Table of Contents

10 July 1998, Volume 36 Issue 4
    Research Articles
  • LIU Lin-De, WANG Zhong-Li, TIAN Guo-Wei, SHEN Jia-Heng
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 289-297.
    This paper describes megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis, and development of female and male gametophytes in Eleutherococcus senticosus. The main results are as follows: Flowers of E. senticosus are epigynous, pentamerous. Anthers are 4 -microsporangiate. An ovary has 5 loculi. Each ovary loculus has 2 ovules: the upper ovule and the lower ovule. The upper one is orthotropous and degenerates after the formation of archesporial cell, while the lower one is anatropous, unitegmic and crassinucellar, and able to continue developing. In male plants, microsporogenesis and development of male gametophytes took place in regular way, but a series of abnormal phenomena were found in megasporogenesis and development of female gametophytes. The microspore mother cells gave rise to tetrahedral tetrads by meiosis. Cytokinesis was of the simultaneous type. The mature pollen was 3-celled and shed singly. The anther wall formation belonged to the dicotyledonous type. At the stage of microspore mother cell, the anther wall consisted of four layers, i.e. epidermis, endothecium, middle layer, and tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type and its most cells were binucleate. When microspores were at the uninucleate stage, the tapetum began to degenerate in situ. When microspores developed into 3-celled pollen grains, the tapetum had fully degenerates. In the lower ovule of male flower, the megaspore mother cell gave rise to a linear or “T” -shaped tetrad. In some cases, a new archesporial cell over the tetrad or two tetrads parallel or in a series were observed. Furthermore, the position of functional megaspore was variable; any one or two megaspores might be functional, or one megaspore gave rise to a uninucleate embryo sac, but two other megaspores also had a potentiality of developing into the embryo sac. In generally, on the day when flowers opened, female gametophytes contained only 4 cells: a central cell, two irregular synergids and one unusual egg cell. In female plants, microspore mother cells and secondary sporogenous cells were observed. But at the stage of secondary sporogenous cell, the newly differentiated tapetum took the appearance of degeneration. Later, during the whole stage of meiosis, the trace of degenerative tapetum could be seen. At last, the microsporangium degenerated and no tetrad formed. On the blossom day, all anthers shriveled without pollen grains. In female flowers, megasporogenesis and development of female gametophytes were normal: the tetrad of megaspores was linear or “T”-shaped; the chalazal megaspore was usually functional; the development of embryo sac was of the Polygonum type. On the blossom day, most embryo sacs consisted of 7 cells with 8 nuclei or 7 cells with 7 nuclei; but the egg apparatus was not fully developed. In hermaphroditic plants, microsporogenesis was normal but the development of male gametophytes was partially abnormal. When the hermaphroditic flowers blossomed, there were more or less empty pollen grains in the microsporangium and these pollen grains were quite different in size. The development of most gynoecia was normal but numerous abnormal embryo sacs could be seen. On the blossom day, female gametophytes were mainly 7-celled with 8-nuclei or with 7-nuclei or 4-celled with antipodal cells degenerated; the egg apparatus wasnot fully developed either.
  • LIU Lin-De, WANG Zhong-Li, TIAN Guo-Wei, SHEN Jia-Heng
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 298-304.
    The embryo development of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim. )Maxim. was of the Solanad type. The fertilized egg usually underwent a rest period of 15 days before embarking on its first division. And the first division of the zygote took place after the cellularization of endosperm free nuclei. After the club- shaped and the globular embryo period, the heart-shaped embryo developed when the fruit became ripe. From the late clubshaped to early heart-shaped embryo stage, the suspensor grew to its maximum length. The endosperm development of Eleutherococcus senticosus was of the Nuclear type. The rest period of primary endosperm nucleus was about 1 day long. When the number of endosperm free nuclei reached 200~300, the endosperm cellularized through free-growing-wall formation. The endosperm cells divided by typical mitosis and got filled with reserve food. But in a small number of seeds, there were some huge endosperm cells with a huge nucleus. The endothelium differentiated from the inner epidermis of integument when the number of endosperm free nuclei had increased to 32~64, and disintegrated when the embryo developed into the globular stage. After the disintegration of endothelium, the epidermal cells of endosperm differentiated into a secretory layer. From the globular embryo to heart-shaped embryo stage, disintegration of embryo and endosperm occurred in about 5 % seeds. In the mature fruits, there were a large amount of shrivelled and insect-bitten seeds, and the pulmp seeds made up about 40% of the total. The pulmp seeds were mainly occupied by the endosperm, with a very small embryo. The nutrients of the embryo and endosperm at different stages of developmentare also discussed.
  • HE Tian-Hua, RAO Guang-Yuan, YOU Rui-Lin, ZHANG Da-Ming
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 305-309.
    The embryological studies on an endangered species Ophiopogon xylorrhizus are reported in this paper. The anther was four-sporangiate, and its wall was composed of four layers: epidermis, fibrous endothelium, middle layer and glandular tapetum. Cytokinesis of microspore mother cell in meiosis was of the Successive type, and tetrads were tetrahedral or isobilateral. The mature pollen grains were 2-celled. Ovules were anatropous, bitegminous, and crassinucellate. Ovary wall ruptured 4~5 days after fertilization. The development of embryo sacs conformed to the Polygonum type. The two polar nuclei fused into a secondary nucleus before fertilization. The embryogeny was of the Asterad type, and endosperm development corresponded to the Nuclear type. About 55.8 % individuals in the population of O. xylorrhizus were found male sterile, and 43.3% of embryos aborted at early development stage. As a conclusion, we consider that (1)the failure of the xenogamy resulted from male sterility, autogamy and inefficient pollination agents, (2)embryo abortion and (3)exposure of young seeds during their early development are the weak links in the sexual reproductionof O. xylorrhizus, which would contribute to the endangerment of this species.
  • HUANG Shuang-Quan, GUO You-Hao, CHEN Jia-Kuan
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 310-316.
    The limited seed production of insect-depended plant, Liriodendron chinense was once considered to be pollen-limited and insufficient cross pollination. In this study, we counted pollen grains deposited on stigmas in three populations in Guizhou, Hunan and Zhejiang provinces of China respectively. Over 61.9% stigmas were pollinated. From 1994 to 1996, the mean number of pollen grains on each stigma ranged from 4.4 to 42.6, much more than ovules(2) in each pistil. Based on observations of three years, both the pollination rate and pollen quantity on stigmas significantly affected seed set. When flowers opened without stamens dehiscencing at the early stage of anthesis, stigmas received considerable quantity of pollen grains. Pollen grains from different sources were able to germinate and pollen tube growth rates were not greatly variable. It is very likely that pollen grains arrived first would fertilize eggs. Since only several pollen tubes went through the stylar canal, the potential pollen competition may exist. In this case, there would be strong selection on floral syndrome which benefit early insect visits. Pollen grains from the early visits would have a greater chance to fertilize ovules than those from later visits, which implies that cross pollination is the predominant breeding system of this plant. The conclusion was also confirmed by following four artificial experiments. Three treatments, including flowers bagged, netted or with the perianth removed, all reduced seed set clearly, but flowers with the stamens removed (emasculation)had a higher seed production by open pollination. As the rates of deposited stigmas in three populations were 6~8 times more than full seed set, we considerthat lower seed production in this plant may not mainly be due to pollen limitation.
  • SHI Su-Hua, TANG Shao-Qing, CHEN Yue-Qin, QU Liang-Hu, CHANG Hung-Ta
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 317-322.
    Eleven species of yellow-flowered Camellia were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Fourteen decanucleotide primers of arbitrary sequences were selected from 140 primers for DNA amplification. 201 bands were used as markers. Based on the RAPD data, a phenogram has been constructed. The result shows that: (1) C. micrantha and C. fusuiensis are closely related to C. achrysantha ; (2) C. chrysanthoides and C. grandis form a monophyletic group with C. xiashiensis; (3) There is a close relationship among C. longzhouensis, C. ptilosperma, C. longruiensis, which form another monophyletic group; (4) C. impressinervis is highly divergent from all the othertaxa.
  • ZHOU Qi-Xing, GE Song, GU Zhi-Jian, YUE Zhong-Shu
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 323-332.
    In the present paper, genetic diversity of 12 populations of four Taxus taxa and one species of monotypic genus Pseudotaxus in China were studied by horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. Seven enzymes encoded by nine loci were assessed. Genetic diversity within 5 taxa were relatively high with the proportion of polymorphic loci ( P ) ranging from 44.4 % to 77.8 %, average number of alleles per locus (A) from 1.6 to 2.1; mean expected and observed heterozygosity ( He, Ho) per locus from 0. 065 to 0.152 and 0. 068 to 0.111, respectively. Combined with the analysis of other characters, the results from allozyme analysis suggest that there be very close relationships between the three species and one variety in Taxus, with high genetic identities (I) between them(from 0. 727 to 0. 995) except those between T. yunnanensis and other taxa in Taxus (0. 727~ 0. 804). Consequently, we propose that these taxa in Taxus be treated as different geographical races within a single species. Also the taxonomic position of Pseudotaxus as a distinct genus is supported by ourallozyme data.
  • ZHANG Shu-Ren, LIANG Song-Yun, DAI Lun-Kai
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 333-340.
    Among the subgenera of the genus Carex, the subgenus Indocarex has been seldom studied in any respects, Its systematic position and its subdivision are still disputable. Leaf anatomy of 14 species in the subgenus lndocarex from China was studied. The anatomical characters are proved to be systematically valuable. (1) Characters of lamina transverse section: All leaves of these 14 species are dorsiventral. The outline mostly V-shaped, occasionally flat or nearly flat, with adaxial lateral rib in each half of lamina and some of them flanged. The cells of adaxial surface larger than those of abaxial surface, and the epidermal cells over veins usually smaller than others. Air-cavities between vascular bundles are well developed, and bulliform cells also well developed in most taxa. The vascular bundles are collaterai, bundle sheaths double-layered, and the outer sheath parenchymatous and the inner sheath fibrous. (2) Characters of lamina epidermis: The shape of the cell on both surfaces is generally rectangular, and the anticlinal wall of epidermal cell sinuous; stomata is paracytic, elliptic to oblong, rarely sub-circular; prickles occur on adaxial surfaces of certain species; papillae are only obvious on abaxial surface of C. moupinensis Franch. The characters of transverse section and epidermis of leaf blades of these 14 species differ from each other to certain degree, and closely related species are similar in anatomical characters. The anatomical characters of lamina are of value for classification at specific and sectional level of the subgenus Indocarex. Despite of the variation of these characters among species, a certain num ber of characters appears to be shared by the members of the subgenus, and some of the common characters are primitive. In addition, some gross morphological characters are common and primitive also. Therefore, the subgenus Indocarex may be primitive in the genus Carex. The anatomical and morphological characters of C. scaposa C. B. Clakre and C. densifimbriata Tang et Wang ex S. Y. Liang are distinct. The two species and their allies should be treated as section instead of subsection. The three species in the sectionPolystachyae share some anatomical characters and comprise a coherent group.
  • LIU Zhao-Hua, GENG Bao-Yin, CUI Jin-Zhong, LI Cheng-Sen
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 341-345.
    Two leafy specimens of Tingia carbonica were collected as impression from Shanxi formation of Permian, from Inner Mongolia, China. The epidermal structure of its leaves is reported in this paper. Under SEM, well preserved epidermal cells as well as some concaves on the surface of large leaves were clearly recognized. The epidermal cells are approximately rectangular in shape, about 100~150 um long and 20~30 um wide. They are arranged longitudinally parallel to veins. The concaves usually in rows are round or elliptical, about 0.65~0.35 mm long and 0.2~0.35 mm wide. Density of concaves is about 1.8/ mm2 and no stomata occur inside the concaves. In all probability, this is the upper epidermis. On the other side of the epidermis, anomocytic stomata are scattered irregularly, each with 5~6 epidermal cells around. The stomatal apertures are about 35.8 µm long, and 18.7 um wide, which is organised parallel to the common epidermal cells. As far as shape and size is concerned, it is similar to that described on the upper epidermis. Density of the stomata is about 60/mm2. In all Probability, this is the lower epidermis. The ecological preference and classification of Tingia are discussed according to these new characters of the epidermis andsubordinate struture of the leaf.
  • XU Jie-Mei, YANG Lei, HE Xing-Jin, XUE Pei-Feng
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 346-352.
    Karyotypes of three local populations of Allium fasciculatum Rendle were analyzed. The karyotype of the population from Dagze of Xizang was 2n=2x=20=4m+10sm +4T+2t(2SAT), the one from Xiangcheng of Sichuan was 2n=2x=20=10sm+6t(2SAT)+4T, and the one from Lixian of Siehuan was 2n=2x=20=6m+10sm+2t (2SAT)+2T. Although there were differences in karyotypes among the three populations, they were very similar in morphological characters, except that plants in the Dagze population were lower. The karyotype of the Lixian population is considered to be a primitive one that has evolved into the more asymmetrical karyotypes of the Dagze population and Xiangcheng population by structural aberration. In the genus Allium, only four species, A. fasciculaturn, A. decipiens Fisch., A. kujukense Vved. and A. cheloturm Wendelbo. have so far been found to have the basic chromosome number of x=10. According to karyotype characters and the distribution pattern of these four species, the basic number x = 10 may have different origins. At least that of A. fasciculatum is different from that of the other three species and might have originated the latest. A. fasciculatum was similar to A. hookeri Thwaites (the latter has x=11) in karyotypical and morphological characters. Therefore, they are considered to have originated from a common extinct ancestor that had the basic number of x = 10.ey words Allium;A.fasciculatum Rendle;Karyotype differentiation
  • FENG Yu-Xing, CHEN Shu-Kun, ZHAO Rui-Feng, LIANG Chou-Fen
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 353-358.
    An examination of the syntypes, Q. B. Huang 42(IBK) and H. Y. Liang 60355 (IBK, PE, IBSC), cited by C. J. Tseng under his Ilex kudingcha C. J. Tseng, showed that it perfectly agreed with the type specimen(W. T. Tseng 864, US) of I. kaushue S. Y. Hu. So I. kudingcha C. J. Tseng should be treated as the synonym of I. kaushue S. Y. Hu, and the correct name of this important beverage plant(Kudingcha) in China should be I. kaushue S. Y. Hu. Moreover, a new species used as kudingcha, I. pentagona, is described. A key to these two beverage plants and their relatives is offered.
  • QIN Xiang-Kun
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 359-364.
    By comparing the type specimens, Syringa spontanea is distinguished from S. meyeri by the small suborbicular lamina palmately 5-veined and the dense pubescence onterete branchlets. Therefore, it is more consistent to recognize S.spontanea as a distinct species.
  • ZHANG Xiao-Ping, GUO Xin-Hu
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 365-366.
    A new variety Chrysosplenium japonicum var. cuneifolium from Anhui, China, is described, and the species Chrysosplenium delavayi is found new to Anhui. The genusChrysosplenium L. of Anhui is additionally recounted.
  • LI Chao-Luan, JIANG Shun-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 367-372.
    Two new combinations are made here in the family Rosaceae. Prunus hypotri chodes is transferred to Armeniaca, and Prunus laxiflora to Cerasus. Further evidence showed G. V. Eremin et V. S. Simagin's treatment, transfering Padus maackii to Cerasus, is reasonable. Small leaves and/or green or brown bracteoles on inflorescences of Cerasus maackii indicate the origin of bracteoles and the different stages of their evolution within the genus Cerasus Mill. Cerasus laxiflora is considered as the most primitive one in thespecies with brown bracteoles.

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  • CHU Wei-Ming, HE Zhao-Rong
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 375-381.
  • CHU Wei-Ming, HE Zhao-Rong
    J Syst Evol. 1998, 36(4): 382-384.