Table of Contents
  • Volume 50 Issue 1

    Cover illustration: The world important food crop—cultivated rice (Oryza sativa)—is domesticated from its wild ancestor (O. rufipogon, A). Cultivated rice has differentiated into indica subspecies (O. sativa subsp. indica, C) and japonica subspecies (O. sativa subsp. japonica, D), adapting to tropical and temperate regions. Weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea, B) is morphologically between the wild and cultivated rice and has close relationships with them. Photo [Detail] ...
      Research Articles
    • Ping LIU, Xing-Xing CAI, Bao-Rong LU
      2012, 50 (1): 1–11
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      Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), an important cereal crop worldwide, was domesticated from its wild ancestor 8000 years ago. During its long-term cultivation and evolution under diverse agroecological conditions, Asian cultivated rice has differentiated into indica and japonica subspecies. An effective method is required to identify rice germplasm for its indica and japonica features, which is essential in rice genetic improvements. We developed a protocol that combined DNA extraction from a single rice seed and the insertion/deletion (InDel) molecular fingerprint to determine the indica and japonica features of rice germplasm. We analyzed a set of rice germplasm, including 166 Asian rice varieties, two African rice varieties, 30 accessions of wild rice species, and 42 weedy rice accessions, using the single-seeded InDel fingerprints (SSIF). The results show that the SSIF method can efficiently determine the indica and japonica features of the rice germplasm. Further analyses revealed significant indica and japonica differentiation in most Asian rice varieties and weedy rice accessions. In contrast, African rice varieties and nearly all the wild rice accessions did not exhibit such differentiation. The pattern of cultivated and wild rice samples illustrated by the SSIF supports our previous hypothesis that indica and japonica differentiation occurred after rice domestication under different agroecological conditions. In addition, the divergent pattern of rice cultivars and weedy rice accessions suggests the possibility of an endoferal origin (from crop) of the weedy rice included in the present study.
    • Jakub SAWICKI, Vítèzslav PLÁŠEK, Monika SZCZECIŃSKA
      2012, 50 (1): 12–24
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      Genetic relationships between 27 Orthotrichum species of the subgenera Orthotrichum and Pulchella were reconstructed using the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2, the chloroplast trnH-psbA region, and intron–exon splice junction (ISJ) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. A phylogenetic analysis did not reflect the current division of the subgenus Pulchella into the sections Diaphana, Pulchella, and Rivularia. Species of the section Rivularia did not form a monophyletic group, and the only markers that indicated the distinctness of the section Pulchella were ISJ and ISSR. The most genetically diverse section was Diaphana, whose species were divided into several clades. The only proper phylogenetic unit was the subgenus Orthotrichum. The applied markers revealed the process of cryptic speciation in species of both subgenera.
    • Jacira R. LIMA, Vidal F. MANSANO, Francisca S. ARAÚJO
      2012, 50 (1): 25–35
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      Understanding the factors that affect plant species distribution and coexistence in areas with high plant species diversity is a challenge for ecologists. According to some authors, species occupy specific niches, but for others, species coexistence and geographical distribution patterns are random. Floristic composition of the family Leguminosae was studied on moist and dry slopes of the Baturité mountains in semi-arid northeastern Brazil and was compared with findings for other plant formations elsewhere in Brazil. Substantial floristic differences were found between the moist windward and dry leeward slopes of the Baturité mountains despite their close geographical proximity. The leeward slope was slightly more diverse than the windward slope. Similarity analyses showed that the windward face is floristically allied to the Amazon forest, whereas the leeward slope is similar to other dry-area formations of northeastern Brazil, such as thorny woodland (caatinga) and seasonal forests. The strong floristic differences that were observed between the windward and leeward slopes corroborate the theory of ecological niche conservatism, which holds that species occurrence is closely linked to environmental factors, such as temperature and precipitation.
    • Wei DU, Lan-Jie HUANG, Xiao-Fan WANG
      2012, 50 (1): 36–44
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      The fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera (dioecious) are used to produce ‘Nan-Wuweizi’, an important Chinese medicine. However, long-term exploitation and habitat destruction have threatened these plants in nature. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of S. sphenanthera is essential to help formulate a conservation strategy for these plants. Field studies were conducted at Jigong Mountain (JGM) and Jinji Valley (JJV) in Henan and Hubei Provinces, China. The reproductive biology of S. sphenanthera was analyzed at these sites, including population structure, pollination, floral morphology, and natural fruit set. The 11 populations at two sites were male biased. The primary floral visitors were gall midges (Resseliella sp., Cecidomyiidae; Diptera) and thrips (Thrips flavidulus; Thysanoptera). Floral visitor exclusion experiments and pollen load analysis indicate that gall midges are the primary pollinators. Pollen was the only floral reward for the gall midges. Female flowers attracted pollinators using deceit. The natural fruit set ratio in the cut forest site (JJV) was significantly lower than that at the JGM site, where habitats of S. sphenanthera were well preserved. This indicates that the life cycles of S. sphenanthera and the pollinating insects are vulnerable in disturbed (or cut) habitats.
    • Li-Hong XIAO, Zhi LI, Rui WANG, Yin-Zheng WANG
      2012, 50 (1): 45–57
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      Historical events are expected to affect population genetic differentiation and DNA molecular evolution, but the impact of these effects remains a matter of debate. Here, for Conandron ramondioides (Gesneriaceae), we analyzed the genetic structure and phylogeographical pattern of 248 individuals from 13 populations, distributed in mainland China and Taiwan Island, based on the nucleotide sequence and haplotype of the coding sequence of CYCLOIDEA1 (GCYC1). Among the populations, we found a high level of haplotype diversity (h= 0.831) and a relatively low level of nucleotide diversity (Dij= 0.004). Both the haplotype network and the neighbor-joining tree constructed from GCYC1 haplotypes suggest two major geographical groupings, one on the mainland and the other on Taiwan. Consistently, amova analysis revealed high genetic differentiation between these groupings, with 84.65% variation partitioning the two regions, and the two groupings shared no haplotype. On the mainland, population genetic differentiation was correlated with more recent events, presumably Pleistocene glaciations and human activities since the Neolithic. In addition, C. ramondioides GCYC1 rapidly accumulated neutral mutations, consistent with this gene being silenced or down-regulated in actinomorphic lineages of the Lamiales, such as Conandron.
    • Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB, Ahmad Mohammad M., MEKAWY, Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY
      2012, 50 (1): 58–63
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      Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt. Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows: (i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip, which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii) all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis. (12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes), Cotula barbata DC. (four terminal, six centromeric, and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes), and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach. (eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12 chromosomes).
    • Xiao-Hua JIN, De-Zhu LI, Xiao-Guo XIANG, Yang-Jun LAI, Xiao-Chun SHI
      2012, 50 (1): 64–71
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      The phylogenetic positions of the enigmatic “wildcard” taxon, Habenaria griffithii, were inferred from molecular data and morphological evidence. Morphologically, H. griffithii is quite “isolated” in Habenaria; instead, it is close to Gennaria, Diphylax, Peristylus, and Platanthera. It can be distinguished from these four genera by its slender staminodes conspicuously longer than the anther, rostellum having two relatively long arms, lip and lateral sepals connate in the basal part, and a transverse cushion-shaped stigma. An analysis of combined plastid and nuclear data (rbcL, matK, and internal transcribed spacer) using Bayesian and parsimony methods revealed that H. griffithii is closest to Gennaria, a monotypic genus restricted to the western Mediterranean and Canary Islands. On this basis, a new genus, Nujiangia, is tentatively proposed to accommodate this taxon. In addition to the taxonomic treatment of this genus, the delimitation of many related genera in Orchideae is discussed.
    • Jian-Wei ZHANG, Ashalata D'ROZARIO, Li-Jun WANG, Ya LI, Jian-Xin YAO
      2012, 50 (1): 72–82
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      A new conifer, Austrohamia acanthobractea, sp. nov., is described from the Jurassic Daohugou flora, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The material consists of impressions represented by well-preserved leafy twigs and branches as well as ovulate cones. Leafy shoots with at least two orders of branching; ultimate branchlets alternate or sub-opposite with helically arranged leaves, decurrent at base with distal rounded tip; dorsiventrally flattened and univeined. Ovuliferous cones elliptical, less than 1 cm long, terminally borne on ultimate and penultimate branches, composed of helically arranged bracts with ovules disposed on their adaxial surfaces. The presence of similar, if not identical taxa, on both sides of the Pacific indicates the cosmopolitan distribution of primitive Cupressaceae between East Asia (Eurasia) and South America in the Pangaea.
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
JCR 2022 IF ranking: 60/238 (Plant Sciences, top 25%, Q2 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly




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