J Syst Evol ›› 1981, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (4): 408-415.

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Ecological distribution of endemic genera of Taxads and Conifers in China and neighbouring area in relation to phytogeographical significance

Ying Tsün-Shen, Li Liang-Qian   

  1. (Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica)
  • Online:1981-11-18 Published:1981-11-18

Abstract: With highly varied ecological conditions resulted from wide latitudinal and altitudinal ranges and from adequate precipitation, China has developed a very rich flora of great diversity. As far as Taxads and Conifers is concerned, there are 158 species and 43 varieties of them in China, belonging to 6 families and 30 genera, of which 9 genera are endemic. In the present paper the ecological distribution of these endemic genera and its phytogeographical significance are discussed. 1. There are 9 endemic genera of Taxads and Conifers in China and neighbouring area. They are distributed in the mountain areas of southern, southeastern and southwestern China (fig. 1-2) at an altitude of 100-1800 meters, with a few endemic genera reaching as high as 2800 meters. 2. The mean annual temperature varies between 10℃-20℃, with an extreme minimum between -6.3℃ to-11.3℃. The soil pH is between 4.5-5.5, indicating an acidic reaction. 3. As is shown in figure 3, 24 endemic genera of Taxads and Conifers are known to occur in differant parts of the world. Among them, China and neighbouring area ranks the first in having 9 genera. Australia is the second with 5 genera, southern Chile is third (3), followed by Japan (2), western North America (2), New Caledonia (2), and southeastern Siberia, USSR (1). Of the Chinese endemic genera, the first appearence in the fossil records is in the deposits of late Cretaceous or Tertiary (table 1.). It is probable that the southern, southeastern and south-western parts of China is not only the main centre of recent distribution, but also one of the chief survival cen-ters of endemic genera of Taxads and Conifers in the world.

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