Table of Contents

18 March 2008, Volume 46 Issue 2
    Research Articles
  • George F. ESTABROOK
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 109-129.
    In the mid 19th century, systematic biologists realized that observable similarities and differences among a group of related species could be the basis for hypotheses about the evolutionary relationships among the species and their ancestors. Such hypotheses can be expressed as characters. A character is comprised of two or more character states of species considered to be similar with respect to a basis for comparison. The states of a character may also be arranged into a character state tree to hypothesize speciation events associated with changes from one character state to another. In the mid 20th century, some systematists realized that sometimes pairs of characters (or character state trees) could be incompatible as hypotheses, i.e., they could not both be true. Through the 1950s, ’60s and ’70s, tests for, and ways to resolve, incompatibilities were used to estimate an ancestor relation based on mutually compatible characters. An estimate was often shown as a diagram connecting ancestors to their immediate descendants (not quite correctly) called a phylogenetic tree. More recently, other applications of compatibility concepts have been developed, including: identify characters that appear to be random in the context of their data set; combine estimates of ancestor relations for subsets of taxa in a larger collection into a single estimate (a so-called supertree) for the whole collection; and interpret geographic patterns in an evolutionary context. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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  • Yin-Long QIU, George F. ESTABROOK
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 130-141.
    Phylogenetic relationships among the five key angiosperm lineages, Ceratophyllum, Chloranthaceae, eudicots, magnoliids, and monocots, have resisted resolution despite several large-scale analyses sampling taxa and characters extensively and using various analytical methods. Meanwhile, compatibility methods, which were explored together with parsimony and likelihood methods during the early development stage of phylogenetics, have been greatly under-appreciated and not been used to analyze the massive amount of sequence data to reconstruct the basal angiosperm phylogeny. In this study, we used a compatibility method on a data set of eight genes (mitochondrial atp1, matR, and nad5, plastid atpB, matK, rbcL, and rpoC2, and nuclear 18S rDNA) gathered in an earlier study. We selected two sets of characters that are compatible with more of the other characters than a random character would be with at probabilities of pM<0.1 and pM<0.5 respectively. The resulting data matrices were subjected to parsimony and likelihood bootstrap analyses. Our unrooted parsimony analyses showed that Ceratophyllum was immediately related to eudicots, this larger lineage was immediately related to magnoliids, and monocots were closely related to Chloranthaceae. All these relationships received 76%–96% bootstrap support. A likelihood analysis of the 8 gene pM<0.5 compatible site matrix recovered the same topology but with low support. Likelihood analyses of other compatible site matrices produced different topologies that were all weakly supported. The topology reconstructed in the parsimony analyses agrees with the one recovered in the previous study using both parsimony and likelihood methods when no character was eliminated. Parts of this topology have also been recovered in several earlier studies. Hence, this topology plausibly reflects the true relationships among the five key angiosperm lineages.
  • Qi-Zhi WANG, Xing-Jin HE, Song-Dong ZHOU, Yun-Ke WU, Yan YU, Yun-Li PANG
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 142-154.
    pleurum of Apiaceae in China. This paper reports chromosome numbers of six species and two varieties of Bupleurum, and for four species and two varieties their chromosome numbers are reported for the first time. The phylogeny of Bupleurum was investigated based on the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of 14 taxa from the Hengduan Mountains, 3 taxa from the North China (Hebei and Heilongjiang), and 16 taxa from Africa and the Mediterranean region. Varia-tions in chromosome numbers and the ITS sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships between Bupleurum species in Hengduan Mountains. The results showed that the Hengduan Mountains might represent one of the frequency and diversity centers for Bupleurum. The ancestors of Bupleurum species in the Hengduan Mountains may be related to the woody B. fruticosum in North Africa, or the species in the western Mediterranean region. It is postulated that the ancestral population migrated into Hengduan Mountains through the Middle East and the Caucasus. Furthermore, the neo-endemic B. mundtii in South Africa appeared to be a close relative of the species in the Hengduan Mountains. In the trend of basic chromosome number evolution, x = 8 should be regarded as the ancestral basic number, while x = 6, 7 as the derived ones. The Bupleurum species in the Hengduan Moun-tains have been undergoing changes in the basic chromosome numbers or the ploidy level. The ITS phylogenetic tree showed that the Chinese species were divided into two clades: one with the basic chromosome number x = 8, and the other with x = 6, 7. The results rejected the previous infrageneric classification of Bupleurum in China. We further suggested to raise B. marginatum var. stenophyllum to species rank based on the combined evidence from morphology, karyology, pollen morphology, and the ITS phylogenetic tree.
  • Shi-Quan WANG, Da-Ming ZHANG
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 155-162.
    This study revealed that there were common meiotic abnormalities on the fifth pair of chromosomes in Paeonia decomposita and P. intermedia. Short arms had a tremendous deviation between genetic distance and physical distance, when compared with the long arms. The genetic distance of the short arm was about a twenty-eighth (P. intermedia) and fiftieth (P. decomposita) of the long arm, whereas the physical distance was about one third of the long arm and the physical distance was over nine times longer than the genetic distance. In P. decomposita, the ratio between ring bivalents (both arms formed chiasma) and rod bivalents (only one arm formed chiasma) was 1.94 : 98.06, whereas in P. intermedia the ratio was 3.42 : 96.58. In both of the species, rod bivalents were much more than ring bivalents. Occurrence frequency of anaphase I bridges was low in P. decom-posita and P. intermedia, and the length of fragments varied in a range.
  • Xiao-Hong YU, Yi-Bo LUO, Ming DONG
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 163-174.
    The genus Cymbidium comprises three subgenera with ca. 50 species. Interactions between pollinators and plants have been studied in the two subgenera Cymbidium and Cyperorchis, but only a few studies in the subgenus Jensoa have been reported. Here we report on the reproductive characteristics of C. goeringii (in sub-genus Jensoa) in three populations in the southwest of Hunan Province, China, during the winter from December 2005 to March 2006. Floral phenological and morphological features, behavior of visitors, the breeding system, and fruit sets under natural conditions were studied. The flowers of C. goeringii were strongly fragrant, but did not present any rewards to the visitors. The flowering period of C. goeringii in the studied populations lasted about 40 days, and most flowers (about 60%) opened within 30 days. Flowers opened immediately when temperature increased obviously and reached to about 16 ℃. The flowering time of the pollinated flowers, unpollinated flow-ers and the flowers with pollinarium removed were similar. Two bees of Apidae, Apis cerana cerana (honeybee) and Anthophora melanognatha, were observed visiting flowers of C. goeringii, but only the honeybees performed as pollinators. The honeybees mostly visited the orchid flowers at 10:00–17:00 on sunny days with temperature above 10 ℃. A total of only thirteen visits were observed during 20 days of observation, indicating pollinators were rare. Honeybees directly landed on the upper surface of the labellum and inserted their heads into the flowers between column and labellum, while the hind legs trod on the surface of the curved downward mid-lobe of label-lum. When a honeybee landed on the labellum of a flower, the labellum moved up and down slightly. After the honeybee entered the flower further, its head might touch the foot of the column. At this time, the body of the honeybee was parallel with the upper surface of the labellum. Then the honeybee used its front legs to scratch on the callus ridges on the upper surface of the labellum, and its hind legs hooked the edges of the side lobe of label-lum, trying to exit forcibly from the flower. During exiting process, sometimes the honeybee’s body was arched owing to tension. In this case, the surface of the scutellum came into close contact with the viscidium and then pollinaria, together with the anther cap, were removed. When this honeybee visited next flower, the pollinaria would be adhered to the stigma when it arched its body during the exiting process. Three plant species flowered synchronously with C. goeringii in the studied areas, but their flowers were different with C. goeringii in color or shape. Because C. goeringii is rewardless to pollinators, the flowers probably attract visitors by olfactory stimu-lus. Breeding system experiments showed no spontaneous autogamy and pollination success relying on pollinators in C. goeringii. Artificial pollination resulted in 90% fruit set by induced autogamy, 100% by pollinating within clone, and 100% by xenogamous pollination, respectively. These results indicate that C. goeringii is highly self-compatible and the fruit production is pollen limited. Because pollinators are essential for fruit set of C. goeringii in natural habitats, protection of wild honeybee populations or apiculture is likely a simple but effective strategy to maintain the orchid populations.
  • Wen-Zhe LIU, Hua-Qin KANG, Hong-Chun ZHENG, Yi-Zhong FENG
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 175-182.
    Tapiscia sinensis, an endemic and rare tree under protection in China, takes 17 months to complete the cycle from floral primordium initiation to fruit maturation. The morphological and anatomical changes of flower and fruit in T. sinensis were investigated in this research. The flower blossoms in late May, and is fertilized in early June. Then the zygote immediately goes into dormancy before any cell division, and this status is maintained until next March. The dormant young fruit has several characters adapted to winter survival, such as cork layer formed on ovary surface and receptacle enclosing the fruit stalk etc. The fruit does not start developing until next April. Afterward it enlarges rapidly and completes its maturation by the end of September. Its extreme long sexual reproductive cycle is due to the zygote dormancy. Therefore the fruit of the preceding year and the flower of this year appear on the same branch in the summer. The dormancy of zygote and fruit maturation in the second year in T. sinensis supports the hypothesis that Tapiscia should be raised to family level. The unique reproductive feature and other characters of systematic value suggest that the systematic position of this genus requires further study.
  • Xiu-Yan LIN, Qiu-Fa PENG, Hong-Fei LU, Yue-Qiang DU, Bi-Ying TANG
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 183-193.
    Leaf anatomy of 21 species representing sect. Oleifera H. T. Chang and sect. Paracamellia Sealy in the genus Camellia was investigated using light microscopy. All the shapes of leaf epidermal cells were polygo-nal, and the patterns of anticlinal walls were sinuolate or sinuous, which were important to the classification of these two sections. The stomata were cyclocytic type and only present on the abaxial epidermis in both sampled sections. Seventeen leaf anatomical and cytologic characters were selected and used for the cluster analysis and principle components analyses performed by PAST program. Congruent results were obtained, with sect. Oleifera and sect. Paracamellia consistently grouping in two different clades, and some related species nesting together. This study provided leaf anatomical evidence for the merge of C. lanceoleosa H. T. Chang & J. S. Chiu and C. fluviatilis Hand.-Mazz.; of C. brevistyla Coh. St., C. obtusifolia H. T. Chang, and C. puniceiflora H. T. Chang; and of C. grijsii Hance and C. shensiensis H. T. Chang. In addition, it was also proved that C. tenii Sealy should be segregated from sect. Paracamellia and placed in the sect. Corallina Sealy. For further interest, we suggested that C. phaeoclada H. T. Chang be recognized as a subspecies of C. microphylla (Merr.) Chien. Overall, the results presented provided new insights into the relationships within a number of Camellia plants and sug-gested directions for future studies.
  • Jin-Bo SHEN, Hong-Fei LU, Qiu-Fa PENG, Ju-Fang ZHENG, Yu-Mei TIAN
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 194-204.
    Sixty-five leaf samples in sect. Oleifera H. T. Chang, sect. Paracamellia Sealy, sect. Camellia, and sect. Thea (L.) Dyer of genus Camellia L. were discriminated directly with an OMNI-sampler accessory on the basis of biochemical profiles and a hierarchical dendrogram was finally constructed. The results showed that the infrared spectra of Camellia were fingerprint-like patterns which were highly typical for different taxa. The hierarchical dendrogram based on principal component analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) data confirmed most of morphological classifications of the four sections proposed in previous works. Infrared spectra of leaves are of taxonomic value in genus Camellia, and this technique can be widely used for identification and classification of other taxa when standard spectra are available. The relationships between sect. Oleifera and sect. Paracamellia, subsect. Lucidissima H. T. Chang and subsect. Reticulata H. T. Chang in sect. Camellia, and the species/varieties were also discussed, as many dissensions about the classification exist between Chang’s and Ming’s system.
  • Xiao-Li XING, Xu-Yin LIN, Chang-Ping CHEN, Ya-Hui GAO, Jun-Rong LIANG, Hong-Zhou HUANG, Bing-Qian LI, King-Chung HO, Yu-Zao QI
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 205-212.
    Three species and one variety of cryptomonad flagellates belonging to three genera were observed with the scanning electron microscope in sea water samples from Tolo Harbor (Hong Kong), Changjiang River Estuary and Xiamen Harbor. They are Hemiselmis sp. Novarino, Plagioselmis prolonga Butcher ex Novarino, Lucas & Morrall, Plagioselmis prolonga var. nordica Novarino, Lucas & Morrall and Teleaulax acuta (Butcher) Hill. The taxonomic characteristics, ecological habit and distribution of the above species are described and the LM and SEM photographs of the species are also presented. This is the first record of the genus Hemiselmis Parke in the China Sea, and the species Plagioselmis prolonga and Teleaulax acuta have records of producing blooms in the China Sea.
  • Sheng-Guo JI, Ke-Ke HUO, Jun WANG, Sheng-Li PAN
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 213-219.
    Phylogenetic relationships within Huperziaceae were studied using chloroplast rbcL gene and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer sequences. In the rbcL sequence analysis, 25 species were analyzed and they were resolved into two major clades. One clade corresponded with sections Huperzia and Serratae of the genus Huperzia, while the other clade contained Phlegmariurus and the tropical species of Huperzia. Therefore, Phlegmariurus is derived from Huperzia. In the psbA-trnH sequence analysis, 17 species were sampled and they were resolved into two major clades with high bootstrap values. Both Chinese species of Huperzia and Phlegmariurus formed sister groups, and within Chinese Huperzia, sect. Huperzia and sect. Serratae formed sister groups.
  • Xiao-Fang DENG, Dian-Xiang ZHANG
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 220-225.
    Mussaenda lancipetala X. F. Deng & D. X. Zhang, a new species of Rubiaceae from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by its reverse herkogamous sexual system, its ovate-lanceolate corolla lobes with caudate apex, and corolla tube covered with sparse farinose pubescence, by which it is clearly distinguished from other species of Mussaenda.
  • Xiao-Feng JIN, Chao-Zong ZHENG
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 226-229.
    Carex damiaoshanensis X. F. Jin & C. Z. Zheng, a new species of Cyperaceae from Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated. This new species resembles C. scaposa C. B. Clarke in its arundinaceous leaves and spikes arranged in a compound panicle, but differs from the latter in having glabrous culms, cauline leaves, and rachises of secondary inflorescences, panicle with fewer secondary inflorescences, and spikes with sparse pistillate flowers. Micromorphology of culms, cauline leaves, peduncles of secondary inflorescences, and achenes under SEM supports the recognition of this new species as well.
    J Syst Evol. 2008, 46(2): 230-235.
    Since the initial description, the name Musa dasycarpa Kurz (1867) has been unclear to most botanists. It has usually been synonymized with M. velutina H. Wendl. & Drude (1875). However, although the original diagnosis was very short, “fruits hairy”, it is adequate. Thus, according to Vienna Codes, M. dasycarpa Kurz has priority over M. velutina H. Wendl. & Drude. The aim of this study is to settle the true identity and to update the description of M. dasycarpa Kurz. For that purpose the names M. dasycarpa and M. velutina are typified. In addi-tion, critical notes regarding M. assamica Bull. are given; it is neotypified here, and considered as conspecific with M. sanguinea Hook. f.