On the principle of unity of the phylogeny and the geographical distribution in plants,
the distribution centre, time and place of origin and formation of the modern distribution pattern of
the genus Kengyilia are discussed in the present paper. Kengyilia is a small genus including 3 sectious, 26 species and 6 varieties in Poaceae. The genus is distributed in China, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan and Iran. It adapts to the temperate habitats, and also exists in
the environments of high elevation. According to Takhtajan' s (1978) regionalization of the world
flora, Kengyilia is distributed in the Eastern Asiatic Region and the Irano-Turanian Region of the
Holarctic Kingdom. Six species occur in the Eastern Asiatic Region where endemic species are absent. In the Irano-Turanian Region there exist 26 species and 6 varieties, 26 of which are endemic
taxa, and in this region the highest concentration of the taxa occurs in Tibet Province, with 19 species and 6 varieties. In China, according to Wu' s(1979) regionalization of the Chinese flora,
Kengyilia is found in 4 regions. Among them the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau subkingdom is the most
abundant for species and varieties. The area totally has 16 species and 6 varieties, taking up 68%
of the total taxa of Kengyilia and 75% of all taxa of Chinese Kengyilia, and these taxa include the
primitive to the most advanced ones in the genus. These facts indicate that the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is the distribution center of Kengyilia. The primitive section in Kengyilia is sect. Kengyilia,
consisting of 9 species. It is highly centred in the Tianshan area where 5 species occur, of which
K. zhaosuensis is the most primitive species in the genus. The relatively primitive section of the genus is sect. Stenachyra L. B. Cai which contains 10 species and 3 varieties. Two of its species also
grow in Tianshan area. In Tianshan area, on the contrary, there is not the sect. Hyalolepis (Nevski) L. B. Cai which is considered as the most advanced section in the genus. Based on our study
and relevant references, the closely related group of Kengyilia is the genus Roegneria C. Koch.
Some species of Roegneria is not only distributed in Tianshan area, but also their habitats in the area agree with that of primitive species of Kengyilia. Moreover, since Tianshan Mountains were
raised once more in the Neogene, the area had possessed the natural conditions to produce and multiply Kengyilia plants. Hence, this area is likely to be the origin place of Kengyilia. Before the
Mesozoic, the ocean and land in Tianshan area changed greatly. Being a xerophytic genus, Kengyilia could not live in the environment of waters. From the Mesozoic to the end of the early Tertiary of Cenozoic, the crustal movement in Tianshan area was tending toward tranquility. Owing to the denudation, the original high mountains were leveled forming the primary plain. The landforms and environment in Tianshan area resembled those of its adjacent areas. Consequently, it was still unlikely
to cause the birth of Kengyilia. Only in the Neogene of Cenozoic and even in the early period of the
Quaternary, the primary plain in Tianshan area began to rise rapidly. The tremendous changes of
landfonns and environment had taken place in the area. In the course of adapting to this change,
the ancestor of Kengyilia produced probably the plant of the genus during this time. Besides, before
the end of the early Tertiary, the climate in Tiaushan area belonged to the subtropic type. The damp
and hot climate was unfavourable to the birth of Kengyila which possesses the temperate characteristics; while only from the end of the early Tertiary, up to the end of the Neogene, the climate in the
area was gradually getting into aridity and coolness, suitable for the existence and multiplication of
Kengyilia plants. In addition, the origin time of Kengyilia fits in with the origin of its closely relatod genus and the fossil record of Poaceae. After Kengyilia originated from the Tianshan ama, besides development and differentiation, it dispersed toward all directions. Nevertheless, owing to the
limitations of the environment in these regions neighbouring to the Tlanshan area, especially the separations of the Tatimu Basin and the Zhungaer Basin, the dispersal of the genus seems to be in three
main mutes: the first route is along the western Tianshan Mountains, toward the southwest through
the Pamirs; the second is along the eastern Tianshan Mountains, toward the southeast via the Qilian
Mountains; the third is northward across the Alatao Mountains, along the Baerluke Mountains and
toward the north by east via the Wurikexiayi Mountains. Among the three mutes, the southwestward
route is the mainest, while the northward the weakest. Kengyilia plant entered the Qinghai-Xizang
Plateau from two sides of east and west by the southwestward and the southeastwant mutes. In the
Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, it fully developed and differentiated, producing the most advanced sect.Hyaloepis (Nevski) L. B. Cai of the genus with the lifting of the plateau.
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