Table of Contents
  • Volume 36 Issue 1

      
    Research Articles
    CHEN Zhi-Duan, WANG Xiao-Quan, SUN Hai-Ying, HAN Ying, ZHANG Zhi-Xian, ZOU Yu-Ping
    1998, 36 (1): 1-7.
    Systematic position of the Rhoipteleaceae was investigated using nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast gene rbcL. Two sets of parsimony analyses were conducted, one using Bauera as the outgroup and the other using Cercidiphyllum-Liquidambar as outgroups. The results of these analyses are consistent. Rhoiptelea is allied with sampled Jug-landaceous genera in the rbcL phylogeny, suggesting its close relationship with the Juglandaceae.
    ZHANG Zhi-Yun, LU Bao-Rong, WEN Jie
    1998, 36 (1): 8-18.
    The rice genus (Oryza L. ) belongs to the grass family(Poaceae) and contains 24 annual or perennial species, including two cultivated rice species, i.e., the Asian rice ( O. sativa L. ) and African rice (O. glaberrima Steud. ), and 22 wild species distributed throughout the tropics of the world. Species in this genus have been extensively studied by scientists with different approaches, including morphological characterization and cytological and molecular investigations. The leaf epidermis is an important morphological character which has been studied for taxonomic identification and studies on systematic relationships of species, particularly in grasses. In this study, morphological features of the leaf epidermis of 23 rice species were observed through light microscopy. The results showed that some characters of the rice leaf epidermis had significant diversity between species and these characters were valuable for the identifying Oryza species, and for assessing systematic relationships in the genus. For example, O.schlechteri, O.ridleyi, O.longiglumis, O.granulata, and O. rneyeriana had elliptic stomatal complexes, whereas the other species had rhombic stomatal complexes. In most cases, papillae on the surface of the epidermis were variable in size and distribution between species. The size of papillae varied from small ( 1.5~4.4µm in diameter), medium-sized (9~18µm), to large (21~30µm) , and the pattern of papillary size and distribution were very useful for identification of rice species. In addition, the number and location of the small papillae in stomatal complexes were particularly different between species. Based on the following combinations of leaf-epidermic characters, i.e., the size and distribution of papillae on the abaxial surface of the epidermis, the number and location of the small papillae in stomatal complexes, and the shape of stomatal complexes, the 23 studied Oryza species could be divided into three major groups. The first group comprises O.longiglumis, O.ridleyi, O.meyeriana, and O.granulata. In these species, neither large nor medium-sized papillae, in some cases extremely rare small papillae, were found on the surfaces of epidermis, and there were no small papillae found in stomatal complexes. All species in the first group had elliptic stomatal complexes. The second group consists of O.brachyantha, diploid and tetraploid O.officinalis, O.minuta, O.eichingeri, O. punctata, O.latifolia, O.alta, O.grandiglumis, O.rhizomatis, and O.australiensis. In these species usually no large papillae were observed, but medium-sized and densely populated small papillae were found to cover the surface of epidermis, and at least four small papillae were found in stomatal complexes (in guard cells) of most species. The third group contains O.sativa, O.nivara, O.rufipogon, O.longistaminata, O. glumaepatula, O.meridionalis, O.barthii, O.glaberrima and O. schlechteri. The abaxial leaf epidermis of these species was usually covered with large papillae, medium-sized, and small papillae. In addition, more than 4 (usually 6~8 ) small papillae were found in guard cells or/and subsidiary cells of the stomatal complexes. Most species in the second and third groups had rhombic stomatal complexes. These results agree mostly with previous re-ports on the biosystematic studies of rice species by applying other methodologies.
    LIU Lin-De, WANG Zhong-Li, TIAN Guo-Wei, SHEN Jia-Heng
    1998, 36 (1): 19-27.
    This paper reports floral rewards, flower visitors, foraging behavior and visitation rate of flower visitors on inflorescences, and the pollination effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim. ) Maxim. The main results are as follows: (1) A male flower can provide 58 000~81 000 pollen grains and 5.5~8.0 μ1/d × 2~3 d of nectar, while a female flower can provide 4.0~8.0μl/d × 2~3 d of nectar but no pollen grains. A hermaphrodite flower can provide 19 000~54 000 pollen grains and 7.0~10.0μl/d × 2~6 d of nectar; when it is at male phase, it can provide pollen as well as nectar, but when it is at female phase, it can only provide nectar. (2) The male and hermaphrodite flowers, if they provide pollen grains, are pollen donors. The female and hermaphrodite flowers with white and open stigmas are pollen recipients. The rewarding phase of pollen donor lasts 1~3 days after anthesis and that of pollen recipient is between 5~7 or 7~9 days after anthesis. This may confirm that E. senticosus is protandrous. In addition, the nectar-rewarding period of pollen donors is from 8:30 to 16:00, and its peak is at 9:00~15:00; while that of pollen recipients is from 10:30 to 16:30, with its peak from 11:00 to 16:00. It is suggested that the difference between the two nectar-rewarding peaks be the key factor which affects the pollinators' visiting direction from pollen donors to pollen recipients. (3) More than 50 species of visiting insects were observed. Visitors most frequently seen are arranged in Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera-Heteroptera in order. Their visitation rate and visitation peak are influenced by different plants of different sexes, in different habitats and under different weather conditions. Generally, the peak of visitation to pollen donors is earlier than that to pollen recipients; the rate of visitation to male patch is higher than that to female patch. In the case of hermaphrodite patch, the visitation rate is higher when receiving pollen than when supplying. In addition, the brighter the sky is or the larger the E. senticosus patch is, the higher the visitation rate and peak are; the earlier the plant patch is shone in a day, the earlier the visiting peak comes. (4) From the pollination effect, we may conclude that the seed set of E. senticosus totally depends on pollinators'visitation. And bees such as Bumbus, Halictus, Megachile, Vespa, Apis are the most efficient pollinators, while other insects, including Pieridae, Syrphidae, Tachinidae, Melolonthidae and so on,are also helpful for the pollination success. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    WANG Yin-Zheng, GU Zhi-Jian, HONG De-Yuan
    1998, 36 (1): 28-35.
    The karyotypes of the genus Whytockia was investigated in order to reveal its sys tematic position in the tribe Klugieae and the evolution of karyotypes within this genus. The chromosome numbers are 2n=18 with their length over 2.0 µm in all the investigated species of Whytockia, which represents the most primitive characteristics in the tribe Klugieae. This paper suggests that x=9 be the primitive basic number of chromosomes in the Klugieae. The morphology of the resting nuclei in Whytockia belongs to the complex chromocenter type. The chromosomes at mitotic prophase are classified into the gradient type. The evolution of karyotypes in Whytockia is toward increase of the chromosomes with submedian centromeres and especially those with subterminal centromeres. The karyotype of the variety W. tsiangiana (Hand.-Mazz.)A. Weber var. wilsonii A. Weber is distinctly different from that of W. tsiangiana var. tsiangiana, which conforms well with the gross morphology. This paper suggests that this variety be separated from W. tsiangiana as an independent species with affinity to W. bijieensis.
    YANG Lei, XU Jie-Mei, ZHANG Xiao-Liang, WAN Hai-Qing
    1998, 36 (1): 36-46.
    The present paper reports the chromosome numbers and karyotypes of 11 populations of six species of Sect. Bromatorrhiza and Sect. Rhizirideum in Allium (Liliaceae). The results are as follows: A. cyathophorum Bur. et Franch.: 2n=2x=16=12m+4sm (2SAT). A. przewalskianum Regel: 2n=4x=32=28m+4st(2SAT) and 2n=4x=32= 28m+2sm+2st(2SAT) respectively from Zhagyab in Xizang and Lixian in Sichuan. A. polyrhizum Turcz. ex Regel: 2n=4x=20m+8sm+4t(2SAT). A. mongolicum Regel: 2n=2x=16=14m+2st(2SAT). A. senescens L.: 2n=4x=32=28m+2sm+2st(2SAT) and 2n=4x=32=24m+4sm+4st(2SAT) respectively from Ulrung-do (DPRK) and Horqin Zuoyi Houqi, Nei Monggol. A. tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng.: Four populations of this species were studied. One from Yongji in Shanxi is diploid with 2n=2x=16=14m+2st (2SAT) and the other three populations respectively from Lixian, Yulong and Sanwayao in Sichuan are all tetraploid with 2n=4x=32=28m+4st(2SAT). The chromosome numbers and karyotypes of A. przewalskianum, A. polyrhizum and A. mongolicum are reported here for the first time. The wild diploid population of A. tuberosum is found here for the first time in China. In additon, the origin of cultivated A. tuberosum and the karyotypical differentiations among the populations of A. cyathophorum, A. przewalskianum and A.senescens are discussed.
    GU Zhi-Jian, ZHOU Qi-Xing, YUE Zhong-Shu
    1998, 36 (1): 47-52.
    The present paper has investigated the karyomorphology of 4 species in the Cephalotaxaceae for the first time. The morphology of interphase nuclei of all these species was found to belong to the complex chromocenter type, to be with a big dark-stained chromatin block which lies in one side of cells and many dark-stained chromatin particles evenly distributed in the cells. And the somatic chromosomes at mitotic prophase of these species belong to the interstitial type, contain many heterochromatic and euchromatic segments arranged one after another. The karyotypes of metaphase chromosomes were formulated to be K2n=24=21m+1M+2sm(2SAT) for C.fortunei,K2n=24=19m+3M+2sm(2SAT) for C.alpina, K2n=24=22m+2sm(2SAT) for C.oliveri, and K2n=24=22m(1SAT) +2sm(2SAT) for C.mannii. The karyotype asymmetry of C.fortunei, C.alpina and C. mannii was all of 2A type, except that of C. oliveri being 2B type. The centromeric terminalization value (T.C. %) was 53.99% for C. fortunei, 53.93% for C. alpina, 54.47% for C. mannii and 53.53% for C. oliveri respectively. The four species in the Cephalotaxaceae share the similar karyotype at the metaphase stage, in which No.1 to No.22 were m­chromosomes (including M­chromosomes), and No.23 to No.24 were sm­ chromosomes with satellites on their short arms. As these two sm­chromosomes with satel­ lites were stable and obvious, we consider them as chromosomes typical of the Cephalotaxac­ eae. Nevertheless there also exist differences among the four species, i.e. No.22 m­chromo­ some of C.mannii still having a satellite on its short arm, while there were no satellites on the short arms of the other three species. In addition, the number and location of secondary constriction of the other three species are different from each other, but no satellites were ob­ served in C. alpina because of the extreme contraction of the chromosomes. From the karyotypic parameters mentioned above, C. fortunei and C. alpina have the closest relation-ship.
    XIONG Zhi-Ting, CHEN Sing-Chi, HONG De-Yuan
    1998, 36 (1): 53-57.
    Hemerocallis dumortierii, H. esculenta and H. middendorfii were considered to belong to a biological complex, and were treated as different varieties of the same species, H. dumortierii. The present authors observed and compared the karyotypes of H. esculenta and H. middendorfii. Two plant samples for each of the species were studied. One sample of H. esculenta was from Wuán County, Hebei Province, at an altitute of 1000 m, the other from Shennongjia, Hubei Province, altitute 2100 m. The two samples of H. middendorfii were respectively from Antu County, at an altitute of 700 m, and Tonghua, altitute 500 m, in Jilin Province. The karyotypes are 2n=2x=22=12m+8sm+2T for H. esculenta, while 2n=2x=22=10m+6sm+4st+2T for H. middendorfii. The karyotypical difference between the two taxa was obviously not intraspecific but interspecific. Based on the karyotype data as well as the morphological and phytogeographical data available, it is considered that H. esculenta and H. middendorfii should be recognized as different species, instead of different varieties of the same species as in literature, and that H. mid-dendorfii is more advanced than H. esculenta.
    CHEN Shi-Long, HO Ting-Nong, HONG De-Yuan
    1998, 36 (1): 58-68.
    The gross morphology, floral anatomy, embryology, pollen and karyotypes of Pterygocalyx volubilis were studied. The results are used to reevaluate the taxonomic status of the monotypic genus Pterygocalyx. Pterygocalyx volubilis has epipetalous glands. There are 16 bundles in calyx tube and 12 bundles in corolla tube, the calyx and corolla bundles are different in origin. Each carpel has one dorsal and two ventral bundles. Flowers are protandrous. The anther is 4-sporangiate. The development of anther walls conforms to the dicotylendonous type . The tapetum is of glandular type, dual origin, and binucleate cells at the late stage. The epidermis and part of endothecium persist; epidermisis fibrous-thickened. Cytokinesis in the microsporocyte meiosis is simultaneous, and tetrads are tetrahedral. Pollen grains shed at the 3-celled condition. The ovary is bicarpellate and unilocular. The placentation is of superficial placentae with 25~40 series of ovules. The ovule is unitegmic, tenuinucellar and anatropous. The embryo sac originates from a single archesporial cell. The chalazal megaspore in linear tetrad becomes the functional one. The development of embryo sac is of the Polygonum type. Before fertilization, two polar nuclei fuse into a secondary nucleus. Three antipodals persist, become much enlarged, and function as haustorium. The development of the endosperm is of the Nuclear type. Pollen grains of Pterygocalyx are spheroidal, 32.8×34.2 μm in size with exine ornamentation being reticulate. The chromosome number of Pterygocalyx is 2n=26, with the basic number x=13. The karyotype is formulated as 2n =26=8m+4sm+2st+2t, belonging to “2A” type in Stebbins'classification. The genus Pterygocalyx is closely related to Gentianopsis . It is better to treat Pterygocalyx as an in-dependent genus. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    CHEN Sing-Chi, LANG Kai-Yong
    1998, 36 (1): 69-72.
    Hippeophyllum sinicum sp. nov.is described and illustrated;nomenclatural issues of H. pumilum are discussed and its lectotype is designated.
    CHEN Yi-Ling
    1998, 36 (1): 73-76.
    PENG Hua, ZHOU Li-Hua
    1998, 36 (1): 77-79.
    HAO Ri-Ming, WEI Hong-Tu
    1998, 36 (1): 80-80.
    XIE Shu-Lian, LING Yuan-Jie
    1998, 36 (1): 81-83.
    LUAN Ri-Xiao, ZHANG Shu-Mei
    1998, 36 (1): 84-86.
    ZHANG Shou-Zhou, LU Bao-Rong, HONG De-Yuan
    1998, 36 (1): 87-96.
    In situ hybridization is one of the most promising methods to identify certain genetic markers on individual chromosomes. To trace the structural evolution course in the genus Oryza, some genes and other detectable molecular markers have been localized at specific chromosomes through this technique. However, reports, especially on the wild species, are still limited. Its applications, e.g., to discriminating and identifying the relationships a-mong different genomes, are still open to be explored.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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