J Syst Evol ›› 2021, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (3): 454-474.DOI: 10.1111/jse.12717

• Research Articles • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phylogenetic relationships within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato and the role of pigments in its taxonomic interpretation

Ivan Frolov1,2*, Jan Vondrák2,3, Jiří Košnar2, and Ulf Arup4   

  1. 1 Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch: Institute Botanic Garden, Vosmogo Marta 202a st., Yekaterinburg 620144, Russia
    2 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 1760, České Budějovice CZ‐370 05, Czech Republic
    3 Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Zámek 1, Průhonice CZ‐252 43, Czech Republic 4 Botanical Museum, Lund University, Box 117, Lund SE‐221 00, Sweden
  • Received:2020-09-11 Accepted:2020-12-01 Online:2020-12-18 Published:2021-05-01

Abstract: Most lichens of the family Teloschistaceae (Ascomycota) produce yellow-orange-red anthraquinone pigments. However, the genus Pyrenodesmia encompasses species in which anthraquinones are absent and replaced by a gray pigment Sedifolia-gray. It was shown recently that these species are related to taxa with both anthraquinones and Sedifolia-gray (Caloplaca xerica group, C. haematites group, and C. cretensis) and to species with a brown pigment instead of both anthraquinones and Sedifolia-gray (C. demissa, C. obscurella, and C. reptans). Nevertheless, relationships between mentioned anthraquinone-containing and anthraquinone-lacking species remained unclear. In total, 8 DNA loci from 41 species were used here to resolve these uncertainties. We concluded that C. demissa, C. obscurella, and C. reptans are rather distant from the core of Pyrenodesmia, and we place them outside of Pyrenodesmia sensu lato. Within Pyrenodesmia sensu lato, three lineages were revealed and recognized on a generic level: the genus Pyrenodesmia sensu stricto (21 species), the genus Kuettlingeria (14 species), which is resurrected here, and the genus Sanguineodiscus (4 species), which is newly described here. The genus Pyrenodesmia includes taxa that never contain anthraquinones, but Sedifolia-gray. It matches with the former C. variabilis group. Taxa of the genera Kuettlingeria and Sanguineodiscus have anthraquinones in their apothecia and Sedifolia-gray in their thalli. The genus Kuettlingeria includes the former C. xerica group plus C. cretensis and C. diphyodes. The genus Sanguineodiscus includes the former C. haematites group and C. bicolor. The identity of Kuettlingeria (Caloplaca) diphyodes was clarified and the name Pyrenodesmia helygeoides was resurrected. Twenty-four new combinations were proposed.

Key words: anthraquinones, Caloplaca haematites group, Caloplaca variabilis group, Caloplaca xerica group, Kuettlingeria, Pyrenodesmia sensu stricto, Sanguineodiscus, Sedifolia‐gray, Teloschistaceae