Table of Contents

18 July 2007, Volume 45 Issue 4
    Research Articles
  • WANG Wen-Tsai, XIE Lei
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 425-457.
    Clematis sect. Tubulosae is revised in this paper. Nine species, two varieties, and three forms are recognized and classified into two subsections. An identification key is provided, and each species is described and illustrated. Brief taxonomic history is given, along with a summary of pollen morphology and geographical distribution. The relationships among the infrasectional groups are also discussed: Subsect. Pinnatae, characterized by its scandent habit, bisexual flowers, white or pinkish, at length spreading, obovate-oblong sepals, and tricolpate pollen, is regarded as the more primitive group, whereas subsect. Tubulosae, characterized by its erect habit, usually polygamous flowers, blue or purple, erect, usually narrowly oblong sepals, and usually pantoporate pollen, is regarded as the more advanced group of the section. Subsect. Pinnatae is believed to have originated from sect. Clematis in Central or East China, and subsect. Tubulosae might be derived from subsect. Pinnatae.
  • WU Zheng-Yi, WANG Jin-Xiu, TANG Yan-Cheng
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 458-472.
    The confusion of Huma (胡麻) in Chinese history was discussed after an introduction of Chih Wu Ming Shi T’u K’ao of the Qing Dynasty and its author—Wu Qijun’s contribution to Chinese botany. The morphological characters and distribution of Huma and Jusheng (巨胜) documented in ancient Chinese literature were comparatively studied. Simultaneously, other questions about the Chinese medicament and medicine were inspected in the backgrounds of historical development and social stratum differentiation. We concluded that the earliest recorded Huma in Chinese literature should be Linum usitatissimum. The Chinese name for this plant has been used by the folks until well into modern times. Jusheng (巨胜) should be Sesamum indicum. The reason for the confusion of these two names was also explored. It was further inferred that the confusion of names for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in the similarity of their property and function while the difference of their morphology and distribution was not taken seriously. We also concluded that Shên Nung Pên Ts’ao Ching was forged by TAO Hongjing (陶弘景) in his Collected Commentaries on Pên Ts’ao Ching but attributed to an ancient author, Shennong (神农). In this book TCM was classified by their property and function, which became the root cause of the confusion of Chinese names for TCM from then on. Some suggestions were also given for the development of Chinese materia medica in the future.
  • XIAO Pei-Gen, JIANG Yan, LI Ping, LUO Yi-Bo, LIU Yong
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 473-487.
    Beimu, one of the most commonly used Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), is
    derived from the bulbs of some fritillaries. In recent years, a large number of new species and
    infraspecific taxa of the genus Fritillaria have been described from China, with total number
    of taxa of 80 species, 52 varieties, and 6 forms. The dramatic increase of new taxa of the
    Chinese fritillaries has influenced the investigation, application, quality control and
    commodities circulation of the CMM “Beimu”. We undertook a comprehensive study of the
    morphological, geographical, phytochemical and historical aspects of Chinese medicinal
    fritillaries, as well as their current application. We treated the source plants of “Beimu” from a
    pharmacophylogenetic point of view as the following six groups. (l) Zhebeimu (浙贝母) is a
    general name of bulbs mainly derived from the cultivated Fritillaria thunbergii in Zhejiang
    and Jiangsu provinces. It contains D/E trans cevanine group alkaloids, predominantly
    verticine, isoverticine, and verticinone. No D/E cis cevanine group alkaloids were detected.
    (2) Yibeimu (伊贝母) consists of F. walujewii and F. pallidiflora, which are distributed in
    Xingjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Unlike Zhebeimu, Yibeimu contains D/E cis cevanine
    group alkaloids, of which imperaline is representative; no D/E trans form of cevanine group
    alkaloids has so far been found. (3) Pingbeimu (平贝母) is obtained from cultivated F.
    ussuriensis in northeastern China. It contains both D/E trans and cis forms of cevanine group
    alkaloids. (4) Chuanbeimu (川贝母) is the most important medicinally used Beimu; it is
    derived mainly from F. cirrhosa, F. przewalskii, and F. unibracteata in the Hengduan
    mountains and their adjacent regions. These three species all have smaller bulbs than the other
    species and are the main source of “Qingbei” (青贝), a kind of Beimu of the highest quality.
    Fritillaria cirrhosa, distributed in Xizang, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Qinghai, shows many
    morphological variations, and towards its northwestern limit is replaced by a very closely
    related species, F. taipaiensis. In addition, the bulbs of F. delavayi, called Lubei (炉贝), are
    also in the group of Chuanbeimu. All kinds of Chuanbeimu contain both D/E trans and D/E
    cis cevanine group alkaloids. (5) Hubei Beimu (湖北贝母) is obtained mainly from bulbs of
    cultivated F. hupehensis, which is very closely related to F. monantha. It contains both D/E
    trans and cis forms of cevanine group alkaloids; verticine and isoverticine are representative
    of the D/E trans form, and hupehenine, hupeheninoside, hupehenrine, and hupehenizine are
    representative of the D/E cis form. (6) Anhui Beimu (安徽贝母) is derived from F. anhuiensis
    and contains only D/E trans cevanine group alkaloids. The six groups of fritillaries have six
    “Dao-di” (genuine) localities of origin. This is in accordance with current application and
    marketing. All except Anhui Beimu are recorded in the latest edition of Pharmacopoeia of the
    People’s Republic of China (2005 ed., Vol. 1). As a result of this study, we advocate that the
    publication and naming of new taxa of the most important economic plants should be more
  • YAN Hai-Fei, PENG Ching-I, HU Chi-Ming, HAO Gang
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 488-496.
    Primula obconica has been cultivated widely as a popular garden plant. In order to
    discover the pattern of genetic diversity and the evolutionary process, a total of 278
    individuals from 17 populations throughout its distribution in China were analyzed using
    chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSRs) markers. Four loci and a total of 14 haplotypes were
    identified by our data set. The total gene diversity (HT =0.971) is high, while gene diversity
    within populations (HS=0.028) is low. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) shows that
    about 98% variation is among populations. The results suggest that past fragmentation and
    limited dispersal ability of seeds might play important roles in forming the present genetic
    structure. A significantly higher value of Nst than that of Gst indicates that closely related
    haplotypes are often found in the same area, and we found two different groups in the
    minimum spanning tree (MST), which occupy different geographic regions. Furthermore,
    older haplotypes were detected in the two groups, respectively. Possible refugia are inferred in
    western Hubei Province and SW China during the glacial period.
  • MA Ling, QIANG Sheng
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 497-504.
    rch Laboratory, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China)
    Abstract “Huangyinghua” is a popular cut-flower in China, but it is unclear as to whether
    “Huangyinghua” is an invasive Solidago canadensis or not. The genetic relationship of a total
    of 45 samples of “Huangyinghua” with S. canadensis, and S. decurrens were investigated
    using AFLP technique so as to determine the identity of “Huangyinghua”. Genomic DNA was
    digested with EcoRI and MseI enzymes and amplified with six E+3 and M+3 primer
    combinations. AFLP analysis produced 661 endonucleotide discernable bands, of which 639
    (96.61%) were polymorphic. Cluster analysis through using UPGMA method indicated that
    “Huangyinghua” and S. canadensis were clustered into the same group that was different
    from S. decurrens. Sequence analysis based on the ITS regions showed that their sequences of
    5.8S rDNA were the same, and the differences were found only in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions.
    ITS phylogenetic trees of the tested samples and closely-related species were reconstructed
    based on our sequence data in combination with those from GenBank. Based on the trees,
    “Huangyinghua” was found to belong to S. canadensis complex, but not to S. decurrens.
    Moreover, it was found that there were considerable genetic variation in both
    “Huangyinghua” and S. canadensis. Therefore, the cut-flower “Huangyinghua” may be
    invasive, and proper measures should be taken to control the further spread of its propagules.
  • ZHANG Shou-Gong, YANG Wen-Hua, LI Mao-Xue, HAN Su-Ying, WANG Jian-Hua, SUN Xiao-Mei, WANG Xiao-Shan, QI Li-Wang
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 505-512.
    Using the squash method for chromosomes, cytological characters in pollen
    mother cells (PMC) and pollen development traits of Larix principis-rupprechtii were
    investigated. Our results showed that the PMC meiosis of L. principis-rupprechtii began in
    autumn, remained at the diffuse diplotene stage through the dormancy of the plant during
    winter and re-started the next spring to complete the process. It is mainly characterized by the
    lack of synchronization of meiosis in the same anther and by the relatively quick processes of
    every meiosis stage. After the re-start of meiosis, all the PMCs reached the tetrad stage within
    three days. The main configuration of bivalents were rings caused by more than two
    chromosome exchanges on the arms. Rod-bivalents produced by chromosome exchange on
    only one arm were rarely observed in a few cells. The average configuration was
    10.62II+1.38I. Of meiosis Metaphase II, there were patterns of parallel or perpendicularity,
    forming eudipleural or tetrahedral tetrads, which are also the major tetrad types in the
    monocots and dicots. After one week at the tetrad stage, callose cell walls started to dissolve,
    then the four cells separated, and dispersed into the pollen cell, forming independent
    single-nucleus pollen grains. Afterwards, the haploid nucleolus underwent further cycles of
    mitotic division, resulting in the formation of five-celled pollen with two prothallial cells, one
    tube cell, one stalk cell and one body cell.
  • ZHOU Shou-Biao, YU Ben-Qi, LUO Qi, HU Jin-Rong, BI De
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 513-522.
    radiata在染色体数目和核型上存在较大的变异。通过对不同居群的石蒜核型研究, 可以为石蒜和石蒜
    居群进行了细胞学研究。结果表明, 6个石蒜居群的染色体数目和核型分别为: 霍山居群
    2n=44=28st+8t+8T, 2n=22=6st+12t+4T; 黄山居群2n=22=22t, 2n=22=18st+4t, 2n=21=12st+7t+2T; 滁州居
    群2n=33=33t; 马鞍山居群2n=33=18st+15T, 2n=25=1m+20st+2t+2T; 宣城居群2n=22=20st+2T,
    2n=21=1m+20st; 杭州居群2n=22=12st+4t+6T, 2n=21=18st+3t。其中, 部分居群的核型类型为首次报道;
    并首次发现了四倍体的石蒜居群。此外, 对石蒜的核型进化和多倍体起源进行了初步探讨。
  • HOU Yuan-Tong, XU Chong-Mei, QU Chang-You, BA Xiao-Ge, LU Fa-Jun, LI Fa-Zeng
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 523-537.
    The morphology of fruits in 16 species, one variety and one form of Polygonum
    sect. Polygonum from China was studied under stereoscope and scanning electron microscope
    (SEM). Fruits were observed heterocarpic in five species of the annuals of Polygonum sect.
    Polygonum, viz., shorter fruits (shorter or sub-equal to persistent perianths) vs. longer fruits
    (obviously longer than persistent perianths). Based on morphology of achene surface, fruits of
    Polygonum sect. Polygonum can be divided into two types: (1) achenes smooth and shiny, but
    not tuberculate or verrucate; (2) achenes scabrous, but not or slightly shiny, tuberculate or
    verrucate. The first type includes two subtypes: (1) achenes shallowly waved, e.g., P.
    cognatum, P. argyrocoleum and P. acerosum; (2) achenes with irregular hollows or stellate
    plications, e.g., P. plebeium, P. polycnemoides and P. shiheziense. The second type includes
    four subtypes: (1) achenes irregularly verrucate, e.g., P. intramongolicum; (2) achenes with
    scattered tubercules, e.g., P. humifusum and the shorter fruits of P. patulum; (3) achenes with
    tubercules standing in a queue, e.g., P. aviculare, P. tachengense and shorter fruits of P.
    urumqiense; (4) achenes with tubercules scattered in upper part and hollows or stellate
    plications in lower part, e.g., the longer fruits of P. aviculare, P. aviculare f. erectum, P.
    patulum and P. rigidum. The heterocarpy and micro-morphological characteristics of fruits are
    valuable to identify species and varieties in Section Polygonum. In this study, the systematic
    position of Polygonum aviculare L. var. fusco-ochreatum (Kom.) A. J. Li was determined and
    restated as Polygonum fusco-ochreatum Kom. and a new species, Polygonum huichunense F.
    Z. Li, Y. T. Hou & C. Y. Qu, was described.
  • WU Xue-Lian, TAN Dun-Yan
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 538-550.
    Diptychocarpus strictus is an early spring ephemeral plant mainly distributed in
    Junggar Basin of China. It is one of the few species of Cruciferae that has heterocarpy on the
    same raceme. The upper and lower flowers in a raceme develop into two kinds of siliques that
    differ in morphology and in manner of dehiscence. This paper deals primarily with the floral
    syndromes and breeding system of D. strictus. The results can be summarized as follows. (1)
    This species has two floral morphs, purple-flowered and white-flowered, and the color of
    flowers is stably inherited. The ratio of the two morphs within a population is close to 1:1. (2)
    There are significant differences between the two morphs in anther length of the longer
    stamens in the upper part flowers of a raceme and in length of petal and style of the lower
    flowers in a raceme (P<0.01). Additionally, there are significant differences between the two
    morphs in length of outer sepals, petals, filaments of longer stamens, ovary, and style between
    upper and lower flowers in a raceme (P<0.01). The data of morphological characters of the
    upper flowers in a raceme are larger than those of the lower flowers. (3) Number of pollen
    grains per flower in upper and lower flowers of a raceme in purple-flowered and
    white-flowered morphs are 7589.07±976.64 and 5428.93±900.45 and 7044.73±557.37 and
    5138.60±813.48, respectively; number of ovules per ovary, 31.83±3.36 and 25.03±3.72
    and 32.03±3.43 and 25.70±2.61, respectively; and P/O ratios, 241.31±41.85 and 222.33±
    52.51 and 222.19±27.80 and 201.84±37.52, respectively. Number of pollen grains per anther
    is greater in the shorter stamens than they are in the longer stamens of the same flower
    (P<0.01). Abortion rate of pollen is very low, and it differs between longer and shorter
    stamens (P<0.05). (4) In the same raceme of the two morphs, the upper flowers have more
    pollen grains, higher P/O ratios, and more ovules than the lower flowers (P<0.01). Also, there
    are significant differences between the two morphs in number of pollen grains per anther in
    the longer stamens of the upper flowers in a raceme (P<0.01). (5) Pollen longevity and stigma
    receptivity barely overlap; the period of highest pollen vigor is just the same as the peak of
    stigma receptivity. Dynamic curves of pollen viability of the longer and the shorter stamens in
    the two morphs are similar. At the beginning of anther dehiscence, the pollen vigor of both
    longer and shorter stamens is >90%. (6) Few pollinators were present during flowering, and
    self-pollen could germinate normally on the stigma. In the two morphs, fruit-set was 88.2%
    and 85.7%, respectively, in no emasculation and bagging treatments, and 95.0% and 90.0%,
    respectively, under conditions of natural pollination, indicating that D. strictus is a facultative
  • SHI Jun, CHENG Jin, LUO Dun, SHANGGUAN Fa-Zhi, LUO Yi-Bo
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 551-560.
    In order to explore the relationship between the pollinator and pollination
    syndromes, and to evaluate the possibility of predicting likely pollinators based on pollination
    syndromes, the pollination biology of Paphiopedilum dianthum was examined. This species
    shares a close phylogenetic relationship, similar habit, and a recognizable syndrome of floral
    features (including helmet-shaped labellum, big dorsal sepal, and black warts or hairs on
    petals) with other brood-site deceptive Paphiopedilum species. According to the pollination
    syndrome concept, P. dianthum would be pollinated by hoverflies and attract pollinators with
    brood-site deception. Results were consistent with this prediction. Paphiopedilum dianthum
    was mainly pollinated by female hoverflies (Episyrphus balteatus), and these flies were
    indeed lured by the false brood-site on the orchid flower. It is suggested that the pollination
    syndrome may be correlated with pollination selective pressure, but not simply with pollinator
    species, and that accurate prediction requires consideration of all factors influencing floral
    characters, including habit and evolutionary history.
  • LI Xiao-Dong, LI Jian-Qiang, ZAN Yan-Yan
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 561-569.
    Fifty-two plant samples from six species of Rehmannia and two species of
    Triaenophora of Scrophulariaceae were investigated using ultra-thin slab IEF-PAGE in this
    study. The results showed that forty-five alleles of eighteen loci were present in seven
    enzymatic systems, and seventeen of eighteen loci were polymorphic. The data further
    determined by Biosys-1 indicated that individuals of the same species exhibited relatively
    strong genetic homogeneity, while individuals of different species showed statistically
    significant genetic heterogeneity. We also found that among the eight species, except R. elata
    and R. piasezkii, six showed relatively obvious statistically significant genetic differentiation.
    Moreover, the eight species could be placed into two groups according to cluster analysis; one
    group consists of T. shennongjiaensis and T. rupestris, and the other consists of R. glutinosa,
    R. solanifolia, R. chingii, R. henryi, R. elata, and R. piasezkii. The results also showed that in
    Rehmannia, R. elata and R. piasezkii were most genetically related to each other, while R.
    glutinosa and R. piasezkii were least genetically related. Allozyme study suggested that R.
    elata and R. piasezkii should not be regarded as two distinct species. Rehmannia and
    Triaenophora shared highly genetic identity with many similar characteristics in their
    morphology and life history, indicating their divergence time might not be very long.
  • ZHENG Xiang-Wei, PAN Hai-Yun, WANG Yu-Guo, CHEN Jia-Kuan
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 570-575.
    Caldesia grandis is a rare and endangered aquatic plant of the Alismataceae
    family. This paper first reports 43 chemical components of C. grandis based on the gas
    chromatography-mass spectrometry and reviews research on the chemical compositions of
    some closely related genera such as Alisma, Sagittaria, and Echinodorus. Their common
    chemical components are diterpenoids. Kaurane diterpenoids are found in Caldesia, Alisma
    and Sagittaria; clerodane diterpenoids in Sagittaria and Echinodorus; and pimarene and
    abietene diterpenoids in Sagittaria. By the biogenesis of diterpenoids, kaurane and abietene
    diterpenoids represent evolutionarily derived compounds, clerodane diterpenoids are
    primordial, and pimarene diterpenoids are intermediate. The chemotaxonomy, karyotypical
    analysis and fossil records of those genera showed that Caldesia was evolutionarily closer to
    Alisma than to Sagittaria and Echinodorus. Possible evolution levels of Echinodorus,
    Sagittaria, Alisma, Caldesia in chronological order are derived.
  • Frédéric M. B. JACQUES, GUO Shuang-Xing
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 576-582.
    Palaeoskapha sichuanensis gen. et sp. nov. of Menispermaceae is described here
    for the first time based on a well preserved fossil fruit. The specimen was found in the Relu
    Formation of western Sichuan, West China. The specimen, straight, boat-shaped endocarp
    with large ventral condyle, clearly belongs to the tribe Tinosporeae. The wide aperture of the
    double condyle, combined with a whole shape not deeply invaginated, indicates a genus
    different from what was already known to science for this tribe. This fossil widens the
    distribution of the tribe during Eocene from North America and Europe to Asia, where it was
    formerly unknown.
  • LI Xin-Zheng, ZHANG Da-Ming, HONG De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 583-586.
    Disporum jinfoshanense X. Z. Li, D. M. Zhang & D. Y. Hong, a new species of
    the Liliaceae from Nanchuan, Chongqing, China, is described and illustrated. This species is
    morphologically similar to D. smilacinum A. Gray in having leaves ovate to elliptic,
    inflorescences terminal, flowers spreading, tepals white, slightly saccate at the base, but
    differs from the latter in having stems dwarf, 15–20 cm tall, leaves 3–4, all on the upper part
    of the stems, petioles 2–4 mm long, and tepals densely pubescent on the inner surface.
  • CHEN Wen-Hong, SHUI Yu-Min, ZHOU Lu-Men
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 587-592.
    Oxyspora curtisii King, a newly recorded species of Oxyspora (Melastomataceae)
    in China, is reported and illustrated. Allomorphia eupteroton Guillaumin var. teretipetiolata C.
    Y. Wu & C. Chen is raised to species rank and relegated to the genus Oxyspora, viz. O.
    teretipetiolata (C. Y. Wu & C. Chen) W. H. Chen & Y. M. Shui, which is described further
    based on flowering specimens. Scanning electron microscopy images of pollen grains and
    seeds support the distinctness of the new species.
  • ZHANG Li-Bing, Paul C. SILVA, John MCNEILL,Nicholas J. TURLAND
    J Syst Evol. 2007, 45(4): 593-598.
    The most recent edition of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) has superseded all previous editions. One of the notable changes in the Vienna Code is that it contains a glossary of nomenclatural terms defined and used in the Code. It has been made clear that the glossary of these terms is an integral part of the Code. This paper presents a Chinese translation of the definitions of the nomenclatural terms in the Code.