Table of Contents

10 January 1996, Volume 34 Issue 1
    Research Articles
  • M. G. Pimenov, E. V. Kljuykov, A. A. Tishkov
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 1-11.
    Five species new for Chinese flora have been shown on the basis of the gatheringsfrom northern slopes of Qomolangma Feng(Everest Mt.).They belong to the genera Physospermopsis,Pleurospermum,Pimpinella,and Schulzia.A new genus,Oreocomopsis and its new species,O.xizangensis,have been described.Critical comments on these and some other South Xizang Umbelliferae are presented.
  • Sang Tao, Hsu Ping-sheng
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 12-28.
    Cladistics has become a widely used method for phylogenetic reconstruction.Because of rapid improvement Of cladistic theories and methodologies,and application of new data,especially,molecular data,it is becoming realistic to reconstruct phylogenies of organisms,and to establish natural classifications based on these phylogenies.This paper reviews some current cladistic theories and methods in a practical way,such as choosing characters,defining character states,polarizing characters,analyzing data matrices, calculating consensus cladograms,choosing among multiple equally most parsimonious cladograms,estimating reliability of cladograms,and applying cladograms to classification, character evolution,and biogeography. Based on 36 morphological characters.a parsimony analysis of 12 species representing six sections in subgenus Lindera and an outgroup species from subgenus lteodaphne of the genus Lindera(Lauraceae)was conducted.The results suggest a close relationship between section Lindera and section Sphaerocarpae,which is different from the previous phylogenetic hypothesis within the genus.In the strict consensus cladogram,two species,L.megaphylla and L.chienii,from section Cupuliformes are in the most primitive and the most advanced clades respectively,indicating that the section is polyphyletic.The cladogram also suggests that section Lindera be a polyphyletic group.
  • Li Si-feng, Chang Zhao-yang
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 29-38.
    The genus Clintonia has four species in North America and one in eastern Asia (Fig.1).In this paper,the karyotypes and the intraspecific morphological and cytogeographic differentiations of ten populations of C.udensis from China are analysed,and the probable origin area of the genus is also discussed.The conclusions are as follows: (1)Based On the chromosome numbers 2n=28 from the North American species,the Japanese and Himalayan groups,the earlier investigators established x=14 as the basic chromosome number of Clintonia,and they thought that there was polyploid in this genus except for aneuploid only in C.borealis (Utech,1975;Utech and Suda,1975),but a few authors(Sen,1975;Wang et al,1993)pointed out the x=7 basic number of this genus based on 2n=14 in C.udensis from Primorskiy Kray of Russia(Skolovskaya,1966)and Yunlong,Yunnan Province of China(Wang et al,1993)respectively.Our result along with there reports by previous authors(see table 1)shows that at least two ploid levels exist in C.udensis,i.e.2n=14 and 2n=28.The diploids are widely distributed from northwest Yunnan of China to Primorskiy Kray of Russia,while the tetraploids are located in northwest Yunnan,Himalayas,Japan,and a narrow area in Mt.Hualongshan of southern Shaanxi(07 population)(Fig.2).Therefore,the basic chromosome number of Clintonia certainly is x=7 ratherthan x=14,while 2n=28 in North America,Japan and Himalayan area are tetraploid, not diploid, According to the previous data,so far no diploid taxa of Clintonia has been found in North America and Himalayas.So we consider that the primitive type of Clintonia is in eastern Asia,and the secondary diversity center and the present distribution center of this genus are in North America. (2)C.udensis is widely distributed in eastern Asia(Fig.2);it has two cytotypes.The karyotypes for all the diploid populations are remarkablely similar. Taken together, they can be roughly repersented by the formula:K(2n)=14=2V+6J+2v+4j(2NOR+2j). The chromosomes range in length 25.55~12.78 μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 2.0. The karyotype belongs to Stebbins (1971)2A(→2B). For the tetraploid taxa, except for 07 population, karyotypes are also identical and may be roughly symbolized as: K (2n)=28=4V + 12J + 4v+8j ( 2NOR + 6j ). The length of chomosomes is from 27.87 to 13.93 μm, with the ratio of the longest to the shortest 2.0, and thus the karyotype belongs to 2A(→2B). The karyotype of 07 population is similar to those of above tetraploid taxa but also has some differences, especially in the position of satellites and the morphology of 10th and 14th pairs of chromosomes. Its formula is K(2n)=28=4V+12J(2NOR+10J)+4v+ 8j(2n=28=10m+16sm(2SAT)+2st). The ratio of the longest (23.72μm)to the shortest(12.97μm) chromosomes is 1.83. The Karyotype belongs to 2A. And the distribution range of this population is very narrow. We think that it is probably a recent evolutionary event in C. udensis. (3)Wether Clintonia in eastern Asia has 1 sp. or 2 spp. or 1 spp. and 1 var. has been debated for a long period. According to our observation, within C. udensis, only the size of seeds is related to its ploidy level, i.e. diploid individuals have smaller seeds and tetraploid ones have larger ones; the colour of seeds is related to its geographic distribution, i.e. the materials from the Himalayas through Yunnan, Sichuan to eastern Qinling Range have pale brown seeds, while those from Mt. Lüliang, Shanxi Province via Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin to Siberia and Japan have dark brown seeds. Some other morphological characters, such as the size of leaves and fruits, inflorescence type and flower numbers between individuals in one locality, even within one populaion have evident variation. Therefore, we consider that evidence(see Table 4 )for separating C. alpina or C. udensis var. alpina from C. udensis is notsufficient.
  • Yang Qin-er
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 39-47.
    In this paper,chromosome numbers and karyotypes are reported for 12 species of Aconitum L.and three species of Delphinium L.from China.The results are as follows:A.scaposum var.scaposum and A.scaposum var.vaginatum 2n=16=2m十6sm十8st;A.alboviolaceum 2n=16=2m十6sm(2sat)十8st:A.sinomontanum var.sinomontanum 2n=16=4m+4sm+8st;A.sinomontanum var.angustius 2n=32=6m+6sm+20st(1sat);A.brunneum 2n=16=2m(1sat)十14sm;A.sungpanense 2n=16=6m(2sat)+10sm(2sat);A.arcuatum 2n=16=4m十12sm; A.carmichaeli 2n=32=10m+22sm;A.kusnezoffii 2n=32=10m+ 22sm;A.jaluense 2n=32=10m+22sm;A.flavum 2n=16=2m十14sm;A.pendulum 2n=16=4m十12sm; A.sessiliflorum 2n=16=2m+10sm+4st;D.kamaoense var.glabrescens 2n=16=2m+6sm+8st; D.caeruleum 2n=16=2m+6sm+8st D.maximowriczii 2n=16=2m+6sm+8st.The chromosome numbers and karyotypes of A.scaposum var.scaposum、A.sinomontanum var.angustius、A.brunneum、A.gungpanense、A.jaluense、A. flavum、A.sessiliflorum、D.kamaoense var.glabrescens、D.caeruleum and D.maximowiczii are reported here for the first time.
  • Li Jie
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 48-67.
    According to their morphology,palaeobotany,palynology,cytology and anatomy,the genera Stewartia and Hartia are reasonably combined together.This idea is identical with that of Airy-Shaw(1936),Sealy(1958)and Spongbeng(1974).A system of Stewartia s.L. on world scale has been newly suggested in this paper.Based on the connate degree of styli,inflorescence type,shape of bracteoles and sepals and their relative length, the genus is divided into two subgenera,five sections.The new system is as follows: Stewartia Linn.,s.l. Subg.Ⅰ. Dialystyla(Szysz.)J.Li et Ming:St.ovata(Cavanilles)Weatherby,St. yunnanensis H.T.Chang. Subg.Ⅱ.Stewartia: Sect.1.Racemosae(Wu)J.Li et Ming:St.monadelpha Siebold et Zuccarini,St.sinii (Wu)Sealy,St.densivillosa(Hu ex H.T.Chang et C. X.Ye)J.Li et Ming,St. obovata(Chun ex H.T.Chang)J.Li et Ming,St.tonkinensis(Merr.)C.Y.Wu, St.crassifolia(S.Z.Yan)J.Li et Ming,St.laotica(Gagnep.)J.Li et Ming. Sect.2.Stewartia:St.malacodendron Linn. Sect.3.Serratae Nakai:St.rostrata Spongberg,St.serrata Maxim.St.sinensis Wils. Sect.4.Pseudocamellia Nakai:St.rubiginosa H.T.Chang,St.damingshanica J.Li et Ming,St.pseudocamellia Maxim.St.sichuanensis(S.Z.Yan)J.Li et Ming, St. micrantha(Chun)Sealy,St. calcicola Ming et J.Li Sect.5.Pteropetiolatae J.Li et Ming:St.cordifolia(Li)J.Li et Ming,St.villosa Merr.St.medogensis J.Li et Ming,St.pteropetiolata W.C.Cheng.One new section and one new species are described;two new names,nine new combinations and ten new synonyms are reported. A key to the species is provided to aid in identification.Stewartia s.l. is of the distribution pattern of E. Asia-N. America, originated and is strongly differentiated in S.and SW.China.According to the fossil data,it is suggested that Stewartia s.l.originated in the early Cretaceous,and was widely and continuously distributed in Laurasia before the Tertiary. Influenced by the glaciers and orogenesis,the present distribution pattern of the genus is tormed.
  • Luo Yi-bo, Chen Sing-chi
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 77-85.
    More than thirty species and varieties of Fritillaria have been reported from Xinjiang,incluing many new taxa recently published. A revision of these was made based on mainly herbarium material and literature.As a result,seven species were recognized,including newly recorded F. stenanthera(Regel)Regel,and nine species and twenty-one varieties were reduced to synonyms.
  • Zhang Yu-hua
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 86-86.
  • Liu Yu-hu, Wu Rong-fen
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 87-91.
    In the present paper one new subtribe,Alcimandriinae,one new subgenus,Metamichelia,and two new species of Manglietia,M.hebecarpa and M.obovalifolia are described from China,and one variety of Magnolia is elevated to subspecific rank.Three new combinations, Of Parakmeria are made.
  • Liang Song-yun
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 92-97.
  • Xiong Yuan-xin
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 98-101.
  • Zhu Hui-zhong, Chen Jia-you
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 102-104.
  • Shi Zhi-xin
    J Syst Evol. 1996, 34(1): 112-115.