Table of Contents

18 March 2006, Volume 44 Issue 2
    Research Articles
  • CHEN Shi-Chao, QIU Ying-Xiong, WANG Ai-Li, Kenneth M. CAMERON, FU Cheng-Xin
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 113-125.
    In order to construct phylogenetic relationships of the family Smilacaceae, 79 species representing all genera and sections of the family from all over the world were used for cladistic analysis, with Philesia and Lapageria of Philasiaceae as outgroups. A matrix of 36 binary and 11 multistate morphological characters was constructed. The first parsimonious analysis yielded numerous most parsimonious trees of 275 steps, and then 82 most parsimonious trees with 40.729 steps length were produced by reweighting characters using maximum values of rescaled consistency (RC), which remained stable after the second reweighting. There is a moderate resolution but generally poor bootstrap support for the phylogenetic relationships in the family. From the strict MP tree and the NJ tree, Ripogonum is a sister to Smilax, but may be better treated as a separate family. Heterosmilax is considered to be derived from ancestral Smilax and occurs as the most derived clade of the Smilacaceae, and thus it is reasonable to retain it as a section in Smilax s.l. Within Smilax most currently recognized sections are polyphyletic, but some major lineages are distinct. The herbaceous Smilax species form a monophyletic clade, and it is also the case for the South American species. Their positions in the cladogram are intriguing and may help to shed light on evolutionary and biogeographic history of the family.
  • HOU Xin, LIU Jun-E, ZHAO Yi-Zhi*, ZHAO Li-Qing
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 126-134.
    The taxonomic treatment of Caragana davazamcii Sancz. has been a controversial matter, as its relationship with C. microphylla Lam. and C. korshinskii Kom. is not clear. It was treated as an independent species, or a variety under C. microphylla or C. korshinskii. This study is to examine the interspecific relationship of these three species and the origin of C. davazamcii based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and non-coding region of chloroplast trnL-F, combined with morphological data and geographical distribution. The trnL-F sequence of C. davazamcii is identical to that of C. microphylla but differs distinctly from that of C. korshinskii. The high congruence of ITS copies through both direct and cloning sequencing rejects the recent hybridization hypothesis of C. davazamcii between C. microphylla and C. korshinskii. In contrast, two different ITS sequence copies were found respectively in each individual of C. microphylla and C. korshinskii. One of the two ITS sequences in C. microphylla is identical to that of C. davazamcii. This result indicates that C. davazamcii might have taken part in the hybridization of C. microphylla as one parent , or that extensive gene flow might have occurred between these two species, thus resulting in the morphological similarity of them. However, the similarity of some morphological characters of C. davazamcii to those of C. korshinskii might result from the convergent adaptation to their common ecological environment.
  • WANG Ya-Ling, LI Yong, ZHANG Shou-Zhou, YU Xing-Sheng
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 135-147.
    A phylogenetic analysis of the Magnoliaceae was performed based on sequence data of the chloroplast matK gene in 57 species representing 11 genera. The results show that (1) the genus Magnolia might be a polyphyletic group; (2) Magnolia subgenus Yulania should be elevated to the generic rank; (3) the section Splendentes in Magnolia subgenus Magnolia had a very close relationship with the two American species in the section Rytidospermum, M. macrophylla and M. dealbata, and the section Gwillimia was close to the section Theorhodon; (4) the generic status of the genus Talauma was highly supported when its Asian section Blumiana was shifted to Magnolia; and (5) the genus Parakmeria formed a clade with the two genera Kmeria and Manglietiastrum; and they all had a close relationship with Magnolia subgenus Yulania and the genus Michelia. The position of flower buds, a major feature which had been previously employed to differentiate Michelieae and Magnolieae, turned out to be an unreliable character obscuring the distinction between the two tribes. The traditional circumscription of these two tribes should be emended. Magnolia and Michelia would become two well-defined genera when the subgenus Yulania was segregated from Magnolia to be treated as an independent genus.
  • SUN Zhi-Ying, ZHANG Xian-Chun, CUI Shao-Mei, ZHOU Feng-Qin
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 148-160.
    Leaf morphology of 29 Chinese species and one Thailand species of the Selaginellaceae was observed under light microscope and stereoscope. Species examined are rather consistent in leaf morphology. (1) Leaves are usually dimorphic, monomorphic only in few species, not petiolate, with the lateral leaves of the dimorphic leaf species larger than the median leaves, spreading outward or ascending, and the median leaves more or less adpressed on the adaxial side of stem, decussate or imbricate, and arranged in four ranks, while the leaves in the monomorphic leaf species spirally arranged. (2) The cells of the upper epidermis of the lateral and the median leaves are similar to each other, sub-isodiametric, tetragonal or oblong, and the anticlinal walls are straight, arched, sinuate or sinuolate; the cells of the lower epidermis of the lateral and the median leaves are also similar to each other, oblong or elongate, and the anticlinal walls are sinuolate. (3) The stomatal apparatuses, which are of anomocytic or actinoid types, are mainly distributed on the midvein region of upper epidermis of the median leaves and lower epidermis of the lateral leaves. The characters of the leaf macromorphology and of the micromorphology of the epidermal cells as well as the distribution patterns of stomata prove to be important for species delimitations in the Selaginellaceae. The studied species can be differentiated according to the following characters: (1) the shape of leaves (dimorphic vs. monomorphic); (2) the leaf arrangement (spiral vs. alternate); (3) the shape of the anticlinal walls (straight, arched, sinuate or sinuolate); (4) the shape of the cells of upper and lower epidermis (homomorphic vs. heteromorphic); (5) the type of the stomatal apparatus (anomocytic vs. actinoid); and (6) the difference in distribution of stomata on the upper and lower epidermis of the lateral and the median leaves.
  • SUN Ke-Qin, DENG Sheng-Hui
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 161-164.
    拟楔羊齿; 东方拟楔羊齿; 新属; 新种; 下二叠统; 乌达; 内蒙古; 中国Parasphenopteris orientalis Sun & Deng gen. & sp. nov. is described from the Shanxi (Shansi) Formation of the Lower Permian in the Wuda area of Nei Mongol, China. The new genus is characterized by having "stipules" at the base of penultimate pinnae and is quite different from all other known genera in the Paleozoic.
  • HOU Yuan-Tong, LU Fa-Jun, QU Chang-You, LI Fa-Zeng
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 165-167.
    Three new species in Polygonum section Polygonum (Polygonaceae) from Xinjiang, China, are described and illustrated. Polygonum urumqiense F. Z. Li, Y. T. Hou & F. J. Lu is similar to P. aviculare L. in habit, but differs by having flowers densely clustered and spicate in the upper part of branches, stamens 5–6, and two types of achenes (the longer one densely and irregularly granulate on surface). Polygonum tachengense F. Z. Li, Y. T. Hou & F. J. Lu is similar to P. aviculare in the flowers not forming a raceme in the upper part of branches, the stamens 8, and the achenes striate-granulate on surface, but differs by the leaf blades linear-lanceolate, the midvein and lateral veins conspicuously raising abaxially, the ochreae longer, up to 1.1 cm, 15–20-veined, the flowers 3–6 clustered together in the upper axils of branches. This species is also similar to P. patulum M. Bieb. in the erect stem, and the flowers 3–6 clustered together in the axils of the upper part of branches, but differs by the midvein and lateral veins of leaves conspicuously raising abaxially, the ochreae longer, up to 1.1 cm, 15–20-veined, the leaves in the upper part of branches not becoming smaller gradually, and the flowers clustered in the upper axils of branches not forming a raceme, and the achenes striate-granulate on surface. Polygonum shiheziense F. Z. Li, Y. T. Hou & F. J. Lu is similar to P. argyrocoleon Steud. ex Kunze in the erect stem, the 3–6 flowers clustered in the upper axils of branches, the stamens 8, and the slightly smooth achenes, but differs by the midvein and lateral veins of leaves conspicuously raising abaxially, the ochreae longer, up to 1.1 cm, 15–20-veined, and the flowers clustered in the upper axils of branches not forming a raceme. This species is also similar to P. tachengense in habit, but differs in the leaves borne in the upper part of branches becoming smaller gradually and the smooth, slightly shiny achenes. The pollen morphology, leaf epidermal characters and achene micromorphology of the three new species and their relatives were comparatively observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM).
  • LIU Zhong-Jian, CHEN Sing-Chi, RU Zheng-Zhong
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 178-183.
    A new species and a new variety of Orchidaceae, Cymbidium concinnum Z. J. Liu & S. C. Chen and C. eburneum var. longzhouense Z. J. Liu & S. C. Chen, are described and illustrated. Cymbidium concinnum is related to C. mastersii Griff. ex Lindl., from which it differs by having unlobed-tipped leaves, an 18- to 22-flowered inflorescence and a V-shaped, purple-red patch on the mid-lobe of the lip; C. eburneum var. longzhouense differs from typical variety mainly by having rather dense purple-red mottles on the mid-lobe and the apical parts of the side-lobes of the lip. Cymbidium maguanense is discussed taxonomically, for which a neotype is chosen here. A key is provided to six Chinese taxa of Cymbidium sect. Eburnea.
  • YAN Yu-Hong, GUO Hui-Jun, 1CUI Jing-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 184-186.
    Dracaena impressivenia Y. H. Yan & H. J. Guo, a new species from Yingjiang County, Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to D. terniflora Roxb. in the leaf shape, but differs by having sunken-veined leaves, many-flowered raceme with 6-9 flowers clustered together, dark red bracts, and erect perianth 3-3.5 cm long.
  • CHANG Zhao-Yang*, WU Zhen-Hai, XU Lang-Ran
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 187-188.
    Onobrychis micrantha Schrenk (Leguminosae) is reported as a new record to China. As a result, Onobrychis includes four species in China. A key to the four species is given.
  • LIU Guo-Xiang*, HU Zheng-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 189-194.
    A re-examination under the phase contrast microscope of a collection made in a small lake in Xizang, China, which had been previously referred to Glenodinium gymnodinium Penard, has shown that the cell wall is composed of numerous usually hexagonal platelets, and thus the species should be a relatively common member of the genus Woloszynskia, namely W. tenuissima (Lauterborn) Thompson. Tetradinium intermedium Geitler is an immobile species collected from a small pond in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It was attached on filaments of an Oedogonium species. Both genera are newly recorded in China.
  • HU Chi-Ming, HAO Gang, DENG Yun-Fei
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 195-196.
    The newly described new species Lysimachia longshengensis (Primulaceae) is reduced to Lycianthes lysimachioides (Solanaceae) as a synonym.
  • WANG Qi*
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 197-203.
    The nomenclature and taxonomy of Podogonium Heer 1857, nom. illeg., a legume fossil widely distributed in the Neogene of Eurasia, were briefly reviewed. Herendeen's viewpoint that Podogonium Heer 1857 is a later synonym of Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger 1851 is supported. The genus possibly contains only one species, Podocarpium podocarpum (A. Braun) Herendeen 1992. Podogonium Heer 1857 should be no longer used as a conserved name. The specimens from the Miocene Shanwang flora of Shandong, which had been previously referred to Podogonium oehningense (Koenig) Kirchh. and P. knorrii (Braun) Heer, were re-investigated. The results suggest that these specimens are the same plant as the legume fossil from European Podocarpium podocarpum (A. Braun) Herendeen. Key words Leguminosae, Podogonium Heer 1857, Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger 1851, Podocarpium podocarpum (A. Braun) Herendeen 1992, Shanwang flora, Miocene. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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  • WANG Ma-Li, XU Hao, ZHENG Ling
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 204-210.
    In order to determine the taxonomic relationship of Dryoathyrium erectum (Z. R. Wang) W. M. Chu & Z. R. Wang, characters of the fronds, hairiness, sori and spores in Dryoathyrium and Athyriopsis were comparatively investigated. The results have shown that D. erectum has unconspicuous grooves on the frondal rachis and costa, uniseriate articulate hairs on the plant and diplazioid sori. All these characters are present in the genus Athyriopsis but not in the genus Dryoathyrium. The spore morphology of D. erectum is more similar to that in Athyriopsis than in Dryoathyrium. Evidence from the chloroplast trnL-F sequences data also supports the inclusion of D. erectum in Athyriopsis. Therefore, D. erectum should be a member of Athyriopsis, and A. erectum Z. R. Wang is the correct name of this species. Key words Dryoathyrium, Dryoathyrium erectum, Athyriopsis, Athyriopsis erectum, spore morphology, taxonomy.
  • GUO Ya-Long, GE Song*
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 211-230.
    Oryzeae (Poaceae) is a tribe belonging to Poaceae and consists of about 12 genera. This tribe contains many economically important species, and is distributed in tropical and temperate regions worldwide. Recently, investigation on the genus Oryza and its related genera in the Oryzeae has attracted much attention for their important economic value and taxonomic position in the study of plant biology in general. Although morphological and preliminary molecular evidence has shown that the tribe Oryzeae is a monophyletic group, there are still many questions as to its systematics and evolution to be answered. In this review, we briefly retrospect the history and progress of the studies on the classification and phylogeny of Oryzeae, including its establishment and systematic position, its circumscription and subdivision, the relationships of genera in the tribe, and the distribution and origin of the tribe. Recent results indicate that (1) Oryzeae is monophyletic and falls into two main clades corresponding to the traditionally recognized subtribes (Zizaniinae and Oryzinae); (2) Close affinities of the monoecious genera are not supported, suggesting the multiple origins of unisexual florets; (3) Previous recognition of three monotypic genera (Hydrochloa, Porteresia and Prosphytochloa) is not justified; (4) Based on dating using molecular clock approach, it is estimated that Oryza and Leersia branched off from the remaining genera of Oryzeae ~20 million years ago (MYA), and separated from each other ~14 MYA. A divergence time of ~9 MYA is also obtained for the most basal split within Oryza. In conjunction with our recent molecular studies, we present some progresses on the molecular phylogeny of Oryzeae and discuss the questions to be solved in the future study of this tribe.
  • LU Yang, HUANG Shuang-Quan*
    J Syst Evol. 2006, 44(2): 231-239.
    Gynomonoecy is the sexual system in which individual plants have both female and hermaphrodite flowers. Compared to the other sexual systems, the adaptation and diversification of this system have been largely underappreciated. Gynomonoecious species have a diversity of floral traits and pollination systems despite that they account for only about 3% of the total species. Several hypotheses assume that the adaptive advantages of maintenance of gynomonoecy may enhance outcrossing, avoid pollen-pistil interference, permit flexible resource allocation of paternal and maternal functions, defense herbivores and increase the attractiveness to pollinators. However, the studied species were mainly restricted to the Asteraceae and a few empirical studies available rarely supported these hypotheses. Further studies are needed regarding the reproductive biology of gynomonoecious species in different groups and on different pollination systems. Such studies, together with phylogenetic studies on the groups concerned, will help us have a better understanding of the origin and evolution of gynomonoecy.