Table of Contents

01 January 2021, Volume 59 Issue 1
Cover illustration: The population genetic structure and admixture history of Tibeto-Burman-speaking Tujia people are largely unknown due to a lack of sampling. Investigation on the fi ne-scale genetic structure in 505 unrelated individuals from 63 indigenous central Chinese populations by He et al. (pp. 1–20 in this issue) not only discovered the strong genetic similarities between Tujia and surrounding Han Chinese, suggesting massive population movements and genetic admixture under language borrowing, but also ill [Detail] ...
    Research Articles
  • Guang-Lin He, Ying-Xiang Li, Meng-Ge Wang, Xing Zou, Hui-Yuan Yeh, Xiao-Min Yang, Zheng Wang, Ren-Kuan Tang, Su-Min Zhu, Jian-Xin Guo, Ting Luo, Jing Zhao, Jin Sun, Zi- Yang Xia, Hao-Liang Fan, Rong Hu, Lan-Hai Wei, Gang Chen, Yi- Ping Hou, and Chuan-Chao Wang
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 1-20.
    Archaeological, genetic, and linguistic evidence has supported the idea that northern China is the original center of modern Sino‐Tibetan‐speaking populations. However, the demographic history of subsequent southward migration and genetic admixture of Han Chinese with surrounding indigenous populations remain uncharacterized, and the language shifts and assimilations accompanied by movement of people, or just an adaptation of cultural ideas among populations in central China is still unclear, especially for Tibeto‐Burman‐speaking Tujia and central Han Chinese populations. To resolve this, we genotyped over 60K genome‐wide markers in 505 unrelated individuals from 63 indigenous populations. Our results showed both studied Han and Tujia were at the intermediate position in the modern East Asian North–South genetic cline and there was a correlation between the genetic composition and the latitude. We observed the strong genetic assimilation between Tujia people and central Han Chinese, which suggested massive population movements and genetic admixture under language borrowing. Tujia and central Han Chinese could be modeled as a two‐way admixture deriving primary ancestry from a northern ancestral population closely related to the ancient DevilsCave and present‐day Tibetans and a southern ancestral population closely related to the present‐day Tai‐Kadai and Austronesian‐speaking groups. The ancestral northern population we suspect to be related to the Neolithic millet farming groups in the Yellow River Basin or central China. We showed that the newly genotyped populations in Hubei Province had a higher proportion of DevilsCave or modern Tungusic/Mongolic‐related northern ancestries, while the Hunan populations harbored a higher proportion of Austronesian/Tai‐Kadai‐related southern ancestries.
    We genotyped over 600K genome‐wide markers in 505 unrelated individuals from 63 indigenous populations. Our results showed that both studied Han and Tujia were at the intermediate position in the modern East Asian North–South genetic cline and there was a correlation between the genetic composition and the latitude. We observed the strong genetic assimilation between Tujia people and central Han Chinese, which suggested massive population movements and genetic admixture under language borrowing. Tujia and central Han Chinese could be modeled as a two‐way admixture deriving primary ancestry from a northern ancestral population closely related to the ancient DevilsCave and present‐day Tibetans and a southern ancestral population closely related to the present‐day Tai‐Kadai and Austronesian‐speaking groups. The ancestral northern population we suspect to be related to the Neolithic millet farming groups in the Yellow River Basin or central China. We showed that newly genotyped populations in Hubei Province had a higher proportion of DevilsCave or modern Tungusic/Mongolic‐related northern ancestries, while the Hunan populations harbored a higher proportion of Austronesian/Tai‐Kadai‐related southern ancestries.
  • Issue Information
  • Research Articles
  • Rebeca Laino Gama , Alexandra Nora Muellner-Riehl , Diego Demarco , and José Rubens Pirani
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 21-43.
    Meliaceae are a mostly pantropical family in the Sapindales, bearing flowers typically provided with a staminal tube, formed by filaments that are fused partially or totally. Nevertheless, several genera of subfamily Cedreloideae have free stamens, which may be adnate to an androgynophore in some taxa. The fact that the family exhibits a wide diversity of floral and fruit features, as well as of sexual systems and pollination syndromes, presents interesting questions on the evolutionary processes that might have taken place during its history. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of 20 reproductive morphological traits of Meliaceae, upon an available molecular phylogenetic framework, using 31 terminals from the family's two main clades (Cedreloideae and Melioideae), plus six Simaroubaceae taxa as outgroup. We aimed to identify and/or confirm synapomorphies for clades within the family and to develop hypotheses on floral evolution and sexual systems in the group. Our reconstruction suggests that the ancestor of Meliaceae was possibly provided with united stamens and unisexual flowers in dioecious individuals, with a subsequent change to free stamens and monoecy in the ancestor of Cedreloideae. Most characters studied show some degree of homoplasy, but some are unique synapomorphies of clades, such as the haplostemonous androecium. An androgynophore defines the Cedrela‐Toona clade. The comparative approach of our study and the evolutionary hypotheses generated herein reveal several aspects demanding further structural investigation, and possible evolutionary pathways of the reproductive structures along with the lineages' diversification, mostly related to the specialization of sexual systems, floral biology, and dispersal strategies.
  • Li He, Natascha Dorothea Wagner, and Elvira Hörandl
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 44-57.
    The Hengduan Mountains (HDM) in China are an important hotspot of plant diversity and endemism, and are considered to be a secondary diversification center for the woody plant genus Salix L. (Salicaceae). Here we aimed to reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of the Salix ChamaetiaVetrix clade in the HDM and to test for the occurrence of a local radiation. We inferred phylogenetic relationships based on more than 34 000 restriction‐site associated DNA loci from 27 species. Phylogenetic analyses recovered a well‐resolved tree topology with two major clades, the Eurasian clade and the HDM clade, with a divergence time of ca. 23.9 Ma. Species in the HDM clade originated in the northern part of the range and adjacent areas, and then dispersed into the southern HDM, westwards to the Himalayas and eastwards to the Qinling Mountains. Niche modelling analyses reveal that range contractions occurred in the northern areas during the last glacial maximum, while southward expansions resulted in range overlaps. Reconstructions of character evolution related to plant height, inflorescence, and flower morphology suggest that adaptations to altitudinal distribution contributed to the diversification of the HDM willows. Our data support the occurrence of a radiation in the HDM within the Salix ChamaetiaVetrix clade. Dispersal within the mountain system, and to adjacent regions, in addition to survival in glacial refugia shaped the biogeographical history of the clade, while adaptations of the HDM willows along an altitudinal gradient could be important ecological factors explaining the high species diversity of Salix in this area.
  • Marcin Piwczyński, Paulina Trzeciak, Madalina-Oana Popa, Maciej Pabijan, José María Corral, Krzysztof Spalik, and Andrzej Grzywacz
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 58-72.
    The angiosperm Apiaceae tribe Scandiceae includes four major clades—subtribes Daucinae, Ferulinae, Torilidinae, and Scandicinae—that originated ca. 20 Mya. Although all four subtribes are highly supported in molecular analyses, and morphological data indicate a sister relationship between Daucinae and Torilidinae, their branching order has not been resolved using standard Sanger multilocus data. Therefore, in this study, we test the utility of genomic RAD seq data in resolving deep phylogenetic relationships (up to 20 Mya) in Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae, with special emphasis on tribe Scandiceae using 12 representative species. We used two bioinformatic pipelines, pyRAD and RADIS (based on STACKS), to assemble RAD seq data and we tested the influence of various combinations of parameters on the robustness of the inferred tree topologies. Although different data processing approaches produced alignments with various amounts of missing data, they converged to two well‐supported topologies, irrespective of the phylogenetic method applied. Highly supported trees showed Scandicinae as sister to all other clades and indicated that Daucinae and Torilidinae are sister groups, thus confirming the relationship inferred from morphology. We conclude that the RAD seq method can be successfully used to resolve deep relationships formed 20 Mya within Apiaceae. We provide recommendations for parameter settings in RADIS and pyRAD for the analysis of taxa that have accumulated considerable genomic divergence.
  • Xin Yao, Yu Song, Jun-Bo Yang, Yun-Hong Tan, and Richard T. Corlett
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 73-82.
    The holly genus, Ilex L., in the monogeneric Aquifoliaceae, is the largest woody dioecious genus (>664 spp.), with a near‐cosmopolitan distribution in mesic environments. We constructed a phylogeny based on two nuclear genes, representing 177 species spread across the geographical range, and dated using macrofossil records. The five main clades had a common ancestor in the early Eocene, much earlier than previously suggested. Ilex originated in subtropical Asia and extant clades colonized South America by 30 Ma, North America by 23 Ma, Australia by 8 Ma, Europe by 6 Ma, and Africa by 4 Ma. South and North America were colonized multiple times. Ilex also reached Hawaii (10 Ma) and other oceanic islands. Macrofossil and pollen records show the genus has tracked mesic climates through time and space, and had a wider distribution before late Miocene global cooling. Our phylogeny provides a framework for studies in comparative ecology and evolution.
  • Terezie Mandáková, Kaylynn Ashby, Bo J. Price, Michael D. Windham, John G. Carman, and Martin A. Lysak
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 83-92.
    Apomixis in crucifer (Brassicaceae) species is rare, reported in just four genera (Boechera, Draba, Erysimum, and Parrya), and one intergeneric hybrid (Raphanobrassica). It is well studied only in Boechera, where it is widespread among 100+ recognized species. However, its occurrence in related genera of the tribe Boechereae has not been documented previously. Here we analyzed genome evolution, mode of reproduction, and fertility of the monospecific Boechereae genus Phoenicaulis (P. cheiranthoides), endemic to the northwestern United States. We discovered that the species encompasses diploid (2n = 2x = 14), triploid (2n = 3x = 21), and tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28) populations. Comparative chromosome painting analyses revealed that the three karyotypes are essentially structurally identical, differing only in the presence of a largely heterochromatic chromosome (Het) in the triploid and tetraploid cytotypes. The genome structure of Phoenicaulis appeared identical to that of Boechera species previously analyzed, suggesting genomic stasis despite the morphological and molecular divergence of the two genera. This genome colinearity extended to the presence and structure of the Het chromosomes, which are closely associated with apomictic reproduction in Boechera. Interestingly, all three cytotypes of Phoenicaulis proved to be apomictic, regardless of the presence or absence of a Het chromosome, and sexual populations have yet to be identified.
  • Siddharthan Surveswaran, Sharad S. Kambale, Mansa Srivastav, Sachin A. Punekar, Shrirang R. Yadav, and K. Praveen Karanth
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 93-112.
    The Indian subcontinent has experienced a major shift in climatic regime from a wet tropical regime to increased seasonal rainfall, since the late Miocene. This shift has been attributed to the intensification of monsoons, which led to opening up of dry habitats in humid forests and formation of deciduous forests. We explored the role of this climatic shift in the origin and diversification of dry‐adapted plant genera Ceropegia and Brachystelma (Ceropegiae, Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae). We sampled Ceropegia and Brachystelma from across India and used five markers (two nuclear and three plastid regions) to reconstruct a global phylogeny of this group. Indian members of the tribe Ceropegiae were derived from Africa through at least four independent dispersal events. All dispersal events occurred in late Miocene after establishment of a monsoon climate. One of these early dispersing lineages underwent rapid radiation in peninsular India, giving rise to around 50 species. Thus, both dispersal and diversification events coincided with the intensification of monsoons and concomitant aridification. The role of environment in the evolution of floral characteristics and root type in the Indian radiation is also discussed. This is one of the first reports on a dry‐adapted endemic radiation of plants in India.
  • Romana Urfusová, Václav Mahelka, František Krahulec, and Tomáš Urfus
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 113-124.
    Hybridization, polyploidization, and crop‐to‐wild gene transfer within the agriculturally important tribe Triticeae are well explored experimentally, but the true consequences of both phenomena under natural conditions remain understudied. The present paper reports on an investigation of three species of couch grasses (Elymus hispidus, E. repens, and E. caninus) examining the ploidy levels and absolute genome sizes (1081 plants from 302 natural populations in Central Europe, verified by chromosome counts) and their morphological delimitation. In the present study, the hexaploid level prevailed in E. hispidus and E. repens whereas E. caninus was exclusively tetraploid. Introgressive hybridization between hexaploid species, unidirectionally shifted towards E. hispidus, was indicated by a continual pattern of genome size values. We did not find any evidence for heteroploid hybridization involving tetraploid E. caninus; however, we detected minority cytotypes among both E. caninus plants (hexaploid) and E. repens–E. hispidus hybrids (heptaploid and nonaploid) suggesting the formation of unreduced gametes. Morphometric results (367 plants, redundancy analysis, principal component analysis, and correlation analysis) mirrored the continual homoploid pattern of absolute genome size (including the unidirectional shift), and a significant correlation between absolute genome size and morphology was confirmed. Moreover, morphometric analyses detected additional characteristics for the delimitation of the Elymus taxa under study. Considering the crossability of E. hispidus with Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), the revealed extent of introgressive hybridization has implications for assessing the potential risk of gene flow between crops and troublesome weeds.
  • Si-Qi Liang, Ronald L. L. Viane, Xian-Chun Zhang, and Ran Wei
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 125-140.
    The Asplenium pekinense complex mainly comprises one diploid, A. sarelii Hook. (rare), one autotetraploid, A. pekinense Hance (best known and very common), and shares two allotetraploids, A. anogrammoides Christ (common but often misidentified) and A. altajense (Komarov) Grubov (rare and endemic) with the A. varians complex. The latter is further constituted by two diploids, A. tenuicaule Hayata (widespread) and A. semivarians Viane & Reichstein (rare), as well as other three tetraploids, A. kansuense Ching (barely known), A. varians Wallich ex Hooker & Greville (well‐known, relatively common, and morphologically variable), and A. kukkonenii Viane & Reichstein (rare and often misidentified). These two species complexes are notorious for their taxonomic difficulty based on general morphology, which is mainly caused by their history of reticulate evolution. Here, we collected most species within the two complexes, and obtained ploidy information by spore size measurement and flow cytometry investigation. Phylogenetic analyses using DNA markers representing maternally inherited chloroplast and biparentally inherited nuclear genomes helped to reconstruct the reticulate evolution history. The present results support previous hypotheses that A. sarelii is the ancestor of both A. pekinense and A. anogrammoides, as well as that A. tenuicaule is the common progenitor of A. anogrammoides, A. varians, and A. kukkonenii. We also unraveled the autotetraploid origin of A. kansuense from A. tenuicaule for the first time, and found that A. altajense shares essentially identical genomes with A. anogrammoides.
  • Ya-Dong Zhou, Biyansa Hirpo Boru, Sheng-Wei Wang, and Qing-Feng Wang
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 141-150.
    Woody and herbaceous plants are differentially influenced by the environment, with non‐random association with the evolutionary history of these taxa and their traits. In general, woody plants may have climate‐dominated niches, whereas herbaceous plants may have edaphic and microhabitat‐dominated niches. Here, we explored and mapped how the patterns of species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and structures of total, woody, and herbaceous plants vary across the geographical regions and with respect to 12 environmental variables across Ethiopia and Eritrea, in the horn of Africa. Our result showed that both richness and phylogenetic diversity had almost the same tendency in total woody and herbaceous plants, in which they showed positive relationships with annual precipitation, precipitation annual range of climate, all the three variables of topography, and total nitrogen and total extractable phosphorus of soil, and negative relations with mean annual temperature. Compared with the total and herbaceous plants, the environmental variables explained greater variance both in the standardized effect size phylogenetic diversity and net relatedness index for woody plants. Our results highlight that, on the large spatial scales, the environmental filtering process has played a greater role in structuring species into local communities for woody plants than for herbaceous plants.
  • Santosh Kumar Rana, Dong Luo, Hum Kala Rana, Alexander Robert O’Neill, and Hang Sun
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 151-168.
    Geoclimatic factors related to the uplift of the Himalaya and the Quaternary climatic oscillations influence the population genetic connectivity in the Himalaya–Hengduan Mountains (HHM) biodiversity hotspot. Therefore, to explore the relative roles played by these two factors, we examined the population dynamics and dispersal corridors of Incarvillea arguta (Royle) Royle incorporating ensemble species distribution modelling (SDM). Thirty‐seven populations were genotyped using plastid chloroplast DNA and low copy nuclear gene (ncpGS) sequences. Phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the genetic structure and lineage differentiation. Ensemble SDMs were carried out for distributional change in the last glacial maximum, present, and future. Finally, the least cost path method was used to trace out possible dispersal corridors. The haplotypes were divided into four clades with strong geographical structure. The late Miocene origin of I. arguta in the western Himalaya ca. 7.92 Ma indicates lineage diversification related to the uplift of the HHM. The variability in habitat connectivity revealed by SDM is due to change in suitability since the Pleistocene. A putative dispersal corridor was detected along the drainage systems and river valleys, with strong support in the eastern Hengduan Mountains group. Our results support the signature of geoclimatic influence on population genetic connectivity of I. arguta in the HHM. We proposed that the major drainage systems might have assisted the rapid dispersal of isolated riverine plant species I. arguta in the HHM. The population genetic connectivity, using the fine‐tuned ensemble SDMs, enables scientists and policymakers to develop conservation strategies for the species gene pool in the HHM biodiversity hotspots.
  • Yi-Qin Xu, Xin Li, Yang Zhong, and Yu-Fang Zheng
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 169-182.
    The diversity of axon guidance (AG) receptors reflects gains in complexity of the animal nervous system during evolution. Members of the Roundabout (Robo) family of receptors interact with Slit proteins and play important roles in many developmental processes, including AG and neural crest cell migration. There are four members of the Robo gene family. However, the evolutionary history of Robo family genes remain obscure. We analyzed the distribution of Robo family members in metazoan species ranging in complexity from hydras to humans. We undertook a phylogenetic analysis in metazoans, synteny analysis, and ancestral chromosome mapping in vertebrates, and detected selection pressure and functional divergence among four mammalian Robo paralogs. Based on our analysis, we proposed that the ancestral Robo gene could have undergone a tandem duplication in the vertebrate ancestor; then one round of whole genome duplication events occurred before the divergence of ancestral lamprey and gnathostome, generating four paralogs in early vertebrates. Robo4 paralog underwent segmental loss in the following evolutionary process. Our results showed that Robo3 paralog is under more powerful purifying selection pressure compared with other three paralogs, which could correlate with its unique expression pattern and function. Furthermore, we found four sites under positive selection pressure on the Ig1‐2 domains of Robo4 that might interfere with its binding to Slits ligand. Diverge analysis at the amino acid level showed that Robo4 paralog have relatively greater functional diversifications than other Robo paralogs. This coincides with the fact that Robo4 predominantly functions in vascular endothelial cells but not the nervous system.
  • Gui-Liang Xin, Guo-Lun Jia, Xiao-Long Ren, Yue-Yue Wang, Peng Zhao, and Wen-Zhe Liu
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 183-197.
    The evolutionary pathway between hermaphroditism and dioecy (females and males in a single population) draws widespread interests, and androdioecy (bisexuals and males in a single population) is rarely achieved as an intermediate state between the two breeding systems. Flower bud differentiations in the pistils of hermaphrodites and the pistillodes of males in androdioecious Tapiscia sinensis Oliv. are investigated by routine paraffin section technology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. A phylogenetic approach is used to analyze the origin of androdioecy. In T. sinensis, hermaphroditic flowers (HF) and male flowers (MF) experienced a similar development pattern in early flower bud differentiation, including the initiation of tepals and stamens. However, the carpel differentiation of MF and HF proceed in different patterns. In HF, the central zone bulges out and produces a ring meristem on which two to three carpel primordia emerge, which eventually developed into a normal pistil with a stigma, a style, and an ovary. However, in most MF, vestigial pistils are stem‐like (type I), and very few have an empty ovary (type II) or a sterile ovule (type III). Moreover, the evolution of sexual systems within the Huerteales indicates that hermaphroditism is the primitive character of T. sinensis. Tapiscia sinensis shows different degrees of reduction between male flowers and bisexual ones in the evolution to dioecy. Functional androdioecy originated from a hermaphroditic ancestor in T. sinensis and, as an intermediate sexual system, involves evolution from hermaphrodites to dioecy.
  • Lu-Liang Huang, Jian-Hua Jin, and Alexei A. Oskolski
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 198-215.
    Keteleeria is a small genus of Pinaceae now mainly restricted to eastern Asia. Although this genus has been documented with a wide distribution in the geologic record of Europe, North America, and Asia, its history in low‐latitude areas (including South China) has remained obscure. In this paper, a fossil wood of Keteleeria sp. is described from the Late Pleistocene (29–27 ka BP) of the Maoming Basin, South China. This wood is the most ancient megafossil evidence of Keteleeria within the modern distribution area of this genus. The fossil records of Keteleeria suggests that this thermophyllous genus migrated into South China by the Middle Pleistocene escaping from glacial cooling and became widespread over this region in the Late Pleistocene beginning from the interglacial stage preceding the Last Glacial Maximum. The analysis of growth rings in the fossil wood and its comparison with those of modern Keteleeria davidiana (Bertrand) Beissner indicates that in the Late Pleistocene of Maoming Basin (29–27 ka BP) there was a humid climate with less pronounced seasonality of precipitation than that seen in the subtropical monsoonal climate of modern northeastern Vietnam. Apparently, the Maoming Basin was influenced by interglacial regime with summer–monsoon circulation. The previously proposed method to distinguish between evergreen and deciduous conifers based on growth ring anatomy, is not reliable because of the wide variance and ambiguity in its results.
  • Lin-Bo Jia, Steven R. Manchester, Jian Huang, Tao Su, Li Xue, Shi-Tao Zhang, Yong-Jiang Huang, and Zhe-Kun Zhou
    J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 216-226.
    Fossil records of endemic plants play an important role in recognizing the floristic history of East Asia and thereby facilitate the conservation of plant diversity in the region. However, the fossil record of many extant East Asian endemic genera remains poorly documented thus far. Here, we report an infructescence fossil of an East Asian endemic genus, Sladenia (Sladeniaceae), from the early Miocene of southeastern Yunnan, China. The fossil is characterized by: (i) dichasial cymes; and (ii) flask‐shaped ovary with dense subparallel ribs on the surface extending from the base to the distal end of the united style. It represents the first fossil record of Sladenia in Asia, showing that the genus was established in the region at least by the early Miocene. Given that a much older fossil record of Sladeniaceae has been reported from Africa and the sister group of Sladenia is distributed only in Africa, Sladenia is not likely of East Asian origin. The present endemic status of Sladenia was possibly achieved by regional extirpation in Africa and taking refuge in East Asia. This case thus supports the “Museum” rather than “Cradle” hypothesis for the genesis of high plant species in the flora of East Asia. A comparison of the present fossil with extant Sladenia infructescence shows morphological stasis from the early Miocene to present. Such evolutionary tardiness might have resulted in the reduced fitness of the genus, which further caused its current endangered situation.
  • Reviewers List
  • J Syst Evol. 2021, 59(1): 227-228.

    The Journal of Systematics and Evolution would like to acknowledge and thank the following reviewers for their contributions in the period January 1–December 31 in 2020:

    Andrés‐Sánchez, Santigo

    Antunes Carvalho, Fernanda

    Appelhans, Marc

    Bachelier, Julien

    Bai, Wei‐Ning

    Baldwin, Bruce

    Banasiak, Lukasz

    Bao, Ying

    Bard, Nicholas

    Benítez Benítez, Carmen

    Berry, Paul

    Bonifacio de Leon, Mauricio

    Bontrager, Megan

    Boufford, David

    Brandrud, Marie Kristine

    Bruederle, Leo

    Camara, Paulo

    Cameron, Kenneth

    Cannon, Chuck

    Carta, Angelino

    Catherine, Lafarge

    Chen, Chun‐Yan

    Chen, Hua

    Chen, Lei

    Chen, Zhi‐Duan

    Clark, Lynn

    Compton, James

    Conran, John

    Corlett, Richard

    Costa, Suzana

    Crane, Peter

    Crawford, Daniel

    Crespo, Manuel B.

    Crowl, A

    Davis, Aaron

    Davis, Jerrold

    De Franceschi, Dario

    de Sousa, Philipe

    Del Rio, Cédric

    Deng, Min

    Denk, Thomas

    Dickinson, Timothy A.

    Dou, Quan‐Wen

    Du, Fang

    Dupuis, Julian R.

    Duvall, Melvin

    Ebersbach, Jana

    Eder, Johanna

    Edera, Alejandro

    Elliott, Tammy L.

    Eriksson, Torsten

    Escudero, Marcial

    Evans, Timothy M.

    Favre, Adrien

    Figlar, Dick

    Fior, Simone

    Fitzpatrick, Matt

    Ford, Bruce

    Foster, Charles

    Freire, Susana

    Freudenstein, John

    Friis, Else

    Fritsch, Peter

    Gao, Lian‐Ming

    Ge, Xue‐Jun

    Geltman, Dmitry

    Gensel, Patricia

    Gerrath, Jean

    Gillespie, Emily

    Givnish, Thomas

    Goetghebeur, Paul

    Gold, Zack

    Gong, Yan‐Bing

    Gostel, Morgan

    Graham, Sean

    Hao, Gang

    Harris, AJ

    Herendeen, Patrick

    Hermsen, Elizabeth

    Herrera, Fabiany

    Hipp, Andrew

    Huang, Chien‐Hsun

    Huang, Shuang‐Quan

    Huarte, Roberto

    Ickert‐Bond, Stefanie

    Jiao, Yuan‐Nian

    Jiménez‐Mejías, Pedro

    Jin, Xiao‐Hua

    Jin, Jian‐Hua

    Joyce, Elizabeth

    Jud, Nathan

    Kang, Ming

    Karunarathne, Piyal

    Kenrick, Paul

    Kessler, Michael

    Khine, Phyo Kay

    Klein, Tamir

    Klimešová, Jitka

    Klopper, Ronell R.

    Knoop, Volker

    Kress, John

    Kuo, Li‐Yaung

    Lakusic, Dmitar

    Landis, Jacob

    Lashermes, Philippe

    Lehnert, Marcus

    Lehtonen, Samuli

    Levin, Geoffrey

    Li, Fay‐Wei

    Li, Hui

    Li, Jianhua

    Li, Lin‐Feng

    Li, Sirius

    Li, Zhen

    Li, Zheng

    Li, Zhong‐Hu

    Liao, Wan‐Jin

    Lin, Zhenguo

    Liu, Bing

    Liu, Bo‐Ling

    Liu, Jian‐Quan

    Liu, Juan

    Liu, Jun‐Feng

    Lu, Li‐Min

    Luceño, Modesto

    Lunau, K.

    Ma, Jian‐Chao

    Ma, Tao

    Ma, Xiao‐Fei

    Mairal Pisa, Mario

    Mandel, Jennifer

    Manos, Paul

    Mao, Jian‐Feng

    Mao, Kang‐Shan

    Marlien, van der Merwe

    Marrano, Annarita

    Martín‐Bravo, Santiago

    Martinetto, Edoardo

    Mathews, Sarah

    McLay, Todd

    McNeal, Joel

    Michelangeli, Fabian A.

    Molina Venegas, Rafael

    Momohara, Arata

    Moody, Michael

    Moore, Abigail

    Morrone, Juan José

    Mu, Xian‐Yun

    Naghiloo, Somayeh

    Nie, Ze‐Long

    Niu, Yang

    Nobis, Marcin

    Oberprieler, Christoph

    Ohlsen, Daniel

    Ojeda, Dario

    Otero, Ana

    Packer, Jasmin

    Pais, Andrew

    Papini, Alessio

    Pedrosa‐Harand, Andrea

    Pelser, Pieter

    Peterson, Paul

    Pigg, Kathleen

    Pipes, Leonore

    Poschlod, Peter

    Potter, Daniel

    Qi, Ji

    Qian, Hong

    Qiu, Ying‐Xiong

    Quan, Cheng

    Ran, Jin‐Hua

    Ree, Richard

    Reginato, Marcelo

    Ren, Ming‐Xun

    Ren, Zong‐Xin

    Reznicek, Anton

    Riina, Ricarda

    Roalson, Eric

    Rong, Jun

    Röβler, Ronny

    Sahu, Sunil Kumar

    Salariato, Diego

    Salino, Alexandre

    Saunders, Richard

    Sauvage, Thomas

    Sawicki, Jakub

    Schneeweiss, Gerald

    Schneider, Harald

    Schutz, Nicole

    Sengupta, Aniket

    Shan, Hong‐Yan

    Shao, Lisha

    Shi, Cheng‐Min

    Shi, Gong‐Le

    Simon‐Porcar, Violeta

    Smýkal, Petr

    Søchting, Ulrik

    Solis‐Montero, Lislie

    Soltis, Douglas

    Soltis, Pamela

    Song, Yi‐Gang

    Soreng, Robert

    Sosa, Victoria

    Spalink, Daniel

    Steinmann, Victor

    Storchova, Helena

    Stubbs, Rebecca L.

    Su, Tao

    Su, Xu

    Sun, Bai‐Nian

    Sun, Fengjie

    Sun, Gen‐Lou

    Sun, Gui‐Ling

    Sun, Hai‐Qin

    Sun, Hang

    Sun, Jian

    Sun, Miao

    Sun, Yong‐Shuai

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    Wang, Bao‐Sheng

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    Wang, Jun

    Wang, Li

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    Wang, Qing‐Feng

    Wang, Wei

    Wang, Yin‐Zheng

    Wang, Ying‐Qiang

    Wang, Yu‐Fei

    Wang, Yu‐Guo

    Wang, Ze‐Fu

    Wang, Zhi‐Heng

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    Waterway, Marcia

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    Weston, Peter

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    Wojciechowski, Martin

    Wu, Zhi‐Qiang

    Xiang, Chun‐Lei

    Xing, Yao‐Wu

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    Xu, Shu‐Hua

    Xu, Xiao‐Ting

    Yabe, Atsushi

    Yan, Hai‐Fei

    Yan, Yue‐Hong

    Yang, Hai‐Ling

    Yang, Ji

    Yang, Jun

    Yang, Melinda

    Yang, Shi‐Xiong

    Yang, Ze‐Feng

    Ye, Qing

    Yesilyurt, Jovita

    Yi, Ting‐Shuang

    Yu, Wen‐Bin

    Yu, Yan

    Zander, Richard

    Zavada, Michael

    Zavialova, Natalia

    Zeng, Qing‐Yin

    Zeng, Yan‐Fei

    Zhang, Hai‐Qing

    Zhang, Jian‐Qiang

    Zhang, Jin‐Long

    Zhang, Kai‐Mei

    Zhang, Li‐Bing

    Zhang, Shu‐Ren

    Zhang, Ti‐Cao

    Zhang, Wenheng

    Zhang, Wen‐Ju

    Zhang, Wen‐Xia

    Zhang, Xiao‐Ming

    Zhang, Yu‐Xiao

    Zhang, Zhen‐Hua

    Zhang, Zhi‐Yong

    Zhao, Yun‐Peng

    Zhou, Ren‐Chao

    Zhu, An‐Dan

    Zhu, Shan‐Shan

    Zuluaga, Alejandro