Table of Contents
  • Volume 33 Issue 4

      Research Articles
    • Zhang Zhi-yun, Lu An-ming
      1995, 33 (4): 313–339
      The family Hamamelidaceae is one of the core (or key) groups for studying the phylogeny of Hamamelids. It is an important taxon for the palaeobotanists and the botanists in discussing the origin and early evolution of the angiosperms owing to its strong differentiation of gross and pollen morphological characters. In this paper, the systematic position, modern distribution pattern and fossil history of the genera are analyzed, and the place and time of origin of the family are discussed according to the principle of the unity between the phylogeny and distribution of plants. The paper consists four parts.
    • Pan Kai-yu
      1995, 33 (4): 340–349
      Paeonia, the only genus in the Paeoniaceae, consists of three sections and has 30 species(unpubl. revision)in the total. The section Moutan DC. , with all the six woody species in the genus, is confined to a small area in China from central Yunnan and E. Xizang (Tibet) to Anhui and Shaanxi. The section Onaepia Lindley, with only two species, is confined to western North America, from San Diego in California to the mountain Eldorad in Washington State, extending eastwards to Montana. The section Paeonia is the largest, with 22 species, widely distributed in the temperate zone of the Old World from Japan west-wards to Morocco and Portugal, but mainly in the Mediterranean region(12 species) and Eastern Asiatic region(6 species). Therefore E. Asiatic region and the Mediterranean region are two centres of species frequency of Paeonia, each with 12 species. The evolutionary trends of characters and primitive species or groups are inferred in this paper. It is considered that woody species, all in Sect. Moutan, are more primitive than herbaceous ones. In the latter characters, such as multiflowered stems, fewer leaflets and lobes, straight roots, diploid, are more primitive than solitary-flowered stems, more leaflets and lobes, fusiformthickened roots, tetraploid. The extant primitive forms are considered to have differentiated in E. Asiatic region, probably in central China, more precisely in the Qinling Range and its adjacent areas. The Mediterranean region might be the secondary differentiation centre of the genus. With the migration of the genus to the west and north, species with fusiformthickened roots and tetraploid increased. The section Onaepia is considered to have diverged directly from an ancient woody member not later than the Middle Miocene.
    • Pei Yan-long, Zou Yu-ping, Yin Zhen, Wang Xiao-quan, Zhang Zhi-xian, Hong De-yuan
      1995, 33 (4): 350–356
      Ten different oligonucleotide primers of arbitrary sequence were used in Capillary and Air Thermocycler to amplify genomic total DNA of Paeonia suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and P. rockii isolated from several local populations in Shanxi, Shaanxi and Gansu provinces. Under the strictly standardized amplification condition for all the primers, these primers yielded clear and reproducible bands corresponding to amplified products and separable by agarose gel electrophoresis. Among a total of 71 bands amplified, 16(22. 5%) were polymorphic in a single individual of P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea, while among a total of 76 bands 21(27.6%)were polymophic in a single individual of P. rockii. On an average,the pairwise marker difference between band profiles of conspecific individuals (different populations) was 7.9 for P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and 8.7 for P. rockii respectively. The average marker difference between P. suffruticosa subsp. spontanea and P. rockii was 10.3. Obviously, greater number of plants and primers will be required to detect satisfactorily level of genetic diversity. These preliminary results showed that intraspecific genetic diversity was low for the two endangered species. RAPD as a molecular marker was useful and feasible for detecting the genetic variation within species of wild moutans. And it was also potential for studying evolution and relationships between species.
    • Tian Hui-qiao, Chen Jia-kuan, Guo You-hao
      1995, 33 (4): 357–361
      Ranalisma rostratum Stapf is a rare and endangered species. This paper deals with the fertilization and the development of embryo and endosperm in this plant.The embryogenesis is of Caryophyllad type and the development of endosperm belongs to Heobial type.Before fertilization,the two polar nuclei are located respectively at both ends of embryo sac. In most angiosperms with two polar nuclei,the polar nuclei may fuse eiher before fertilization to form a secondary nucleus or during fertilization called triple fusion. In Ranalisma rostratum Stapf, however, it is found that only in case when the micropylar polar nucleus is fertilized,it can move to the chalazal end and fuse with the chalazal polar nucleus.This phenomenon is very rare and the process must take more time to fulfil fertilization both polar nuclei. This feature of fusion of polar nuclei is therefore thought as a primitive character from the view of phylogeny.
    • Yu Yong-fu
      1995, 33 (4): 362–389
      In the present paper, the distribution center, the place and time of origin, the way of dispersal and the formation of modern distribution patterns of the Taxodiaceae were discussed based upon studies of phylogeny, fossil history and modern distribution, with reference to the paleogeography and paleoclimatology. The Taxodiaceae, containing 9 genera, 12 species and 3 varieties, is a small family of subtropical to Warm temperate trees with highly disjunct and restricted distribution, occurlng in East Asia, North America and Australia. Of these nine genera, seven are monotypic, i. e., Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Sequoiadendron, Sequoia, Metasequoia, Cunninghamia and Taiwania, while the other two are ohgotypic, i. e. , Taxodium consisting of 2 species and Athrotaris containing 3 species. Moreover, none of the genera is distributed on more than one continent. Athrotaxis, endemic to Tasmania, is the only genus that is found in the Southern Hemisphere. Metasequoia and Glyptostrobus are endemic to China. Cryptomeria is found in China and Japan. Cunningharnia is widely distributed in China and northern Viet Nam. Taiwania is native in the Chinese mainland, Taiwan and northern Myanmar. Se quoiadendron and Sequoia are endemic to western America. Taxodium is distributed in southeastern North America, Mexico and Guatemala. According to Takhtajan's (1986) regionalization of the world flora, the number of species in every region of the world was statistically surveyed. East Asia Region, with 5 genera and 5 species, is most aboundant in number of genera and species. In China, accord ing to Wu's ( 1979 ) regionalization of Chinese flora, Sino-Japanese forest subkingdom, with S genera and 5 species, is richest in genera and species,Sino Himalayan forest subkingdom, with 3 genera and 3 species, ranks second. The region ranging from the Yangtze river, Qinling Mts. to South China (the southern part of East Asia Region) is the modern distribution center of the Taxodiaceae, where the genera are found to reflect basically main phylogenetic stages of the family, including the most primitive genus Cryptomeria, more primitive genus Glyptostrobus, relatively advanced genus Metasequoia, the more advanced genus Cunningharnia and the most specialized genus Taiwania. Despite the limited numbers of extant genera and species, and their restricted geographical distribution, the Taxodiaceae, with a great number of fossil remains, was a very large group of plants in geological times and once played an important role in the forest vegetation of the Northern Hemisphere. The fossil distribution maps of all the living genera and several important extinct genera were drawn. The developments of these genera and the family were discussed. The earliest appearance of the Taxodiaceae was in the deposits of the Middle Jurassic in Eurasia, and it began to occur in North America during the Early Cretaceous. In the Cretaceous times, the Taxodiaceae, contaning all the modern genera and a large number of fossil genera with most of them extinct after the Mesozoic, attained its greatest diversity. During the Middle-Late Mesozoic and the Early Tertiary, the Taxodiaceae was highly diverse and widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere , reaching the higher latitude region of the Arctic Circle, such as New Siberian Islands, Greenland, Spitzbergen , Franz Josef Land and Ellesmere˚˚ Islands at about 82˚ N. Most of the extant genera once had three or two distribution centers: Glyptostrobus, Taxodiurn and Sequoia in East Asia, western North America and Europe; Metasequoia in East Asia and western North Americas Cryptomeria, Cunninghamia and probably Taiwania in East Asia and Europe; and Sequoiadendron in Europe, North America and East Asia. The extant genera, especially Glyptostrobus, Taxodium, Sequoiadendron, Sequoia and Metasequoia, were very important elements of the temperate flora in the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Later than in East Asia and North America, most of the living genera began to appear in Europe during the Early Tertiary, where taxodiaceous plants increased gradually from the Paleocene to Miocene, but subsequently underwent a drop, as other conifers did. The Taxo diaceae was also more diverse and more widespread in the Southern Hemisphere in the past than at present. The modern distribution of the Taxodiaceae seems to provide very little information as to the determination of its origin place. Based primarily on the fossil evidence, the author considers that the northeastern part of East Asia at higher middle latitudes (about 35˚-60˚ N), embracing northeastern and northern China, southeastern Siberia, Korea, Japan and Sakhalin etc. , might have been the area of the origin and early differentiation of the Taxodiaceae. The origin may date back to the Early Jurassic or the Late Triassic. After appeared on the earth, the Taxodiaceae dispersed westward to Europe and spread to the Southern Hemisphere by crossing the Tethys Sea because of the less distinct zonation of climate. In the Early Cretaceous, when Lanrasia had not broken up completely, the Taxodiaceae migrated from the Europe westward to North America, where the absence of Jurassic records might have been the result of its dry environment. Many early genera underwent extinction during the Cretaceous. Most of the extant genera, including Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Taxodium, Sequoia, Metasequoia, Cunninghamia and Taiwan&, and some fossil genera, might be differentiated from their ancestral complex in the northeastern part of East Asia during the Early Cretaceous or the Late Jurassic. They dispersed to the northeastern Siberia and then migrated eastward to western North American via Bering Land Bridge in the Late Cretaceous, where they flourished and formed a secondary distribution center. As the Mid-Continental Seaway through North American, a successful phytogeographic barrier during the Late Cretaceous, disappeared in the Latest Cretaceous, the Taxodiaceae spread to eastern North American and then by North Atlantic Land Bridge, which existed during the Paleocene and Early Eocene, arrived in Europe, where they thrived and formed another secondary distribution center. From the Late Jurassic to the end of Eocene, Asia and Europe were separated by the Turgai Straits, which formed the barrier to plant migration and dried up completely in the Early Oligocene. As a result, a few genera, i. e. , Glyptostrobus, Taxodium, Sequoia and Metasequoia, did not reach central Asia from East Asia until the Late Eocene or Oligocene and probably spread further westward to Europe, but the dispersal route is far less important for the living genera of the Taxodiaceae. The birthplaces of Sequoiadendron and Athrotaxis are still unclear, but it is certain that Sequoiadendron spread in the Northern Hemisphere through the Bering Land Bridge and North Atlantic Bridge and Athrotaxis dispersed in the Southern Hemisphere through the Antarctic. During the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary, the living genera were most widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, with Glyptostrobus, Taxodium, Sequoiadendron, Sequoia, Metasequoia and Taiwania reaching the Arctic region, Cryptomeria and Cunninghamia arriving at the northern boundaries of their historical distributions respectively as well. Because of the tectonic movements and climatic changes during the Late Tertiary, especially the climatic deterioration, the Taxodiaceae withdrew from the regions at higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere gradually and was forced to migrate southward, its disappearance from central Asia and eastern Europe might be caused by their dry climates. During the Quaternary glacial period, Canada, northeastern America, central and western Europe and northern Asia were covered by ice sheet, the Taxodiaceae retreated to low and lower middle latitudes, where it was confined to much more localized areas. Finally, the Taxodiaceae became extinct in Europe entirely, but the southern part of East Asia, where there was relatively less influence by glaciation owning to its great diversity in topography and the climatic conditions were more favorable, became the most important center for the survival of the Taxodiaceae, while southern North America and Central America is another center of survival. Probably, it was also the Quaternary glaciation that contracted the distribution ofAthrotaxis to Tasmania in the Southern Hemisphere. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    • Pan Jin-tang
      1995, 33 (4): 390–402
      This paper deals with the phylogeny and geographic distribution of the Tribe Astilbeae. Based on the theory of evolution, the general evolutionary trends of the angiospermous characters and outgroup comparison Penthorum, the polarity of the characters of Trib. Astilbeae is determined. The basic chromosome number (x=8) of Penthorum may be considered as the primitive one; x = 7 (8-1 ) of Astilbe and x = 17 (8 + 9) of Astilboides have evidently evolved from Penthorum, whereas x = 15 (7 + 8) of Rodgersia is derived from x =7 and x = 8 through hybridization. The striate reticulate ornamentation of pollen is more advanced than the striate. The Axile placentation is more primitive than the parietal. Carpels, stamens, petals and sepals have evolved from more to fewer, then to absent in number.Veins of sepals have evolved from uninerviate and pinnate together (or uninerviate) to pinnate and arcuat together, then to arcuat. Leaves have evolved from simple to simple and compound together, then to compound. A schema showing phylogenetic tree of Trib. Astilbeae and its outgroup Penthorum is given according to a cladistic analysis using the method of maximal same steps by Xu (1989). In the schema, Rodgersia and Astilbaides is a monophyletic group having a sister group Astilbe, Rodgersia is more advanced than Astilbe; Astilboides is intermediate; while Penthorum is the most primitive and had a common ancestor with its sister group, The Trib. Astilbeae consist of three genera. Astilbe, Astilboides and Rodgersia. Based on the present authort s revision, this tribe comprises 24 species and 13 varieties (excl. typical ones) in the total. Takhtajan's (1986) Eastern Asiatic Region has 32 species and varieties (all of them are endemic) in three genera, ranking the first; the Malesian Region has three species (endemic) in one genus; the North Amerian Atlantic Region has two species (endemic) in one genus; the Irano-Turanian Region has only one species, ranking the last. In the Eastern Asiatic Region, Japan, Korea and eastern Jilin-Liaoning of China (The main part of this area is Takhtajan's Japanese Korean Provine) has 17 species and varieties in three genera, which constitute 45.9% of the total in Trib. Astilbeae and include the groups at different evolutionary stages and 15 endemic species and varieties, of which Astilbe platyphylla, A. simplicifolia and Rodgersia podophylla may be considered as the primitive ones. However, the Hengduan Mountains region (west Sichuan and northwest Yunnan) has 11 species and varieties (10 occur in west Sichuan, 9 in northwest Yunnan) in two genera, which constitute 29.7% of the total number of species and varieties in Trib. Astilbeae and include 5 endemic species and varieties. From the above mentioned the author suggests that the centre of origin, present distribution and differentiation of Trib. Astilbeae should be in Japan, Korea and eastern Jilin-Liaoning, while the Hengduan Mountains region should be another centre of present distribution. The more advanced species, i. e. Astilbe biternata, A. crenatilobata, A. philippinensis, A. a 'poensis, A. indica, A. khasiana and Rodgersia nepalensis are found in the area far from the centre of origin. Thus the Trib. Astilbeae plants may have migrated from Japan, Korea and eastern Jilin-Liaoning northwards and then southeastwards to southeastern North America through eastern Siberia and the Bering bridge, southwards to the philippines and Java through South China, and southwestwards to the Himalayas through the Qinling-Daba Mountains and the Hengduan Mountains. At present, in eastern Siberia and most parts of North America there are no plants in the Tribe Astilbeae, Which may be explained by their extinct ness there during the Quaternary glaciation. Both Astilbe and Rodgersia are distributed in the Asian continent and Japan. Japan has been isolated from the Asian continent since the late Tertiary, so that both Astilbe and Rodgersia had undoubtedly occurred before Japan was isolated (Early Tertiary). Therefore, the origin time of the Tribe Astilbeae may be considered as the Early Tertiary or may be traced back to the Late Cretaceous. The pollen morphology of Penthorum sedoides L., Astilbe grandis Stapf ex Wils. andAstilboides tabularis (Hemsl.) Engl. was examined under SEM and is shown in Plate 1. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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    • Chen Shu-kun
      1995, 33 (4): 403–410
      The genus Gynostemma consists of 16 species and 2 varieties, which fall into two subgenera and two sections, i. e. , Subgen. Trirostellum including two new sections, Sect. Pentagynae and Sect. Trirostellae, and Subgen. Gynostemma. The modern distribution centre of the genus ranges from drainage areas of the Yangtze River to Yunnan, southwest China. Northwards, it is distributed to the south slope of the Qinling Range and the south branch of the Huaihe River, eastwards through central-eastern China to Korea Peninsula and northern Japan; in the south, it extends to Indo-China, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, with the west limit of this genus found in northwestern India.The distribution pattern of the genus indicates a nature of Tropical Asia Type. Based on the above mentioned distribution pattern, the centre of diversification and the ecological adaptation of both primitive and advanced groups, also by means of palaeogeological, palaeogeographical and palaeoclimatical evidence and the origin of its out group, the genus Gynostemma, together with its closely allied genera Hemsleya, Gomphogyne, etc. is considered to have originated on the Kham-Dian Oldland during the Early Tertiary.
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
JCR 2021 IF ranking: 63/238 (Plant Sciences, top 26.26%, Q2 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly




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