Table of Contents

10 September 1998, Volume 36 Issue 5
    Research Articles
  • WU Zheng-Yi, TANG Yan-Cheng, LU An-Ming, CHEN Zhi-Duan
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 385-402.
    The current subdivision of the angiosperms into two major groups, the dicotyledons and the monocotyledons, whether at the rank of class or subclass, is greatly challenged by more and more evidence from comparative morphology, chemotaxonomy, paleobotany, cladistics and molecular systematics. It becomes clear that this primary subdivision is conventional rather than natural. We stressed in this paper that the system of classification of the angiosperms should be as much as possible based on the geneaological relationships of major groups. It seems apparent that eight principal lineages appeared by the end of the Early Cretaceous when the one of the major radiation of the angiosperms occurred. By using the Linnean hierarchy, these lineages are named at the rank of class in order to reflect major evolutionary trends within the angiosperms. As evolutionary systematists, we accepted paraphyletic' groups as natural in this scheme. The eight classes are as follows: Magnoliopsida (including Degeneriaceae, Himantandraceae, Magnoliaceae, Winteraceae, Canellaceae, Illiciaceae, Schisandraceae, Austrobaileyaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Annonaceae, Myristicaceae, Hydropeltidaceae, Cabombaceae, Nupharaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Barclayaceae, Ceratophyllaceae), Lauropsida (including Amborellaceae, Trimeniaceae, Monimiaceae, Gomortegaceae, Hernandiaceae, Lauraceae, Calycanthaceae, Idiospermaceae, Chloranthaceae), Piperopsida ( including Aristolochiaceae, Saururaceae, Piperaceae, Lactoridaceae ), Caryophyllopsida(including Caryophyllaceae, Molluginaceae, Aizoaceae, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Halophytaceae, Stegnospermataceae, Achatocarpaceae, Phytolacaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, Didiereaceae, Basellaceae, Hectorellaceae), Liliopsida( including the families of Liliopsida sensu Takhtajan ( 1997 ) ), Ranunculopsida ( including Ranunculaceae, Lardizabalaceae, Sargentodoxaceae, Menispermaceae, Circaeasteraceae, Nandinaceae, Berberidaceae(incl. Ranzaniaceae), Leonticaceae, Podophyllaceae, Hydrastidaceae, Glaucidiaceae, Paeoniaceae, Pteridophyllaceae, Papaveraceae, Hypecoaceae, Fumariaceae, Nelumbonaceae), Hamamelidopsida(including Trochodendraceae, Tetracentraceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Eupteleaceae, Myrothamnaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Platanaceae), and Rosopsida(including the families of Rafflesianae, Balanophoranae, Hamamelididae p. p., Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Cornidae, Lamiidae, Asteridae sensu Takhtajan (1997)). Principal families in each class are discussed here. Further study is needed to eluci-date the phylogenetic relationships among and within the classes. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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  • WANG Xiao-Quan, DENG Zheng-Rong, HONG De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 403-410.
    Discussed in the present paper is the systematic position of Beesia, a small ranunculaceous genus mainly distributed in SW China. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and 3’ end of 5.8 S rRNA gene of Beesia calthifolia, Trollius chinensis, Cimicifuga acerina, C. brachycarpa and Actaea asiatica were determined by direct PCR sequencing method. The sequences of ITS-1 in the five species range from 225 bp to 232 bp in size and those of ITS-2 from 201 bp to 217 bp. Beesia is very similar to Cimicifuga and Actaea not only in size, sequence and G+C content of ITS, but also in sequence of 3’ end of 5.8 S rRNA gene. In PAUP analysis, Ranunculus enysii was used as outgroup, and the most parsimonious tree was obtained through exhaustive search. The gaps were treated respectively as missing characters and the fifth base in two analyses. The two analyses show that a monophyletic group comprising Beesia calthifolia, Cimicifuga acerina, C. brachycarpa and Actaea asiatica is strongly supported by the bootstrap value. In the monophyletic group, Beesia calthifolia is basal to the other three species. The present DNA sequence analysis demonstrates that the genus Beesia should be placed in the tribe Cimicifugeae, which is consistent with the results from phytochemistry, palynology and cytology. In addition, Beesia may be the most original genus in the tribe Cimicifugeae in view of simple leaf,apetalous flower and molecular evidence.
  • FENG Yu-Xing, WANG Xiao-Quan, PAN Kai-Yu, HONG De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 411-422.
    The rbcL gene sequences of six species representing five subfamilies of the Hamamelidaceae and the Platanaceae were determined and used in the phylogenetic analysis on the “lower” Hamamelidae sensu Endress (1989) and its allies newly suggested. Four most parsimonious trees were obtained, all having 893 steps with CI = 0.558 and RI = 0.591. The families Cercidiphyllaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Hamamelidaceae and Saxifragaceae are closely located, while the relationships among them remain unsolved even if more representatives of the Hamamelidaceae were further added in this parsimony analysis. Our results confirm the phylogenetic trees revealed by Chase et al. (1993) and Soltis et al. (1997), instead of those of Hoot and Crane (1996). Considering the morphological features they share, it is suggested that the Cercidiphyllaceae and Daphniphyllaceae be placed into the Hamamelidales. The relationship between the Platanaceae and the Hamamelidaceae shown in our analysis is not so closed as suggested by the cladistic analyses by using morphological characters only(e.g. Lu et al., 1991), while those among the Platanaceae, Trochodendraceae and Tetracentraceae are close as indicated by this study. The Eupteleaceae falls into the Ranunculales. The Eucommiaceae seems to show closer relationship with the Hamamelidaceae, the “core” family of the “lower” Hamamelidae, than with the other members except the Cercidiphyllaceae. The rbcL gene trees imply that the “lower” Hamamelidae is a heterogeneous group,composed of isolated ancient families.
  • REN Yi, WANG Ma-Li, HU Zheng-Hai
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 423-427.
    The embryological studies show that Kingdonia is similar to Circaeaster while different from other members of the Ranunculales (sensu Takhtajan, 1980) in development of endosperm and embryo. We consider that there is close systematic relationship between Kingdonia and Circaeaster.
  • XING Shu-Ping, CHEN Zhi-Duan, LU An-Ming
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 428-435.
    The development of ovules and embryo sacs in Ostrya virginiana was studied for the first time. Most ovaries had two ovules which were anatropous, unitegmic and crassinucellate. The ovule usually possessed several archesporial ceils which divided periclinally into the upper parietal cell and the lower sporogenous cell. The sporogenous cell functioned directly as megaspore mother cell. The tetrad of megaspores was linear in arrangement, and every megaspore might be functional. One ovule often contained 2- 6 embryo sacs and the embryo sac belongs to Polygonum type. It can be concluded from the present data that all ovules among the genera of the Betulaceae are unitegrnic. There are more groups with the phenomenon of multiple embryo sacs in anemophic plants such as Betulaceae, Casuarinaceae, Graminae, Jnglandaceae, Myricaceae, Simaroubaceae, Ulmaceae, than in entomophilous plants. Multiple embryo sacs also occur among some parasitic plants and saprophytes, e.g. Orobanchaceae, Cassytha in Lauraceae, Cuscuta in Convolvulaceae and Utricularia in Lentibulariaceae. It may be inferred that the characteristic of multiple embryo sacs be an evolutionary adaptation of those plants with lower pollination rate to increase the rate of fertilization. Finally, a comparison of embryological characters among the genera of the Betulaceae shows that the family is of a number of common embryological characters, such as multicellular archesporium, multiple embryo sacs in one ovule, and a long interval between pollination and fertilization. The diversity and systematic significance of several embryological characters among the “higher” hamamelid families are also discussed. It is still hard to explain the phy-logenetic relationships among those families clearly only with.
  • DU Gui-Sen, WANG Mei-Zhi, ZHANG Yu-Long
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 436-440.
    Spore morphology of thirteen species of the genus Bryum Hedw. were observed by LM and SEM. The results show that the ornamentation of spore exine could be divided into three types: Type I , blunt at the top of baculate processes, to which four species belong: Bryum argenteum, B. lonchocaulon , B. uliginosum and B. arcticum. Type Ⅱ, sharp or with small processes at the top of baculate processes, represented by seven species: B. pallescens, B. caespiticium, B. pallens, B. pseudotriquetrum, B. paradoxum, B. alpinum and B. thomsoii. Type Ⅲ, expanded into hemispherical-shaped at the top of baculate processes, represented by two species: B.coronatum and B.sauteri. The Bryum species may also be divided into three groups according to the variation of spore diameter. Group I , with spore diameter under 10 μm, including one species, B. uliginosum. Group Ⅱ, with spore diameter 11~20 μm, including seven species: B. argenteum, B. alpinum, B. coronatum, B. pallens, B.paradoxum, B.sauteri, B.thomsonii. Group Ⅲ, spore diameter 21~30 μm, with five species: B. pallescens, B. caespiticium, B. pseudotriquetrum, B. lonchocaulon, B. arcticum. There are resemblances of spore morphology and exine ornamentation among the thirteen species. In the view of palynology, the genus Bryum is a natural taxon which is more advanced than the genus Pohlia Hedw. But spores of thirteen species are different at some characters such as diameter, shape ofproximal leptoma, etc., which indicates the genetic differentiation in the genus Bryum.
  • XIANG Qiao-Ping, FU Li-Kuo
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 441-448.
    Comparative investigation of the inner surface of the needle cuticle of 36 species and 2 varieties of Abies under SEM has revealed that the characteristics of the intercellular flanges are rather distinct and four types can be distinguished: (1) Straight and developed single flange. This type is only represented by Abies bracteata D. Don. Morphologically, this species is also quite unique in the genus Abies and was once treated as a subgenus by Franco and Liu. Its special structure of the leaf cuticle observed here seems to support their treatment. (2) Double flanges. This type was first discovered in a leaf fossil of Abies from England. In modern plants of Abies, it is found only in the species from Central America. (3) Undeveloped single flange. This type is represented by a small group of Abies from the west and east coastal area of the Pacific Ocean. (4) Undulate and developed single flange. This type is represented by most of the species of Abies, including all the species in Europe and most species in Asia and North America. The flange types mentioned above seem to have some relationships with the geographical distribution of the species in the genus Abies, and their occurrence might have not been completely influenced by the habitats, hence the features of the intercellular flanges may provide good evidence for the subgeneric division of Abies. Based on our results and those from the previously published literature about the infrageneric treatments of Abies and the distribution of the fossils, we consider that western North America might be the diversity center of modern Abies. Florin once pointed out that the characters of the leaf cuticle in gymnosperms are of great significance for the generic andinfrageneric division. This viewpoint is strongly supported by our study on modern Abies.
  • LANG Kai-Yong
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 449-458.
    Platanthera L. C. Rich. subgen. Stigmatosae K. Y. Lang proposed in Lang's “Studies on the distribution patterns of some significant genera in orchid flora” in 1994b is published in the present paper. The new subgenus includes twelve species with one new com bination, P. edgeworthii (Hook. f. ex Collett)K. Y. Lang, which are all enumerated here.

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  • ZHENG Wei-Lie, YAO Kan
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 452-462.
  • ZHENG Hong-Ping, CHEN Zhuo-Hua
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 463-464.
  • ZHANG Li-Bing, KUNG Hsian-Shiu
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 465-468.
  • LAN Kai-Min
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 469-469.
  • HSU Ping-Sheng
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(5): 470-480.
    Nooteboom (1992) and Peter Raven (pers. comm. ) have pointed out that Chinese taxonomists often hold a narrow species concept and that this may due to the small volum of collections, especially type specimens, available to them which led to the unadequate study on the variability of the species. Raven remarked that “this leads me to believe that the actual concept of species used in plant systematics in China tends to be fairly typological”. What they said are by no means unreasonable. Indeed, the taxonomical status of a considerable number of species in the Chinese flora is probably open to question. New species based on a single character or solely on vegetative characters are of frequent occurrence. Evidences from a very limited number of researches on the patterns of plant variation heretofore available in China have shown that some “species” are, in fact, ecological races ( Clinopodium ), geographical races (Cunninghamia & Indigofera ), or taxa with topoclinal variation (Lespedeza & Rhododendron ). Species based on plasticity of phenotype variation have been or still regarded as “good species” ( Rorippa ). Segregates of an interspecific hybrid with diverse leaf characters have been given different species names ( Ilex ). The originally complicated situation in taxonomy of an agamic complex becomes even more complicated after the publication of additional new species (Malus). A careful analysis of a species with rather complicated patterns of variation leads to the combination of 25 specific names, of which 10 were published in the 80’s by Chinese taxonomists ( Clematoclethra ). Examples of these kinds will greatly increase with the broadening of research work at the species level. Orthodox plant taxonomy is based largely or solely on morphological characters. The exomorphic characters have the practical advantage that they are relatively easy to observe and to record. The taxonomical species concept can meet the needs of general purpose classification. But the notion that the taxonomical species concept is a solely intuitive judgement or preference of an individual worker and one could hardly say what is right and what is wrong is quite problematical. The species category today is much more capable of objective interpretation than ever before. A correct species concept stems from a correct and thorough understanding of the nature of variation pattern of plants and its taxonomical value. Hence, as a herbarium taxonomist, the first thing is to study as many collections as possible. Secondly, the incorporation of evidence from other sources whenever possible is highly desirable. These evidences,if they are not very useful as taxonomical criteria, are frequently of great significanee in contributing to a better understanding or interpretation of the variation pattern of a given taxon. The taxonomist might find the discontinuities he seeks better expressed in either the phenotypic or the genetic variation. A logical application of these two sorts of criteri-a would lead to a more rational classification at the specific level in a great many genera.