J Syst Evol ›› 2013, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (4): 405-412.doi: 10.1111/jse.12002

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Increased seed set in down slope-facing flowers of Lilium duchartrei

Shi-Guo SUN* Chi-Yuan YAO   

  1. (College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China)
  • Received:2012-11-16 Online:2012-12-17 Published:2013-03-19

Abstract: Flower orientation has been considered one aspect of floral attraction. Plants growing on slopes should orientate their flowers facing down slope towards greater open space to enhance reproduction by attracting more pollinators. Flower angle and floral symmetry may affect this pattern; for example, this trend would be overshadowed in vertical/pendent flowers with radial symmetry because the flowers can attract pollinators and provide landing platforms from many directions. We investigated this hypothesis in Lilium duchartrei, a herb with pendent and actinomorphic flowers, in the Hengduan Mountains region of China by measuring flower direction for individuals growing on flat ground and on slopes. We also changed flower direction from facing down to up slope to test the effects on pollinator visitation frequency and subsequent plant reproduction. Plants growing on flat ground orientate their flowers equally towards the four geomagnetic directions, whereas the flowers on individuals growing on slopes preferentially face down slope. This pattern was more pronounced for individuals growing on steeper slopes. There was a positive correlation between slope angle and the seed set of flowers facing down slope (control), but a negative correlation between seed set and flowers facing up slope. The visitation frequency also tended to be higher for control flowers on steeper slopes and lower for those flowers changed to face up slope. Unexpectedly, floral direction was not affected by flower angle or floral symmetry. The results suggest that a down slope orientation of flowers could function to improve pollination in heterogeneous pollination environments.

Key words: down-slope orientation, flower direction, Lilium duchartrei, reproductive success, slope angle.

[1] Zhi-Huan Huang, Wen-Hua Luo, Shi-Xun Huang, Shuang-Quan Huang. Sunbirds serve as major pollinators for various populations of Firmiana kwangsiensis, a tree endemic to South China . J Syst Evol, 2018, 56(3): 243-249.
[2] Yong-Peng MA, Xiao-Ling TIAN, Jing-Li ZHANG, Zhi-Kun WU, Wei-Bang SUN. Evidence for natural hybridization between Primula beesiana and P. bulleyana, two heterostylous primroses in NW Yunnan, China . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(4): 500-507.
[3] Aysajan ABDUSALAM, Dun-Yan TAN. Contribution of temporal floral closure to reproductive success of the spring-flowering Tulipa iliensis . J Syst Evol, 2014, 52(2): 186-194.
[4] Tao ZHANG; Dun-Yan TAN *. Adaptive significances of sexual system in andromonoecious Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) . J Syst Evol, 2008, 46(6): 861-873.
Full text



[1] WENG De-Bao WANG Hai-Feng WENG Jia-Ying. Studies on Flavonoids in the Inflorescence of Celosia argentea L.[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2000, 17(06): 565 -568 .
[2] Wu Xian-jun;Li Ping;Wang Qian;Li Chao-luan;Huang Rong and Cheng Fa-ling. Preliminary investigation on development of male and female gametophytes in Cycas Panzhihuaensis L. Zhou et S. Y. Yang[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(专辑): 41 -42 .
[3] Pan Qing-kun. The Effect of Crossing on Transfer of Nuclear Materials in Pollen Mother Cells of Rice[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1984, 2(05): 41 -43 .
[4] Gan Fan-yuan Xu Chen Zheng Guang-zhi. The Physiological Effects of Oligosaccharins on Culture Cells of Carthamus and Panax Notoginseng[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1995, 12(03): 36 -40 .
[5] XIONG Zi-Xian. Genophyll Theory and Carp Theory[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1998, 15(03): 73 -76 .
[6] Minghao Li;Wei Chen;Liping Xing;Jin Xiao;Haiyan Wang;Aizhong Cao;Xiue Wang. Establishment of High-efficiency Genetic Transformation System for the Wheat Variety Alondra's[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2010, 45(04): 466 -471 .
[7] Dahong Li, Dongping Zhang, Dandan Cao, Jiansheng Liang. Research Advances in Plant RACK1 Proteins[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 2011, 46(2): 224 -232 .
[8] Jiang Wu-sheng and Li De-sheng. Twenty Important Plant Science Journals Covered by the Science Citation Index[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1997, 14(01): 59 -63 .
[9] Qi Zhen-sheng. What is the real[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1985, 3(02): 62 -63 .
[10] Xu Gui-fang and Zhang Jing-lan. Studies on RNA Polymerases Isolation Purification Properties and Activity in Cotyledon Segment of Phaseolus radioutus During Dedifferentiation[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1991, 8(02): 34 -38 .