Table of Contents

10 May 1999, Volume 37 Issue 3
    Research Articles
  • WANG Wen-Tsai, LI Liang-Qian, WANG Zheng
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 209-219.
    (1) In this paper, differences among the five genera constituting the tribe Cimi cifugeae of the family Ranunculaceae are discussed. Beesia, the first genus, with compound cymes and flowers bearing neither petals nor staminodes, is different from the other four genera with simple or compound racemes and flowers bearing either petals or staminodes, and may occupy a primitive position within the tribe. As to the other four genera, Souliea is characterized by the stem without basal leaf but with 2~5 sheath-like cataphylls, the sepals being deciduous but not caducous, moderate in size and petaloid, the petals being much smaller than sepals, but pink in color and more or less petaloid, the pollen grains being pan tocolpate or pantoporate, the carpels being 1~3 per flower, when mature forming dry linear follicles conspicuously reticulate on the surface and dehiscent along the ventral suture, and the seeds being reticulate-foveolate on the surface. These diagnostic characters indicate clear ly that Souliea might have deviated from the lineage formed by the next three genera, i. e. Anemopsis, Cimicifuga, and Actaea, which have their own well-recognizable diagnostic characters. Anemopsis is characterized by the normally developed basal leaf, the racemose inflorescence with sparse and few long pedicellate flowers, the sepals 7~10 in number, mod erate in size, and petaloid, the petals slightly smaller than sepals, the tricolpate pollen grains, the carpels 2~4 per flower, stalked, when mature forming dry oblong follicles with transverse veins on the surface, and the seeds with scaly membranous wings. Cimicifuga is distinguished by the normally developed basal leaf, the caducous, small, often sepaloid sepa ls, the organs of the second floral whorl sometimes with empty sterile anthers being stamin odes not petals, the tricolpate pollen grains, the carpels 1~8 per flower, when mature form ing dry oblong or ovoid follicles with transverse veins on the surface, and the seeds usually with scaly membranous wings. The last genus Actaea is different by the basal leaf trans formed into a small scale, the caducous, small, often sepaloid sepals, the organs of the sec ond floral whorl being clawed petals, the pollen grains with 3(4~6) colpi, carpel 1 per flow er, when mature forming a fleshy indehiscent berry smooth on the surface and without any veins, the seeds roughish or slightly rugose, neither foveolate nor winged on the surface, and the advanced most asymmetric karyotype. According to the diagnostic characters given above, we believe that Beesia, Souliea, Anemopsis, Cimicifuga, and Actaea do represent five independent genera, and the treatment of the tribe Cimicifugeae including these five genera in it by Hutchinson (1923), Janchen (1949) and some other authors, has precisely shown the taxonomic diversity within the tribe. We are therefore unable to accept the treatment published by Compton et al. (1998) to lump the two genera, Souliea and Cimicifuga, into the genus Actaea. (2) Compton et al. (1998, 1997) found out that the Chinese plants previously identified by various authors as Cimicifuga foetida L., in which the terminal and lateral racemes of the compound raceme flower more or less simultaneously, differ from the true C. foetida L. in northern Asia, in which the terminal raceme of the compound raceme flowers before the lateral ones, and thus restored the species name Cimicifuga mairei Lévl. , which was formerly reduced to the synonymy of C. foetida L. , for the Chinese plants. After examining the specimens collected from Siberia and from Southwest China we failed to find out any other differences in both vegetative and reproductive organs between the plants of the two regions, and we consider that it is better to treat the populations in Southwest and Central China as a geographical variety of Cimicifuga foetida L. A new combination, Cimicifuga foetida L. var. mairei (Lévl.) W. T. Wang & Zh. Wang, is thus made. (3) 3 species of Delphinium, 1 species and 1 variety of Clematis are described as new.
  • ZOU Yu-Ping, CAI Mei-Lin, WANG Zi-Ping
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 220-227.
    Plants in Paeonia sect. Moutan DC., whose wild types are endemic to China, are deciduous subshrubs. Taxonomic treatments of most species in this section have long been in dispute. To address this question, both intraspecific and interspecific relationships of the species in this section were analyzed using RAPD markers. The dendrogram constructed by UPGMA showed that the accessions of the same species were always grouped together earlier than those of different species. The intraspecific similarity coefficients ranged from 0.60 to 0.90, grouping precisely those species of the same subsection together. Hence, the seven species under question can be well distinguished from each other. The similarity coefficient between P. delavayi and P. ludlowii was 0.60, and they were clustered in a clade. The similarity coefficients between P. jishanensis and the three species P. rockii, P. ostii, P. qiui, and between P. jishanensis and P. decomposita were both 0.48. These five species were clustered in another clade. These two clades corresponded well to Subsect. Delavayanae and Subsect. Vaginatae. Our results support the taxonomic treatment of Sect. Moutan re- cently proposed by Hong (1998,1997).
  • GUO Bao-Lin, XIAO Pei-Gen
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 228-243.
    In this paper, the distribution and quantity of flavonol glycosides with isoprenyl in the eighth position (A kind) or without isoprenyl (B kind) in Epimedium were analyzed by HPLC. The following results of taxonomic significance were obtained: 1 )According to the chemical characteristics, Epimedium could be divided into three groups: A group, mainly with A kind of flavonol glycosides; B group, mainly with B kind of fiavonol glycosides; AB group, sharing the two kinds. Eight taxa (species or subspecies) in B group, which have many advanced charaetaristics, should represent a more advanced group of the genus. The species of AB group were relatively primitive in the genus. Hence the evolutionury trend from AB group to A group and then to B group was possible. This trend is basically correlated with that of morphological evolution. But the above groupings of A, B and AB do not accord with Stearn's taxonomic system and the results of pollen morphology and of chromosome C-bands. 2)E. alpinum, a species distributed in the Mediterranean area, contains a high quantity of A2 kind of compounds (those of A kind with 4'-OH), so it may be somewhat related to the primitive species in China. 3)The constituents of E. davidii and E. ecalcaratnm are almost identical, implying that the prescence or absence of the spur of the petal should be of unimportant systematic significance. 4)The chromngram of HPLC provided reliable evidence for determining the parental origin of the hybrid E. x fanjingshanense. The results of this work provided new evidence for establishing a more reasonable taxonomic system of Epimediurn, but the taxonomic research on Epimedium has a long way to go and more work must be done. Other chemical characteristics of Epimedium and its relationshipwith other groups in the Berberidaceae were also discussed.

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  • PAN Kai-Yu, WEN Jie, LUO Yi-Bo, ZHOU Shi-Liang
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 244-252.
    Investigated in the present work were development of microspores and formation Of male gametes in Paeonia jishanensis T.Hong et W.Z.Zhao).Its anthers are 4-sporran giate;structure of anther wall is of the Dicotyledonous type,with glandular tapetum;cy tokinesis at meiosis of microspore mother cells is simultaneous;tetrads are mostly tetrahe dral,less frequently isobilateral,and mature pollen grains are 2-celled. The overall observa tion on formation of microspores and development of male gametes made in this work is the first for woody peonies.In addition,we observed in the present work abnormal phenomena at meiosis of microspore mother cells and uninucleate microspores,and also made measure ments of fertility of pollen grains.The results show that their fertility ranges from 45.0% to 84.2% and varies among flowers,among anthers in a flower and among microsporangia in an anther. The abnormal processes found in development of male gametes are not considered as an important factor responsible for the endangerment of the species.
  • ZHENG Zhong-Hua, WANG Ping-Li, PU Fa-Ding
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 253-258.
    The genus Nothofagus is mainly distributed in South America and New Zealand. The present paper describes its pollen exine ultrastructure and compares the exine ultrastructure with that of the other genera of Fagaceae. The pollen grains were examined using ultrathin sectioning technique under transmission electron microscope. The study shows that the pollen exine ultrastructure of Nothofagus differs from that of the other genera of Fagaceae by its exine structure and thickness, type of aperture, and ornamentation. The pollen exine of Nothofagus is thin and possesses granular bacules, regular foot layer and tectum, spinulate ornamentation, and the endexine is usually visible at poral area, and 5~8 colpate. The pollen exine of the other genera of Fagaceae possesses entire bacules, irregular foot layer and tectum, granulate and tuberculate ornamentation, thicker endexine, and is 3-colporate ( 3-colpate or 3-colporoidate). The pollen exine ultrastructure of Nothofagus may belong to primitive type. The pollen exine ultrastructure data support Kuprianova’s opinion that Nothofagus should be separated from Fagaceae and established as a monogenetic family, i.e. Nothofa-gaceae.
  • XUE Chun-Ying, HO Ting-Nong, LIU Jian-Quan
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 259-263.
    The embryology of Swertia tetraptera is reported for the first time. The anther is tetrasporangiate and its wall, of which the development conforms to the dicotyledonous type, is composed of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum at the mature stage. The tapetum has dual origin and is similar to the glandular type. Cytokinesis is of the simultaneous type and microspore tetrads are mostly tetrahedral. Pollen grains are mostly 3-celled when shed. The ovary is bicarpellate and unilocular with four series of ovules. The fused margins of two carpels intensively protrude into the locule. The ovule is unitegmic, tenuinucellate and orthotropous. The development of embryo sac is of the Polygonum type. The development of endosperm conforms to the nuclear type and the embryogeny corresponds with the Physalis I variation of Solanad type. Three antipodal cells persist at the mature embryo sac. The embryo is at the globular stage when seeds are released from the capsule. Compared with the other studied species in Swertia, S. tetraptera shows differences from them in three distinctive embryological traits: enlargement and protrusion of the fused margins of two carpels into the ovary locule; orthotropous ovules and a developed hypostase. These three characters were previously only found in the genus Halenia of the tribe Gentianinae in the Gentianaceae,and thus suggest that S. tetraptera should be related to Halenia. The results partly correspond with the molecular evidence (Yuan & Kupfer, 1995). The monophyletic Halenia clade in Yuan & Kupfer's molecular cladogram includes Halenia, S. tetraptera and Frasera (section Frasera in Swertia s. l.); nevertheless, up to now, no embryological study on Frasera has been reported. The embryological results imply that the taxonomic status of S. tetraptera needs to be revaluated and the genus Swertia s. l. may not be a mono-phyletic group. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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  • FENG Guang-Ping, LIU Chang-Jiang, SONG Shu-Yin, MA Qing-Wen
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 264-268.
    Oxalis jiayinensis, sp. nov., is described from the Late Cretaceous (TuronianSenonian) in Jiayin County, Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China. The seed is about 1 mm long, less than 1 mm in diameter, crescentic with obtuse apices and 9~10 transverse ribs. The seed wall is composed of equiaxial, strongly thickened sclereids. The fossil repre-sents the oldest occurrence of the family Oxalidaceae in the world.
  • ZHU Shi-Mei, XU Jie-Mei
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 269-278.
    Based on a karyotypic analysis of 13 populatlons,the karyotypic differentation in Allium Macrostemon Bunge was investigated in this paper.The twelve populations from China were all found to be tetraploids with the chromosome number of 2n=32,while the re maining one from Japan was a pentaploid with 2n=40.In the asymmetry,all the karyotypes belonged to Sebbins’2A type. Obvious karyotypic differentiation among the populations, which was highlighted by chromosomal aberrations,including mainly pericentric inversion and the Robertsonian Or unequal reciprocal translocations,was detected.Hence the kary otype of this species was somewhat polymorphic.The karyotypes of the tetraploid popula tions fell into two types.One was formulated as 2n=4x=32=26m(2sat)+6sm(2sat).The populations from Huashan,Shangnan,Changchun,and Dujiangyan had this type,though in the population from Dujiangyan a pair of median satellited-chromosomes was found to have changed into subterminal ones.The other was formulated as 2n=4x=32=24m(2sat)+8sm (2sat).The populations from Fengyukou,Dafeishui,Wenchuan,Wuhan,Honghe,Baoxing,Hangzhou and Xiangshan all had this type,but in the three populations from Baoxing, Hangzhou and Xiangshan,a pair of chromosomes had undergone structural aberration.Basi cally the karyotype of the pentaploid population from Japan fell into the first type,though in it a pair of median chromosomes had been replaced by a pair of submedian ones. Factors which may possibly result in the karyotypic polymorphism,including those of environmental conditions,breeding system and polyploidy,were analyzed.We believe that the diversified habitats might have induced the chromosomal structural aberratoins,and the facultative apomictic reproduction and polyploidy might help to surmount the obstacle of reduced fertili ty and thus maintain chromosomal aberrations in populations.An analysis of the modem distribution pattern shows that Japan may be the differentiation center of Allium macroste-mon.
  • LU Shu-Gang
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 279-280.
    In the present paper, two species and one variety of the fern genus Pteris from Yunnan have been revised. Pteris subsimplex Ching ex Ching et S. H. Wu, Pteris hekouensis Ching ex Ching et S. H. Wu and Pteris monghaiensis Ching ex Ching et S. H. Wuare treated as new synonyms.
  • TAO De-Ding
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 281-281.
  • YING Tsun-Shen, LONG Guang-Ri
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 282-284.
  • KU Tsue-Chih
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 285-287.
  • LIU Lin-Han, LIU Ke-Ming, HU Guang-Wan
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 288-290.
  • YI Yan-Jun, GAO Chien
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 297-302.
  • ZHENG Wei-Lie
    J Syst Evol. 1999, 37(3): 303-304.