Table of Contents

10 September 1996, Volume 34 Issue 5
    Research Articles
  • Tang Yan-cheng, Li Liang-qian
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 453-478.
    Although five types of floristic elements are generally recognized in the historical plant geography,namely geographical element,genetic element,migration element,historical element and ecological element,it is impossible to analyze all of them because of insufficiency of paleogeographical,paleoclimatic and paleobotanical data now.In this paper an attempt is made to present one aspect of the florogeny of eastern Asiatic flora based on an analysis of the historical elements of Staphyleaceae,Morinaceae and Caprifoliaceae.All the genera but autochthonous Leycesteria and Zabelia belonging to the three aforementioned families and distributed in this interesting floristic region are tentatively grouped into three categories:the boreal Tertiary element-Lonicera,Kolkwitzia,Weigela and Triosteum; the Tethyan Tertiary element——Acanthocalyx,Morina,Cryptothladia,Euscaphis,Symphoricarpos,Abelia,Linnaea,Dipelta and Heptacodium;and the boreotropical element-Turpina,Staphylea and Tapiscia.Takhtajan's concepts of the boreal Tertiary flora and the Tethyan Tertiary flora are followed here,while the conception of boreotropical flora is just the same as that of Wolfe.It means that eastern Asiatic angiospermous flora has three Tertiary precursors. In the present paper the Miocene is theoretically considered to be a period forming the division between paleoendemic and neoendemic genera of flowering plants in eastern Asiatic flora. In general, the genera appearing before the Miocene are recognized aspaleoendemic, while those appearing in and after the Miocene neoendemic. This is based on the following presumptions: (1) The main body of eastern Asiatic flora seems to be formed in the early Miocene. (2) In the Miocene long dispersal might no longer play an important part of plant migration. Since then the world flora probably underwent a great differentiation and the different local floras were greatly enriched by rapidly developed endemic groups. (3) From the Miocene to the Pliocene the Himalayan movement was intensified. Not only did the movement drastically affect the geomorphological features, but also greatly changed the whole natural environment of China. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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  • Ying Tsun-shen
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 479-485.
    Phytogeography is interested in the delimitation of floristic sets and in the origin of their different elements,while areography focuses its attention on the form and size of geographical range of species and other taxa. Ecology or,more precisely,ecogeography,answers questions on the reasons for the form and size of areas. From the current distribution maps of the 247 endemic genera of seed plants of China,it is possible to envisage five main models of partitioning:contiguity (A1-A2);inclusion(B1-B2);overlap(C1-C2);solitary (D1-D2) and disjunction (E1-E2). Many species appear to be limited in at least part of their geographic ranges by physical factors,such as temperature regime,water availability, and geographic and topographic accidents. For an endemic genus that has not reached a barrier, its size of area depends upon the capacity of species to adapt to different enviroments and to colonize different habitats. Speranskia with three species,for example, has a fairly extensive range in eastern China,but within its area it grows on forested slopes,in thickets, in weedy places, on roadsides, near habitations and in steppe area. The genus Notoseris with 14 species,however,has a smaller range across south central and southeastern China, but within its area its local distribution is confined strictly to the edges of forests and grassy slopes in forested areas. Above,examples show that the genera with a high number of species are not certainly more widespread than the genera with a low number of species. The conditions of topography that modify the shape of climatic regions (such as altitude,basin,proximity to large bodies of water,etc. ) also modify the shape of major areas,because climatic boundaries constitute the principal boundaries of floristic and vegetational areas. More local features of topography affect the shape of smaller areas and determine the shape of areas. In the study of generic areas,it should be clearly emphasized that it is of extreme importance to focus attention on the distributional patterns of species,which may show great significancefor the regionalization of flora and vegetation.
  • Zhu Ge-lin
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 486-504.
    Numbers of species and genera,endemic genera,extant primitive genera,relationship and distribution patterns of presently living Chenopodiaceae(two subfamilies,12 tribes,and 118 genera)are analyzed and compared for eight distributional areas,namely central Asia,Europe,the Mediterranean region,Africa,North America,South America, Australia and East Asia. The Central Asia,where the number of genera and diversity of taxa are greater than in other areas,appears to be the center of distribution of extant Chenopodiaceae.North America and Australia are two secondary centers of distribution. Eurasia has 11 tribes out of the 12,a total of 70 genera of extant chenopodiaceous plants,and it contains the most primitive genera of every tribe. Archiatriplex of Atripliceae,Hablitzia of Hablitzeae,Corispermum of Corispermeae,Camphorosma of Camphorosmaea,Kalidium of Salicornieae,Polecnemum of Polycnemeae,Alexandra of Suaedeae,and Nanophyton of Salsoleae,are all found in Eurasia,The Beteae is an Eurasian endemic tribe,demonstrating the antiquity of the Chenopodiaceae flora of Eurasia.Hence,Eurasia is likely the place of origin of chenopodiaceous plants. The presence of chenopodiaceous plants is correlated with an arid climate.During the Cretaceous Period,most places of the continent of Eurasia were occupied by the ancient precursor to the Mediterranean,the Tethys Sea.At that time the area of the Tethys Sea had a dry and warm climate.Therefore,primitive Chenopodiaceae were likely present on the beaches of this ancient land.This arid climatic condition resulted in differentiation of the tribes Chenopodieae,Atripliceae,Comphorosmeae,Salicornieae,etc.,the main primitive tribes of the subfamily Cyclolobeae. Then following continental drift and the Laurasian and Gondwanan disintegration, the Chenopodiaceae were brought to every continent to propagate and develop, and experience the vicissitudes of climates, forming the main characteristics and distribution patterns of recent continental floras. The tribes Atripliceae, Chenopodieae, Camphorosmeae, and Salicornieae of recent Chenopodiaceae in Eurasia, North America, South America, southern Africa, and Australia all became strongly differentiated. However, Australia and South America, have no genera of Spirolobeae except for a few maritime Suaeda species. The Salsoleae and Suaedeae have not arrived in Australia and South America, which indicates that the subfamily Spirolobeae developed in Eurasia after Australia separated from the ancient South America-Africa continent, and South America had left Africa. The endemic tribe of North America, the tribe Sarcobateae, has a origin different from the tribes Salsoleae and Suaedeae of the subfamily Spirolobeae. Sarcobateae flowers diverged into unisexuality and absence of bractlets. Clearly they originated in North America after North America had left the Eurasian continent. North America and southern Africa have a few species of Salsola, but none of them have become very much differentiated or developed, so they must have arrived through overland migration across ancient continental connections. India has no southern African Chenopodiaceae floristic components except for a few maritime taxa, which shows that when the Indian subcontinent left Africa in the Triassic period, the Chenopodiaceae had not yet developed in Africa. Therefore, the early Cretaceous Period about 120 million years ago, when the ancient Gondwanan and Laurasian continents disintegrated, could have been the time of origin of Chenopodiaceae plants.The Chinese flora of Chenopodiaceae is a part of Chenopodiaceae flora of central Asia. Cornulaca alaschnica was discovered from Gansu, China, showing that the Chinese Chenopodiaceae flora certainly has contact with the Mediterranean Chenopodiaceae flora. The contact of southeastern China with the Australia Chenopodiaceae flora, however, is very weak.
  • Ho Ting-nong, Liu Shang-wu, Lu Xue-feng
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 505-530.
    A cladistic study was undertaken to make the infrageneric classification and to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Gentiana. As a monophyletic group,Gentiana is based on three synapomorphies and includes 23 series and 10 monotypic Sections.Two genera,Tripterospermum and Crawfurdia, were selected as the outgroups.Most character complexes were surveyed and 61 informative characters from morphology,palynology and cytology were used for this study.The analysis resulted in 51 equally parsimonious cladograms and the one with the lowest f-value of 0.213 was selected as the base for discussing cladistic classification and making cladistic analysis.Results of the cladistic classification support most of the current systematic classification of Gentiana,With main differences in the circumscription of some sections (e.g.,Frigida,Isomeria and Chondrophylla). In the cladogram,Centiana was first split into two clades,the perennial clade and the annual clade.In the perennial clade,Sect. Pneumonanthe emerged earlier and is the most primitive taxon in this genus. Two subclades,the Asian subclade and the European subclade,came out after Sect.Pneumonanthe. The Asian subclade includes eight sections (Cruciata,Otophora,Frigida,Microsperma,Monopodiae,Kudoa,Phyllocalyx and Isomeria).The first two sections which form the Cruciata-branch diverged at a low level,especially Sect. Cruciata is also a primitive taxon of the genus Gentiana.The remaining sections which constitute the Frigida-branch are more advanced.The European subclade includes Sect.Gentiana,Sect.Ciminalis and Sect.Calathianae. This subclade is regarded as a relatively isolated and specialized one in Gentiane.The annual clade consists of two sections (Dolichocarpa and Chondrophylla),of which Sect. Chondrophylla is a more advanced taxon. In addition, Sect. Stenogyne was considered to be of a hybrid origin between the two genera Tripterospermum and Gentiana with some characters of its parents.A strict consensus tree summariesthe points of agreement in all the 51 equally parsimonious trees; The phylogenetic relationships of the sections and series in the genus Gentiana are also strongly supported by this consensus tree.
  • Huang Jin-ling, Zou Yu-ping, Zhang Zhi-xian, Hong De-yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 531-537.
    The evolutionary history of the tribe Convallarieae (s.l.) is constructed by comparative RFLP of PCR-amplified chloroplast DNA fragment and subsequent phenetic analyses with UPGMA method.The results show that the genus Tupistra and the genus Aspidistra are phylogenetically closely related,and the genus Theropogon may be alien to the other genera of the tribe,supporting the conclusion derived from morphological,karyotypical and palynologictal aspects. In addition,the systematic position of the genus Convallaria is also discussed.
  • Zhang Zhi-yun, Wen Jie
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 538-546.
    The seed coat of 41 species and one variety, representing six subfamilies in the family Hamamelidaceae, was examined using light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that there are some differences between the subfamilies in characters such as seed shape, color, size and hilum, but the subfamily Disanthoideae and most genera in the subfamily Hamamelidoideae have similar seed motphology.The above-mentioned characters are,therefore,of certain value for classification between subfamilies. The seed coat morphology under SEM could be mainly divided into five types: (1)Smooth or only striate at the margin of seeds, e.g., Disanthoideae and most genera in Hamamelidoideae (in Ostrearia,Parrotia and Matudaea,seed coat was almost smooth,but with irregular tuber-projection); (2) Striate,with striae undulate-thickened or raised, e.g., Exbucklandioideae;(3) Tuberculate or striate-tuberculate, e.g., Rhodo1eioideae;(4)Striate-reticular,e.g.,Mytilarioideae; (5)Reticular,e.g.,Liquidambaroideae,The seed coat sculpture could be served as an important criterion of distinguishing subfamilies.The testa structure of this family was also minutely studied in the present paper.The study shows that seed coat is composed of identical testa (it consisting of exotesta, mesotesta and endotesta) and tegmen,and is confirmed to be a constant sturcture in the Hamamelidaceae.In addition,some differences were reported in number of cell layers of the testa in the different genera,but according to our study,these differences seemed to be not significant for the delimitation of genera or subfamilies in this family. Notably, the subfamily Liquidambaroideae differs distinctly from the other subfamilies in seed morphology. The systematic position of the Liquidambaroideae needs to be further studied.
  • Luo Yi-bo, Chen Sing-chi
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 547-553.
    A study was made of Fritillaria crassicaulis,F.delavayi,F. przewaskii,F.davidii,and their related species in the Hengduan Mts.and its adjacent Regions.Of Fritillaria,eight species and one variety are recognized in this area,and names of four species,six varieties,one cultivated variety and one form are reduced as synonyms.
  • Lang Kai-yong
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 554-557.
  • Zhu Xiang-yun
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 558-562.
    According to the main morphological characters, Spongiocarpella Ulzijkh.should be reduced to the genus Chesneya Lindl.ex Endl. The present author had examined all available specimens and then transferred all species (nine species and one subspecies) of Spongiocarpella into Chesneya. At the same time,four species and one subspecies are reduced,and a new grade is proposed.
  • Chen Chia-jui, Yang Si-yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(5): 563-564.
    A more detailed descrption of a rare and endangered species Cycas multipinnata C.J.Chen et S.Y.Yang from SE Yunnan,China is given.Male and female cones of this species is described for the first time.Cycas longipetiolula D.Y.Wang is reduced and treated as a new synonym of the species.