaction in C. spinosa. The male flowers increase the number of pollen grains, the P/O ratio and enhance male fitness of individuals. They also increase the floral display and consequently effect cross pollination by attracting more pollinators that bring cross-pollen to the stigmas of per-fect flowers, thus increase outcrossing rate and female fitness of individuals, which insure reproductive success of C. spinosa in the extreme desert environment.

Key words: adaptation, andromonoecy, Capparis spinosa L., desert environment, mixed mating system, reproductive success

[1] Shira Penner, Barak Dror, Iris Aviezer, Yamit Bar-Lev, Ayelet Salman-Minkov, Terezie Mandakova, Petr Šmarda, Itay Mayrose, and Yuval Sapir. Phenology and polyploidy in annual Brachypodium species (Poaceae) along the aridity gradient in Israel . J Syst Evol, 2020, 58(2): 189-199.
[2] Chang-Qiu Liu, Hang Sun. Pollination in Lilium sargentiae (Liliaceae) and the first confirmation of long-tongued hawkmoths as a pollinator niche in Asia . J Syst Evol, 2019, 57(1): 81-88.
[3] Zhi-Huan Huang, Wen-Hua Luo, Shi-Xun Huang, Shuang-Quan Huang. Sunbirds serve as major pollinators for various populations of Firmiana kwangsiensis, a tree endemic to South China . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(3): 243-249.
[4] Wen-Kui Dai, Edwin Luguba Kadiori, Qing-Feng Wang, Chun-Feng Yang. Pollen limitation, plasticity in floral traits, and mixed mating system in an alpine plant Pedicularis siphonantha (Orobanchaceae) from different altitudes . J Syst Evol, 2017, 55(3): 192-199.
[5] Michael Kessler, Dirk Nikolaus Karger, Jürgen Kluge. Elevational diversity patterns as an example for evolutionary and ecological dynamics in ferns and lycophytes . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(6): 617-625.
[6] Xiao-Ming Zheng, Fu-Qing Wu, Xin Zhang, Qi-Bing Lin, Jie Wang, Xiu-Ping Guo, Cai-Lin Lei, Zhi-Jun Cheng, Cheng Zou, Jian-Min Wan. Evolution of the PEBP gene family and selective signature on FT-like clade . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(5): 502-510.
[7] Weronika B. Żukowska, Witold Wachowiak. Utility of closely related taxa for genetic studies of adaptive variation and speciation: Current state and perspectives in plants with focus on forest tree species . J Syst Evol, 2016, 54(1): 17-28.
[8] Jutta C. BURGER, Norman C. ELLSTRAND. Rapid evolutionary divergence of an invasive weed from its crop ancestor and evidence for local diversification . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(6): 750-764.
[9] Yong-Peng MA, Xiao-Ling TIAN, Jing-Li ZHANG, Zhi-Kun WU, Wei-Bang SUN. Evidence for natural hybridization between Primula beesiana and P. bulleyana, two heterostylous primroses in NW Yunnan, China . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(4): 500-507.
[10] Hang SUN, Yang NIU, Yong-Sheng CHEN, Bo SONG, Chang-Qiu LIU, De-Li PENG, Jian-Guo CHEN, Yang YANG. Survival and reproduction of plant species in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(3): 378-396.
[11] Aysajan ABDUSALAM, Dun-Yan TAN. Contribution of temporal floral closure to reproductive success of the spring-flowering Tulipa iliensis . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(2): 186-194.
[12] Shi-Guo SUN, Chi-Yuan YAO. Increased seed set in down slope-facing flowers of Lilium duchartrei . J Syst Evol, 2013, 51(4): 405-412.
[13] Claire M. LORTS, Trevor BRIGGEMAN, Tao SANG. Evolution of fruit types and seed dispersal:A phylogenetic and ecological snapshot . J Syst Evol, 2008, 46(3): 396-404.
[14] Zhang Ming-li. The Geographic Distribution of the Genus Caragana in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and Himalayas . J Syst Evol, 1997, 35(2): 136-147.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Baoda Han;Lixin Li. Seed Storage Proteins and Their Intracellular Transport and Processing[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2010, 45(04): 492 -505 .
[2] Zhao Hui-Xiang. Induction of Plantlets from Endosperm of “JINFENG” Pear in Vitro[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1983, 1(02): 38 -39 .
[3] Cai Ji-jiong. Tissue Conductance Technique of Plant Specimens[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1988, 5(02): 117 -118 .
[4] Zhou Guo-xia. Effects of the Cold-resister CR-4 for Defending the Seedling Blight in Early Spring Rice Seedling Culture[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1994, 11(特辑): 121 -122 .
[5] Xiaojun Xi, Jing Cao, Jinfeng Zhang, Dengrong Zhang. Study on Drought Resistance of Abies concolor[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2008, 25(06): 722 -727 .
[6] Jing Wang Ting Wang. Molecular Structure, Physiological Function and Evolution of Phytochrome in Higher Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2007, 24(05): 649 -658 .
[7] Hongfei Zhang Suomin Wang. Advances in Study of Na+ Uptake and Transport in Higher Plants and Na+ Homeostasis in the Cell[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2007, 24(05): 561 -571 .
[8] Lin Chun-jian. Polar Auxin Transport[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(04): 1 -5 .
[9] LIANG Yu GAO Yu-Bao. Effects of Endophyte Infection on Growth,Development and Stress Resistance of Plants[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(01): 52 -59 .
[10] Hu yu-fan and zhu Jia-nan. New Information on the Coal Series of Gigantopterid[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1990, 7(04): 49 -50 .