The genus Notopterygium is endemic to China. The plants of this genus are important traditional Chinese medicine. When established by H. de Boissieu in 1903, Notopterygium included only two species, i.e.N. franchetii and N. forbesii. Within nearly a century, five more specific names had been added to this genus, i.e.N. forrestii H. Wolff, N. oviforme Shan, N. incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang, N. pinnatiinvolucellatum Pu et Y. P. Wang, N. tenuifolium Sheh et Pu. Based on field ervation and examination of herbarium specimens, all the taxa in this genus were taxonomically reviewed and their nomenclature was carefully checked. N. oviforme was treated as a subspecies under N. forbesii. We agree with Chang He-Tseng in reducing N. franchetii to N.forbesii as a synonym. As a result, five species, one of which contains a subspecies, are recognized. Based on the morphology of involucel bractlets as well as their relevant characters, Notopterygium is divided into two sections.
Sect. 1. Notopterygium Basal and proximal cauline leaves 2-ternate to 2 ～3-ternate-pinnate, ultimate divisions broadovate or ovate-lanceolate; involucel bractlets linear, entire, vascular bundles of petiole approximately equal in size. This section contains two species and one subspecies.
Sect. 2. Tenuifolium Pu, sect. nov.Basal and proximal cauline leaves 2 ～3-ternate-pinnate, ultimate divisions ranceolate,
ovate-lanceolate or linear; involucel bractlets linear, entire or oblanceolate, 2 ∽ 3-fid or pinnate at the apex; vascular bundles of petiole unequal in size. This section centains three species.