Table of Contents

09 November 2009, Volume 47 Issue 6
Cover illustration: Left, Clematis macropetala Ledeb. (Ranunculaceae); right, Clematis alpina ssp.ochotensis (Pall.) Kuntze. Photographed by Wen-Jing YANG. See YANG et al., pp. 552–580 in this issue.
    Research Articles
  • Ji-Hong YANG, Shu-Ping ZHANG, Jian LIU, Wen ZHAI, Ren-Qing WANG
    J Syst Evol. 2009, 47(6): 515-524.
    Rosa rugosa Thunb. is one of the dominant and important shrub species in estuary dunes and shingle beaches of northern China. However, its area of distribution, the number of populations, and the size of each population have decreased rapidly in the past two decades because of habitat degradation and loss. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were used to determine the genetic diversity of four remaining large natural populations of R. rugosa and to discuss an effective conservation strategy for this endangered species in China. High genetic variations were detected in R. rugosa populations in China. The mean percentage of polymorphic loci (P%) within four local populations was 57.99%, with the P% of the total population being 75.30%. Mean Shannon's information index (H0) was 0.2826, whereas total H0 was 0.3513. The genetic differentiation among populations was 0.1878, which indicates that most genetic diversity occurs within populations. Population Tumenjiang (TMJ) showed the highest genetic diversity (P%= 66.27%; H0= 0.3117) and contained two exclusive bands. Population Changshandao (CSD) showed higher genetic diversity (P%= 59.04%; H0= 0.3065). Populations TMJ and CSD contained 95.33% and 99.33%, respectively, of loci with moderate to high frequency (P>0.05) of the total population. These results indicate that populations TMJ and CSD should be given priority for in situ conservation and regarded as seed or propagule sources for ex situ conservation. The results of the present study also suggest that R. rugosa in China has become endangered as a result of human actions rather than genetic depression of populations; thus, human interference should be absolutely forbidden in R. rugosa habitats.
  • Jing WANG, Ya TANG, Zheng-Hua XIE, Mian-Yue ZHANG
    J Syst Evol. 2009, 47(6): 525-534.
    The first population ecology study of the endangered Magnolia sargentiana Rehder & Wilson (Magnoliaceae) is reported in the paper. It is a protected species in China but little is known about its present status in the field. In 2007 and 2008 we surveyed the population and conservation status of M. sargentiana in the Provincial Mamize Nature Reserve and the National Meigu Dafengding Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, southwestern China. Natural regeneration is poor because of unfavorable environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbances. Flower buds and bark of M. sargentiana are used in traditional Chinese medicine and their collection by local people from 1983 to 1994 has led to dramatic population declines. The collection of flower buds and bark is now banned, but hewing branches for firewood and grazing continues to have a negative impact on the recovery of M. sargentiana populations. To protect the species we require a ban on hewing branches, closure of primary forest to reduce humans and ungulates, better education of local people, and increased awareness of wildlife conservation.
  • Yue-Zhi PAN, Li-Qin FANG, Gang HAO, Jie CAI, Xun GONG
    J Syst Evol. 2009, 47(6): 535-542.
    GeneraLamiophlomis and Paraphlomis were originally separated from genus Phlomis s.l. according to some particular morphological characters. However, their relationship was highly controversial as referred to diverse literature and studies. In this paper, the systematic positions of Lamiophlomis, Paraphlomis and their related genera were assessed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast rpl16, trnL-F sequences data using Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian methods. Totally 24 species representing 6 genera of ingroup and outgroup were sampled in this study. Analyses of both separate and combined sequence data were conducted in resolving the systematic relationships of these genera. Our results revealed that Lamiophlomis was nested within Phlomis sect. Phlomoides, and its generic status was not supported. With the inclusion of Lamiophlomis rotata in sect. Phlomoides, sections Phlomis and Phlomoides of Phlomis were resolved as monophyletic respectively. Paraphlomis was supported as an independent genus. However, the resolution of its monophyly conflicted between MP and Bayesian analyses suggesting the necessity of expended sampling and further evidence.
  • Shun-Zong NING, Qi-Jiao CHEN, Zhong-Wei YUAN, Lian-Quan ZHANG, Ze-Hong YAN, You-Liang ZHENG, ,Deng-Cai LIU
    J Syst Evol. 2009, 47(6): 543-551.
    The major gene Q/q, an important gene for wheat domestication, is a member of the AP2 (APETALA2)class of transcript factors, named as WAP2. In the present study, we firstly isolated the WtAP2 allele on 5D from Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor species of common wheat. The WtAP2 shared with AP2 gene from Arabidopsis in the central core of the AP2 polypeptide, highly basic 10-amino acid domain and AASSGF box, although there were lots of differences in the 37-amino acid serine-rich acidic domain and the remaindering regions. WtAP2 was highly homologous to those of homoeologous loci on 5A and 5B of wheat both on nucleotide and amino acid level. However, there were some variations probably related to gene function. In the first AP2 domain,the amino acids VYL on 5D and 5A loci were replaced with LLR on 5B. In the 37-amino acid serine-rich acidic domain,WtAP2 on 5D had extra amino acid insertion. There was also variation at the position 329 amino acid that was thought to be related with the appearance of free-threshing wheat. At this position, the amino acid is isoleucine on 5Afor Q allele and valine for q allele, while the amino acid is leucine on 5D and 5B. Furthermore, aStowaway MITE insertion was present in the ninth intron of WAP2 on 5B of all common wheats and partial tetraploid Triticum turgidum wheats. These results provided new clues for the studies on the evolutionary biology of WAP2 and origin of common wheat.
  • Wen-Jing YANG, Liang-Qian LI, Lei XIE
    J Syst Evol. 2009, 47(6): 552-580.
    Clematis sect. Atragene is revised in this paper based on the examination of a large number of herbarium specimens, the extensive field observations, and the morphometric analyses. Brief taxonomic history and geographical distribution of the section are given, the relationships among the species are discussed, and the evolutionary trends of some characters in the section are evaluated. The staminodes of the plants in this section may have evolved from the outer stamens with petaloid filaments and gradually disappearing anthers. Subsequently, they may have evolved in two different ways. One is that the staminodes elongate and become lanceolate, as long as sepals, and their apices turn into attenuate. The other is that the staminodes are spathulate, but not elongating, as long as stamens, and their apices turn into retuse from obtuse and rounded. The evolutionary trend of sepals perhaps is from thin to thick in texture, and the veins are from non-prominent to prominent. As a result, five new series are established and nine species, two subspecies and nine varieties (including three new ranks) are recognized in this section. An identification key is provided, and each taxon is described and illustrated. Clematis sibirica and C. ochotensis are treated as subspecies of C. alpina due to their subtle differences and none or little overlapping distributions. Clematis fusijamana and C. fauriei are recognized as varieties of C. alpina ssp. ochotensis for the continuous variation of the velutinous strips on the sepal margins. Clematis iliensis is treated as variety of C. alpina ssp. sibirica for the continuous variation of leaf division types. Extensive variations in sepal colour and basal caruncle size support degrading C. chiisanensis as a variety of C. koreana. The North American ser. Occientales may be primitive, whereas ser. Macropetalae may be the most advanced taxon in this section. Ser. Alpinae and ser. Koreanae are closely related to each other. However, the systematic position of ser. Tomentosae cannot be determined based on morphological characters alone in the present study.
  • Xin-Ping QI, Xian-Chun ZHANG
    J Syst Evol. 2009, 47(6): 581-598.
    The taxonomy of Lepisorus (J. Sm.) Ching sect. Lepisorus in China was revised based on herbarium specimen examinations, field observations, and microscopic study of rhizome scales, soral paraphyses, leaf epidermis and spores. As a result nine species were recognized: Lepisorus macrosphaerus (Baker) Ching, L. asterolepis (Baker) Ching, L. marginatus Ching, L. kuchenensis (Y. C. Wu) Ching, L. megasorus(C. Chr.) Ching, L. kawakamii (Hayata) Tagawa, L. subsessilis Ching & Y. X. Lin, L. affinis Ching and L. nudus (Hook.) Ching. Lepisorus kawakamii (Hayata) Tagawa was reinstated; L. gyirongensis Ching & S. K. Wu and L. longus Ching were reduced to synonyms of L. nudus and L. affinis respectively. The subdivision of L. macrosphaerusis was not accepted. Rhizome scales and paraphyses are the most useful characters for species delimitation as well as for infrageneric classification. Characteristics of the leaf epidermis and spore ornamentation are usually stable and thus of great significance in understanding the relationships among groups within the genus.
  • ,Zhong-Jian LIU, Li-Jun CHEN
    J Syst Evol. 2009, 47(6): 599-604.
    Singchia Z.J. Liu & L.J. Chen, a new orchid genus, is established based on the new species S. malipoensis Z.J. Liu & L.J. Chen found in Southeast Yunnan of China. The new genus is related to Pteroceras, from which it differs by having a lip with its basal margins immovably adnate to the lower part of the pendent columnfoot, a thin-walled spur, and very unequally and deeply split pollinia each with a distinct caudicle. In addition to a discussion on Ascocentrum pusillum, a species of questionable placement, another new genus, Gunnaria S.C. Chen ex Z.J. Liu & L.J. Chen is set up, and a new combination, G. pusilla (Aver.) Z.J. Liu & L.J. Chen, is made in the present paper. This new genus, Gunnaria, differs from its ally Ascocentrum by having a more or less cross-shaped pollinarium, sulcate or split pollinia each with a distinct caudicle attached to a common linear stipe much longer than either pollinia or viscidium, and strongly incurved side-lobes of the lip.
  • George W. C. HO, Shek Shing MAR, Richard M. K. SAUNDERS
    J Syst Evol. 2009, 47(6): 605-607.
    Populations of Thismia tentaculata (Burmanniaceae tribe Thismieae) are described and illustrated from Tai Mo Shan in Hong Kong, southern China. This represents the first report of the genus and tribe from continental China.