J Syst Evol ›› 2018, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (2): 148-173.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12305

• Research Articles • Previous Articles    

Pteridryaceae: A new fern family of Polypodiineae (Polypodiales) including taxonomic treatments

Xin-Mao Zhou1,†, Liang Zhang2†, Ngan Thi Lu1,3,4†, Xin-Fen Gao1*, and Li-Bing Zhang1,5*   

  1. 1CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, China;
    2Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China;
    3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    4Department of Biology, Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18th Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Ha Noi, Vietnam;
    5Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Received:2017-10-20 Published:2018-03-01

Abstract: We undertook phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships of Pteridrys and related taxa based on six plastidmarkers (atpA, atpB, matK& rps16-matK, rbcL, rps4& rps4-trnS, and trnL & trnL-F) and nuclear pgiC.We included 195 accessions representing approximately 147 species in 38 genera, and seven of the nine families in Polypodiineae (eupolypods I). Tectariaceae s.l. (i.e., Arthropteris, Draconopteris, Hypoderris, Malaifilix, Pteridrys, Tectaria, and Triplophyllum in addition to Polydictyum) is recovered asmonophyletic (97% maximum likelihood bootstrap value), but with low (<50%) maximum parsimony jackknife value. The family Tectariaceae s.l. is therefore the only family in ferns without a corresponding non-parametric-based strong support in spite of our data totaling 9616 aligned base pairs. Tectariaceae s.l. can not be unambiguously recognized by any of the 13morphological characters analyzed. However, if the clade composed of Draconopteris, Malaifilix, Polydictyum, and Pteridrys (DMPP) is recognized as a distinct family, at least four morphological characters enable the distinction of the DMPP clade from its sister clade. Considering the uncertainty in the monophyly, the diagnosability, and the deep divergence, we propose to establish a new family, Pteridryaceae, to accommodate the DMPP clade. Species of Pteridryaceae share mostly the following characteristics: erect to suberect rhizomes, reduced basal pinnae, anastomosing or free venation, absence of catenate hairs at the leaf surface, and perine ornamentation lacking spines or spinules. Identification keys are provided for the four genera and 31 species of the DMPP clade (or Pteridryaceae). Reflecting the presented results, the recognition of Arthropteridaceae is the preferred taxonomic status of the Arthropteris clade.

Key words: Arthropteris, Eupolypods I, fern phylogeny, Polypodiaceae, Pteridryaceae, Pteridrys, Tectariaceae