Table of Contents

18 November 2007, Volume 45 Issue 6
    Research Articles
  • JIN Biao, LI Na, JIA Ni, ZHOU Wu-Zhong, WANG Li, SHANG Chih-Bei
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 753-768.
    To a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanism between reproductive organs and pollinators in Viburnum, this paper reports reproductive characteristics of Viburnum macrocephalum f. keteleeri, including floral characteristics, anatomical features of reproductive organs, pollen viability, pollen/ovule ratio (P/O), pollinators, pollen tube growth path, breeding system, and fertilization. This species possesses a compound umbel including fertile and infertile flowers. The fertile flower has one pistil and five stamens; each pistil has a dry stigma and an ovary that contains one anatropous ovule. The stamens and pistils of the infertile flower are normal initially but degenerate later during flowering; degenerated stamens are mainly characterized by disappearance of stamens, short filaments, absence of filaments, or different size of anthers, whereas degenerated pistils have smaller or ruptured stigmas; occasionally, pistils and stamens become petal-like. Pollen viability of individual flowers declined significantly 4–5 d after pollen dissemination. Within population, pollen viability of all flowers rapidly decreased at the end of April. Pollen/ovule ratio (P/O) was 12800–18700. Pollinators for this species include bees, flies, butterflies and beetles, but bees and butterflies are the main ones. Artificial pollination treatments demonstrated that this species was self-incompatible and seed production depended on pollinator visits. Pollen dissemination of fertile flowers mainly occurred during 9:00 am–4:00 pm, and the peak of pollinator visits was 11:00 am–3:00 pm. Pollen grains usually germinated within 1 h after pollination and pollen tubes penetrated the stigma through the papilla clearance and then continued to grow along the transmitting tissue in center of style. Some pollen tubes reached the ovary 18 h later and grew into the ovule through micropyle within 20 h after pollination. In addition, formation of sterile flowers, adaptive floral structures, low production of fruits, and growth characteristics of pollen tubes were discussed.
  • SONG Ping, TIAN Xian-Hua, REN Yi
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 769-782.
    The floral morphogenesis of Caltha palustris L. and Trollius buddae Schipcz. was observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The primordia of all floral organs initiate spirally and centripetally and develop centripetally. The spiral initiation sequence may be a basic pattern in Ranunculaceae. The primordia of bracts, sepals, and other floral organs are different in shape: the bract primordia are triangle, the sepal primordia crescent, and the petal (in Trollius), stamen, and carpel primordia hemispheric. This may indicate that the bracts, the sepals and other floral organs are different in origin. The petals are retarded in early developmental stages in Trollius buddae Schipcz, and have purses at the base. The retarded petals are very common in Ranunculaceae and the purse of the petal is similar to that of some Aquilegia species. The microspores in a longitudinal series of stamens develop centripetally in Caltha and Trollius; this may be a basic pattern in Ranunculaceae. The carpel primordia are plicate. In the developmental process of the carpels, the stigmatic tissue appears from the apex of the style and is decurrent along the ventral suture in Caltha, but there is no obvious stigmatic tissue in Trollius. Based on floral morphogenesis characteristics as well as the results from molecular systematics, comparative morphology and palynology studies, we consider that Caltha is not closely related to Trollius and that these two genera should not be treated in the same tribe.
  • XUE Hua-Jie, YAN Mao-Hua, LU Chang-Mei, WANG Nian-He, WU Guo-Rong
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 783-795.
    In order to resolve the relationships among species from Angelica s.s. and its allied genera in East Asia, ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) sequences of 44 taxa were used to analyze their sequence divergence and to construct three phylogenetic trees in this paper. Three taxa were used as the outgroup. Some conclusions could be achieved as follows. (1) Angelica s.s., Czernaevia, and Coelopleurum were closely related, but the relationship between Ostericum and them was ulterior. It was also supported by analyses on fruit anatomy and chemical constitutes. Ostericum was proposed as a relatively independent genus. (2) Results from ITS sequences supported the view that Angelica s.s. was monophyletic and could be divided into several sections. (3) Results from ITS sequences and chemical constitutes indicated that the relationship between Peucedanum and Angelica s.s. was very close. (4) Results from ITS sequences as well as from conformation and chemical constitutes showed that the divergence of A. sinensis from other taxa of Angelica s.s. was great. The taxonomic position of A. sinensis should be reconsidered. (5) Both analyses of ITS sequences and chemical constitutes revealed that Ligusticum was not a natural group.
  • JIN Xiao-Hua, LI Heng, LI De-Zhu
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 796-807.
    Four new species, Cheirostylis calcarata X. H. Jin & S. C. Chen, C. malipoensis X. H. Jin & S. C. Chen, Gastrochilus alatus X. H. Jin & S. C. Chen, and G. malipoensis X. H. Jin & S. C. Chen, together with seven new records, Bulbophyllum rolfei, B. ovatilabellum, Eria cristata, G. affinis, Listera micrantha, Luisia macrotis, and Oberonia teres, of Orchidaceae are reported from Yunnan, China. Cheirostylis calcarata differs from its ally C. spathulata by having a vertical rhizome, a spurred lip, and stylidia much longer than rostellum arms; Cheirostylis malipoensis from C. yunnanensis by its internodes with constricted ends, hypochile with a longitudinal septum, and stylidia shorter than rostellum arms; Gastrochilus alatus from G. distichus by having yellow flowers, and wider and membranous epichile with longitudinal ridge centrally; Gastrochilus malipoensis from G. calceolaris by its racemose inflorescences, and glabrous and semicircular epichile. The new record, Bulbophyllum rolfei, is characterized by its dorsal sepal half as long as the lateral sepals, inflorescence equaling or exceeding leaves, lateral sepals connate for at least part of their length; Bulbophyllum ovatilabellum by its forked lateral veins in dorsal sepal and a U-shaped callus on the lip; Eria cristata by its purple and reflexed bracts, white to cream lip with three calli adaxially; Gastrochilus affinis by its dentate-margined epichile with two ridges ranging from base to apex; Listera micrantha by its trilobed-tipped lip; Luisia macrotis by lateral sepals as long as lip, petals less than 5 mm wide, and lip dark purple with cordate epichile; Oberonia teres by its terete leaves and emarginated midlobe.
  • XIONG Yuan-Xin, LUO Ying-Chun, SHANGGUAN Fa-Zhi, WANG Hui
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 808-812.
    Corybas (Orchidaceae), a genus of some 100 species, is distributed from the Himalayas and southern China, through the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and New Guinea, to Australia, New Caledonia, Tasmania, New Zealand and the islands of Polynesia. There are three recorded species in China, C. sinii Tang & Wang, C. daliensis Tang & Wang, and C. taiwanensis T. P. Lin & S. Y. Leu. In this paper, a new species, Corybas fanjingshanensis from Fanjing mountain nature reserve is described and illustrated. It is related to C. taliensis Tang & Wang, but differs by having rather short bract and lateral sepals and lacking lamellae on the disc. Its habitat and population size was reported in details.
  • GUO Bao-Lin, HE Shun-Zhi, ZHONG Guo-Yue, XIAO Pei-Gen
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 813-821.
    Two new species of the genus Epimedium (Berberidaceae) from China, E. pseudowushanense B. L. Guo and E. qingchengshanense G. Y. Zhong & B. L. Guo, are described and illustrated. Epimedium pseudowushanense, distributed from southeast of Guizhou to north of Guangxi, has been previously misidentified as E. wushanense T. S. Ying because of the similarity in their leaflet shape, but they are two distinct species because of the obvious difference in their flower structure. Epimedium pseudowushanense is possibly similar to E. mikinorii Stearn, a species from Enshi, Hubei, in having petals with a very slender spur and a wrinkled lamina, but differs in the spur shorter, only 10–15 mm long, the lamina smaller, the leaflets narrowly ovate to lanceolate, sparsely white villose and glaucous on abaxial side, the petals purplish or purple with yellow lamina, and the inner sepals broadly ovate or ovate, 8–13 mm long. Epimedium qingchengshanense G. Y. Zhong & B. L. Guo, known only from Dujiangyan, Sichuan, is one of the Epimedium species with long filaments and most similar to E. fargesii Franch., but differs by having smaller flowers, bigger, rounded petal lamina without lobes, and purple filaments.
  • YIN Hong-Xiang, ZHANG Hao, XUE Dan
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 822-827.
    Paris polyphylla Smith var. emeiensis H. X. Yin, H. Zhang & D. Xue, a new variety of Paris from Mt. Emei, Sichuan, China, is described and illustrated. The variety is similar to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz., but differs by having petioles shorter, 2–5 mm long, leaves narrower, lanceolate, 1.5–2.5 cm wide, pedicels short, 6–10 (–13) mm long, petals filiform, 2–3 cm long, free portion of connective shorter, 0.2–0.5 mm long. The constituent of steroid saponin from the new variety and other varieties of P. polyphylla Smith were compared by HPLC analysis. The main constituents of steroid saponin from the variety yunnanensis and P. polyphylla var. pseudothibetica H. Li were diosgenin glycoside and pennogenin glycoside, respectively. However, steroid saponins from the new variety, P. polyphylla var. polyphylla, P. polyphylla var. stenophylla Franch, P. polyphylla var. latifolia F. T. Wang & C. Yu Chang, and P. polyphylla var. alba H. Li & R. J. Mitchell are trace so as to elucidate the relationship between the new variety and its relative tax
  • GU Hai-Feng, WANG Yan
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 828-840.
    Resting cysts and vegetative cells of Ensiculifera Balech and Fragilidium Balech have never been reported in China Sea. Such kinds of cysts were collected in the East China Sea and were allowed to germinate. The cyst of Ensiculifera sp. is spherical with a diameter of 22 µm. The cyst consists of two layers and is full of greenish granules, with a bright red body inside. The cyst wall is covered with short organic spines (2 µm long). The cell of Ensiculifera sp. comprises a conical epitheca and a rounded hypotheca, with the dimension of 17.7 µm long and 12.5 µm wide on the average. The plate pattern is po, x, 4′, 3a, 7′′, 5c, 4s, 5′′′, 2′′′′. The cysts of Fragilidium mexicanum Balech are spherical with the diameter ranging from 54–60 µm. They are full of pale white granules and brown protoplasm, with a bright yellow body present. The archeopyle is spherical. The cells of F. mexicanum are 45.3 µm long and 42.8 µm wide, with the plate formula of po, 5′, 7′′, 10c, 7s, 7′′′, 2′′′′, 1P. The cyst of Fragilidium sp. is also spherical with a diameter of 45 µm, which is similar to that of F. mexicanum except that the yellow body is not present. The cells of Fragilidium sp. are 41.6 µm long and 35.3 µm wide with the plate formula of po, 5′, 7′′, 7′′′, 2′′′′, 1P. The Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of Ensiculifera sp. and the small subunit (18S) rDNA of Fragilidium spp. were amplified and sequenced. Their phylogenetic positions agree with the morphological taxonomy.
  • GAO Xin-Fen
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 841-848.
    This paper reports two newly recorded species from China, namely Indigofera caloneura with 1-foliolate leaves from Yunnan and I. cordifolia with simple leaves from Guangdong. There are another three species with simple leaves of Indigofera in China. Based on the microscopic observation of specimens, morphological characters which include habit, stem, leaf shape and size, indumentum, stipule and stipel, raceme, corolla color, standard shape and indumentum, anther, pod shape and size, and seed number per pod etc. in the five species are described and compared among one another. The five most important characters are chosen to discuss for taxonomic treatment.
  • DENG Yun-Fei, WANG Hong, ZHOU Shi-Shun
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 849-854.
    Two newly recorded species of Acanthaceae from China, Strobilanthes quadrifaria (Nees) Y. F. Deng and S. serrata J. B. Imlay, are described and illustrated. Lectotype of S. quadrifaria is designated. .
  • LIU Qiang, YIN Shou-Hua, HUANG Wen, YIN Jian-Tao
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 855-856.
    Phalaenopsis lobbii (Rchb. f.) H. R. Sweet, a newly recorded species of Orchidaceae from China, is described. This species resembles Phalaenopsis gibbosa and Phalaenopsis parishii, but differs by having white flowers, not zigzag rachis and an irregular-subdenticulate callus between the two side-lobes of the lip.
  • CHEN Jin-Yong, ZHANG Zuo-Shuang, HONG De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 857-861.
    A new status and a new synonym in the genus Syringa are proposed based on population sampling, examination of herbarium specimens, character analysis and multivariate analysis. Syringa wolfii C. K. Schneid. is here treated as S. villosa ssp. wolfii rather than S. reflexa ssp. wolfii, and its lectotype is designated here. Also designated are the lectotypes of five synonyms: S. bretschneiderii, S. emodi var. rosea, S. villosa var. hirsuta, S. formosissima, and S. robusta.
  • WANG Kang, YANG Yong
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 862-869.
    Two specific names, viz. Pseudotaxus chienii (Cheng) Cheng and P. liana J. Silba, were published within Pseudotaxus and leaf width was considered to be discontinuous between the two species. Width of leaf blades of herbarium specimen was measured and analyzed statistically with student’s t test and XY PLOT. Though a significant difference of leaf width was indicated between specimens from Zhejiang and those from Jiangxi, Hunan and Guangxi, XY PLOT suggests that the difference on the variation of leaf width, suggested by J. Silba, is continuous. As a result, Pseudotaxus liana J. Silba was reduced to synonymy of P. chienii (Cheng) Cheng.
  • DUAN Lin-Dong, LIN Qi
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 870-879.
    Based on examinations of specimens and field observations of Ophiorrhiza from China, O. aureolina Lo f. qiongyaensis Lo and O. humilis Tseng were regarded as new synonyms of O. pumila Champ. ex Benth., O. hainanensis Tseng as a new synonym of O. nutans C. B. Clarke, O. kwangsiensis Merr. ex Li and O. nigricans Lo as new synonyms of O. japonica Bl., and O. longzhouensis Lo and O. paniculiformis Lo as new synonyms of O. cantoniensis Hance.
  • WU Xiang-Wu, ZHOU Zhi-Yan*, WANG Yong-Dong
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 880-883.
    Two morphotaxa of ginkgoalean fossil plants from China bear illegitimate specific names, viz. Sphenobaiera biloba S. N. Feng (1977) and S. rugata Z. Q. Wang (Dec. 1984), that are heterotypic later homonyms of S. biloba Prynada (1938) and S.? rugata Z. Y. Zhou (Mar. 1984) respectively. Under Art. 53.1 and 7.3 of the Vienna Code, new specific names are proposed to supersede these illegitimate names. Two other names, viz. Baiera ziguiensis F. S. Meng (1987) and Ginkgoites elegans S. Yang, B. N. Sun & G. L. Shen (1988), were not validly published, because no nomenclatural type was definitely indicated. New species are instituted for the two morphotaxa here. Although the specific name Ginkgoites elegans Cao (1992) was antedated by Ginkgoites elegans S. Yang, B. N. Sun & G. L. Shen (1988), it still remains available for use, as the latter name has no status under the Vienna Code (Art. 12, 37) and thus no priority over Ginkgoites elegans Z. Y. Cao.
  • PAN Xiao-Yun, GENG Yu-Peng, Alejandro SOSA, ZHANG Wen-Ju, LI Bo, CHEN Jia-Kuan,
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 884-900.
    In this review, we present a detailed account of Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligatorweed), including A. philoxeroides description, intraspecific variation from native to introduced regions, its life history strategies, invasion mechanisms, and management strategies. Alternanthera philoxeroides is a herbaceous amphibious weed of Amaranthaceae, native to South America, distributed from Buenos Aires Province (39° S) to south Brazil. It was first described by Martius in 1826, and consists of several taxa in both its native and non-native ranges. Current knowledge indicates that two forms of alligator weed exist in Argentina: A. philoxeroides f. philoxeroides in the southern range and A. philoxeroides f. angustifolia in the northern range. In Argentina, both forms set fruits and produce viable seeds. Alternanthera philoxeroides is now found as a serious weed from tropical to warm temperate regions, including the USA, China, India, South-East Asia, Australia and New Zealand. It is thought to have been brought to China during the 1930s, and later widely cultivated and spread in southern China as fodder during 1950s. The invasions of alligatorweed in China have caused considerable concerns, and now it is one of the 12 most harmful alien invasive species in China. Alligatorweed is found on stationary and slow moving water bodies, creeks, channels, riverbanks and associated areas that are occasionally flooded. It can also be found in terrestrial habitats as a pasture weed within urban environments. Alligatorweed does not produce viable seed in China and reproduces vegetatively from vegetative fragments (stems, rhizome or root tubes), which can be transported by water movement, boats, machinery and vehicles, and in hay. Movement between river catchments is common because of the human activities. Alligatorweed forms a floating mass which spreads out over the water. Its growth disrupts the ecology of banks and shallows and crowds out other plant species, restricts water flow, increases sedimentation, aggravates flooding, limits access and use by man and provides a favorable breeding area for disease vectors. We need better understanding of the biology and ecology of alligatorweed to assess the efficiency of control methods in any theoretical framework. According to the knowledge of the life history strategy of alligatorweed, we suggest that metapopulation theory is a good tool to improve management efficiency from watershed and regional perspectives.
  • LIN Yu, TAN Dun-Yan
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(6): 901-916.
    Enantiostyly, deflection of style to left or to right side of floral axis, is a kind of style polymorphism. Based on organization of left- and right-styled flowers present on individual plants, enantiostyly can be expressed as two quite distinct forms: monomorphic and dimorphic enantiostyly. In monomorphic enantiostyly, individual plants produce both floral forms, either mixed within an inflorescence or segregated between left- and right-styled inflorescences, and this condition is not a genetic polymorphism. In dimorphic enantiostyly, plants are exclusively left- and right-styled, and this condition is a genetic polymorphism. Based on patterns of arrangement of style and stamens in individual flowers, enantiostyly can be expressed as reciprocal and nonreciprocal enantiostyly. Reciprocal enantiostyly is commonly associated with the reciprocal deflection of a pollinating anther, but in nonreciprocal enantiostyly there are no pollinating anther deflections. Enantiostyly has been reported in 11 families of angiosperm. It is generally considered to play an important role in (1) protecting the functional pistil and stamens, (2) insuring reproduction by selfing, and (3) increasing male fitness and outcrossing rates by reducing sexual interference between female and male function. Enantiostyly has been hotly-debated in plant reproductive biology. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze recent advances in enantiostyly research, with emphases on 1) types of enantiostyly and morphological differentiation and floral characteristics of mirror-image flowers; 2) taxonomy, genetics and evolution of angiosperms that exhibit enantiostyly; and 3) the evolutionary biology of mating patterns and pollinating characteristics associated with enantiostyly. Finally, prospects for further research in this area are discussed. Our review provides a database for further study of the evolutionary biology of enantiostylous species and points out the significance of enantiostyly in the evolution of breeding systems of plants.