Table of Contents
  • Volume 34 Issue 4

      
      Research Articles
    • Li Zhen-yu
      1996, 34 (4): 341–360
      Based on Burtts classification and relevant references, the geographical distribution of the subfamily Cyrtandroideae Endl. emend. Burtt is outlined, distribution maps of 79 genera are provided, and some evolutionary trends of the taxa are inferred. The main points may be summarized as follows:1. The centre of distribution The Cyrtandroideae consists of four tribes, 79 genera and about 1770 species, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World, ranging from Guinea eastwards to Nukuhiva Islands and from Western Bulgaria southwards to Southern Natal, with only one species disjunctly occurring in tropical America. According to Takhtajans (1978) regionalization of the world flora, and referring to Goods (1974) and Wus (1979) scheme, the distribution patterns of Cyrtandroideae may be generalized as: (1) Pantropics, with 3 genera; (2) Palaeotropics, with 47 genera; and (3) North Temperate, with 27 genera. Tropical Asia (Indo Malaysia) is the centre of variation and diversity of the Cyrtandroideae, where the most primitive taxa, with the chromosome number of n=8 or n=9, and all of the four tribes exist, and where more genera(50) and species (1200 odd) are found than elsewhere. Among the four tribes of the Cyrtandroideae, only two tribes are distributed west of India. Three European genera with six species, confined to the Mediterranean, belong to one tribe, Didymocarpeae. Of 10 African and Madagascar genera, 9(7 endemic) belong to Trib. Didymocarpeae, 1 to Trib. Klugieae, and a11 of 168 African and Mada gascar species are not outside both of these regions. 2. Disjunct distribution and dispersal In Trib. Klugieae, two species of Epithema are found disjunctly in west Africa, and one species of Rhynchoglossum, R. azureum, is disjunct in tropical America, from southern Mexico to northern Peru. Their closely allied species and neighbouring genera are in tropical Asia. Rhynchoglossun azureum has a close relationship with R. notonianum, which is located in India and Sri Lanka, so it is hypothesized that Rhyncho glossum existed in north Africa, where there were tropical rain forests similar to those in Malaysia during the Tertiary. The author noticed that seeds of R. obliquum from tropical areas of southern Yunnan can still germinate after seven months at normal temperature. Most seeds of this genus are not only long lived but very tiny (0.3~0.4 mm long), and can be dispersed by wind or birds (epizoochore through the agency of mucus). One or two species of Rhipsalis in Cactaceae was carried by birds from south America to Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands and Sri Lanka at an early period. This example indicates the possibility of this means of distribution. More than 200 species from the volcanic islands of the Polynesian region, including the Hawaiian Islands,all belonging to Cyrtandra, were obviously spread by birds from tropical Asia during an earllier period. The distribution of two species of Boea and one species of Cyrtandra in northeast Queensland shows that some early taxa of the genera entered Yorke Peninsua from New Guinea when the sea level was lower during the Quaternary glaciations The modern vicarious distribution patterns of the two subfamilies indicate that the main taxa of the family were produced during the course of the continental drift and the climatic and environmental changes. According to the principle of common origin, the ancestor of Gesneriaceae appeared most probably not later than the late Cretaceous, and might be traced back to the Mid Cretaceous. 3. Some problems about evolutionary tendencies In general, the actinomorphic corolla precedes the bilabiate one, and the flower with stamens all fertile precedes those with 1 or 3 staminodes (Ivanina, 1965; Wang, 1989、 1992). In some diandrous genera of Cyrtandroideae, 4 or 5 fertile stamens may occur exceptionally, and are associated with a more or less regular corolla. The exceptional appearances may possibly be atavistic, not representing the main evolutionary tendencies. In the genus Aeschynanthus, pollen grains of Sect. Haplotrichum and Sect. Diplotrichum, whose corollas usually have indistinct bilabiate limbs, are comparatively small, but large in sections Microtrichium, Xanthanthos and Aeschynanthus, whose corollas have distinct bilabiate limbs. 4. The relationships of the four tribes he tribes Cyrtandreae, Trichosporeae and Didymocarpeae are closely related (Kvist and Pedersen, 1986). Some terrestrial plants of Trib. Trichosporeae (e.g.Anna and Lysionotus Sect. Didymocarpoides), in which the seeds have subulate appendages at their ends, may represent the intermediate links between tribes Didymocarpeae and Trichosporea.Boeica and Hexatheca form natural links between the tribes Cyrtandreae and Didymocarpeae. The tribes Didymocarpeae and Klugieae probably originated from a common ancestor at an early stage in the evolution of the family.
    • Lu Ling-ti
      1996, 34 (4): 361–375
      The subfam. Spiraeoideae, consisting of 22 genera and more than 260 species in the world,is the most primitive subfamily of Rosaceae. It has developed into two groups,i.e. evergreen and deciduous ones, of which eight genera and 100 species in China are totally deciduous. In the present paper, the origin,evolution and distribution of the Chinese genera is discussed mainly, and the distribution of the whole subfamily in the floristic regions of the world is also mentioned. Based on evolutionary trends of morphological characters, Spiraea L. is considered as the most primitive genus in the deciduous group of subfam. Spiraeoideae, from which some genera are been derived, the systematic position and evolutionary relationships between different genera are elucidated in this paper. Through the analysis on the geographical distribution of the genera in China, the areal types may be divided as follows: (1) North Temperate Type: Spiraea, Physocarpus, Aruncus. (2) East Asian and North American Disjunct Type: Sorbaria. (3) Mediterranean, West Asian (or Central Asia) and East Asian Type: Sibiraea. (4) Temperate Asian Type: Exochorda.(5) East Asian Type: (a) Sino Himalayan Distribution: Neillia; (b) Sino Japan Distribution: Stephanandra. After analysis of the distribution of subfam. Spiraeoideae in the world, it is shown that the Eastern Asiatic Region, being the richest in genera, species and endemic species of the world,is not only the center of distribution and differentiation,but also an important region for occurrence and development of some deciduous genera of this subfamily, while in North America, the Madrean Region and Rocky Mountain Region, genera, species and endemic species are abundant, which indicates that the western part of North America is also the distribution center of this subfamily at the present, but it may be the secondary center of distribution. It can be seen that the relatively primitive and evergreen g enera, i.e. Quillaja and Kageneckia, are now confined to South America. The fact implies that the South America may be the region for early differentiation and development of the evergreen genera in Subfam. Spiraeoideae. The analysis of Chinese plants has shown that China has the most members of the subfamily in Eastern Asiatic Region, with eight genera, 82 species and 62 endemic species and that the maximum concentration is in western Sichuan, northwestern Yunnan and their adjacent areas. It is very obvious that the center of distribution and diversity of Subfam. Spiraeoideae in China lies in the Hengduan Mountain Region of Sino Himalayan Forest Subkingdom and the western part of SinoJapan Forest Subkingdom, where may be the birthplace of some genera in China. It may be considered that the deciduous genera of Subfam. Spiraeoideae might have originated in Laurasia.According to the fossil records, the time of origin of Subfam.Spiraeoideae dates back to the Lower Cretaceous.
    • Li Jian-qiang
      1996, 34 (4): 376–396
      On the basis of unity of the phylogeny and the process of dispersal in plants,the origin and distribution of the fagaceous plants are discussed. For some important problems about the systematics of Fagaceae,the author proposes his point of views. The main conclusions are as follows:The distribution pattern of genera:The living genera of Fagaceae are divided into four disjunct distribution patterns, i.e., 1. The genus of disjunct distribution between tropical Asia and tropical Central America: Trigonobalanus. 2. The genera of disjunct distribution between Asia and west of North America: Lithocarpus, Castanopsis 3. The genera of disjunct distribution between Eurasia and North America: Castanea, Fagus 4. The genus of disjunct distribution between Eurasia, North Africa and America: Quercus.The distribution of species: Based on Takhtajans opinion of phytochoria, about 880 living species of six genera in this family occur in 11 regions of three kingdoms. Among them, both genera and species are most abundant in the East Asian Region(5 genera, 261 species) and the Southeast Asian Region (4 genera, 283 species). Of living species, 541 are regionally endemic elements( excluding endemic species of Quercus in America , see Table 1), namely 61% of the total. In America and Europe, endemic species are mostly of neoendemic nature because about 95% of them come from the advanced subgenus Quercus, however, those in Malaysia, Southeast Asian and East Asian Regions are of paleoendemic nature. There are six genera, 320 species,about 40 subspecies and varieties in China. Southwest and south China are most abundant in species and Yunnan province is the richest in both genera and species (6 genera, about 176 species). Distribution patterns of the Fagaceae: As known at present, there are two distribution centres of the floristic region. Southern East Asia to northern Sout heast Asia is determined as the main distribution centre, where occur not only the majority of genera and species, but also the primitive and advanced forms of genera and species; and southern Madrean to Carib bean region(Southwest U S A, Mexico, Central America) is the secondary distribution centre, where over half of the total species of the advanced genus Quercus are distributed, but of the other genera of Fagaceae,only one species is known occurring in Madrean and Caribbean Regions. The place of origin: In tropical and subtropical regions, the evergreen fagaceous plants have several flushes a year. Northern Fagaceae are usually presumed to have a single flush, but in Nebraska of the United States, five deciduous species of Quercus were also observed to have as many as five flushes during a wet summer. It could be assumed as atavism if it is found in the deciduous oaks and should be used as evidence that the fagaceous plants originated from the tropical region. And both the primitive and advanced genera of Fagaceae, including the primitive infrageneric taxa ( for example, Lithocarpus elegans, and the subgenus Cyclobalanopsis of Quercus) are mainly distributed in south and southwest China and north Indochina. Additionally, the living primitive genera of Hamamelidaceae which is usually considered phylogenetically closely related to Fagaceae are mainly distributed in above mentioned region. So it is quite possible that in the region the tropical mountains with a dry season is the birth place not only for Hamamelidaceae but also for Fagaceae.The time of origin :Nothofagaceae is recently treated as a sister group of Fagaceae. Its pollen, a kind of very distinct type( exine echinulate) occurred from the early Campanian of the upper Cretaceous, and the characteristic Castaneoid Tricolpoloenites Pollen are found from the Santonia and Santonia Campania. So the original time of Fagaceae can be probably determined at the early period of the upper Cretaceous.The routes of dispersal: The land bridges were very important to the distribution of fagaceous plants in upper Cretaceous and early Paleocene. When the climate and geographical conditions were very convenient, the fagaceous plants developed and distributed rapidly. From the original locality they entered America mainly by two routes: The plants of Trigonobalanus、Lithocarpus and Castanopsis were possibly distributed via EurasiaGreenlandbridges (including many nowsunken islands in Atlantic Ocean) to America. The Lithocarpus fossils found from the Paleocene of Europe and Eocene of the North America confirms the presence of this dispersal route. But the deciduous oaks in the North America came from the East Asia via Beringlandbridge. From North America, they extended to Central and South America.The formation of the modern distribution pattern and reasons for this formation might be concluded as follows. The modern distribution pattern of living fagaceous plants is due to the results of continental
      drift,the glaciation effect, and biological characters of plants themselves.For example, the plants of Lithocarpus, Castanopsis and Trigonobalanus had been extensively distributed in Eurasia and America before the Pleiocene. The diminution and disappearance of their distribution region was mainly the results of the southward removal of the equatorial belt after the Oligocene and the glaciation effect in the Quaterary. The fossil evidence shows that the Lithocarpus plants disappeared during the period of Pleiocene in Europe. The delay of the life history cycle is also an important fact affecting the formation of the distribution region especially for the most plants of Lithocarpus and Castanopsis whose fruits mature in the autumn of the second year. Finally, based on the synthetic data, a discussion about the possible evolutionary relationships within the Fagaceae is presented.
    • Zhang Ming-li, Tian Xi-ya, Ning Jian-chang
      1996, 34 (4): 397–409
      Pollen grains of thirtyone species and two varieties of the genus Caragana Fabr. were observed under LM and SEM.The results revealed that the pollen exine ornamentation of the species examined could be divided into two types: perforate and reticulate.The later type consists of two subtypes according to lumina size and muri width. In the first subtype the lumina is round with d iameter equal to muri width,and the exine is perforate in two polar areas,while in the second subtype lumina is irregular or polygonal,with diameter sm aller than muri width.The pollen volume was divided into four types.The genus Caragana is a natural group which was indicated by the general resemblance of pollen morphology. In this genus the pollen morphological classification was not in concordance with the arrangement of the sections and series except Ser.Pygmeae and some species. The pollen variation at infraspecific level was obvious,especially the species distributed in Qinghai Xizang Plateau, such as C.jubata, C.bicolor and C. erinacea . The evolutionary trend of pollen morphology is from perforate to reticulate, which is congruous with the evolution from the pinnate leaf group to the almate leaf group in the genus.
    • Zheng Wei-fa, Tan Reng-xiang, Liu Zhi-li
      1996, 34 (4): 410–414
      The essential oil of Artemisia dubia var. dubia and dubia var. subdigitata were analysed by GCMS and a tatal of 82 compounds including 50 terpenoids, 12 aromatics and 20 aliphatics were identified, among which variety dubia and var. subdigitata contained 54 and 67 compounds respectivey. Comparative studies indicate that 39 compounds (27 terpenoids, 5 aromatics and 7 aliphatics) were shared by the two varieties. The difference in constituents of essential oil between the two varieties is that more types of biocyclic and tricyclic sesquiterpenes, aromatics and aliphatics were shown inA. Dubia var. subdigitata than A. dubia var. dubia. Compositionally, the terpenoids in essential oil of the two varieties were endowed with a higher degree of cyclization than those of the species from Subgen. Artemisia, but similar to those of the species from Subgen. Dracunculus. Thus the assignment of the two varieties in Subgen. Dracunculus was consistent with the phylogeny of the genus Artemisia.
    • Wu Qi-gen, Liao Jing-ping, Wu Te-lin
      1996, 34 (4): 415–420
      The distinct characters of the flower of Plagiostachys elliptica, S. Q. Tong et Y. M. Xia are: (1) each flower possesses two large lateral staminodes, which are adnate to the lip (labellum) to form a deeply 3 lobed labellum;(2) connective extends into a curved, beaklike conspicuous appendage (anther crest) and envelops the upper part of style. In the Zingiberaceae, these characters are only present in the genus Zingiber.Furthermore, in Sect. Pleuranthesis of Zingiber the spike also arises from side of the leafy stem. Pollen grains of the species are with cerebelloid sculpture,that is the character of the Subtype Cerebelloid areolate in Zingiberaceae, and are similar to those sculpture and morphology of Sect. Zingiber of the genus Zingiber and differ from those of Plagiostachys, of which pollen grains are with longer spines and belong to the Group longspinate of Subtype spinate. The endotesta of seeds in this species is composed of one layer of brick shaped parenchymatous cells, which is similar to the parenchymatous endotesta of Zingiber seeds and obviously differs from that of seeds of Plagiostachys, which consists of one layer of sclereids. Therefore,Plagiostachys elliptica S. Q. Tong et Y. M. Xia should be transferred from Plagiostachys to the genus Zingiber, and a new combination——Zingiber ellipticum (S. Q. Tong et Y. M. Xia) Q. G. Wu et T. L. Wu is made in this paper.
    • Xia Zhen-dai
      1996, 34 (4): 421–433
      Presented in this paper is a taxonomical note on the genus Vicia L. of China with 43 species, four varieties and six forms recognized. Four new species, one new variety and one new state are reported. They areV. multijuga Xia; V. ternata Xia; V. wushanica Xia; V. longidentata Xia; V. unijuga A. Br. var. trifoliolata Xia; V. chianshanensis (P. Y. Fu et Y. A. Chen) Xia.
    • Chen Sing-chi
      1996, 34 (4): 434–437
      Seven taxa of Smilax are treated. S.longibracteolata J. D. Hook. and S. elegans Wall ex Kunth are used to replace the misidentified names, S.mairei H. Lévl.and S. glaucophylla Klotz.which appeared in the Flora Reipubli c ae Popularis Sinicae (FRPS) vol.15(1978) . S.mairei H. Lévl.is recognized as a totally different species and redescribed based on type specimen (E). S. pinfaensis H.Lévl.and S.megalantha C.H.Wright are both recognized as distinct species,which were treated in FRPS vol.15 as conspecific with S.cocculoides Warb.and S.ferox Wall.ex Kunth respe ctively.In addition,a new combination,S.retroflexa (Wang et Tang) S. Chen,is published,and a new name,S.munita S.C.Chen,is proposed to replace the later homonym S.rigida Wall.ex Kunth. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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    • Liu Li-pin, Lian Yong-shan
      1996, 34 (4): 440–442
    • Qian Yi-yong
      1996, 34 (4): 443–446
    • Li Jian-jun
      1996, 34 (4): 447–452
      DELTA system developed by Dallwitz et al.is a flexible data coding format for the concise representation and manipulation of taxonomic descriptions, and an associated set of programs for producing and typesetting natural language descriptions and keys. for interactive identification and information retrieval, and for conversion of the data to formats required for phylogenetic and phenetic analysis. This paper is a general introduction to the functions included in DELTA system. We hope that it will promote the spreading and use of DELTA among plant taxonomists in China.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
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JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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