Table of Contents
  • Volume 32 Issue 5

      
      Research Articles
    • Ying Tsun-shen
      1994, 32 (5): 389–410
      The Qinling Mountain Range, which covers an area of ca. 76500km2 and ranges from 32°05′ to 34°45′ N and from 104°30′ to 115°52′ E, is a major watershed of the Huanghe and Chang jiang rivers with the highest peak about 3767 m above sea level. The flora comprises ca. 3124 species in 892 genera, of which 51.9% of species and 4.4% of the genera are endemic to China. Evoluated in this paper is the importance of the 20 larger fami lies which together contain 65.2% of the total number of species. The phytogeographical affinities of genera of seed plants in the flora are analyzed and briefly discussed. Among the native genera of the flora of the Qinling Mountain Range, 220 (26.8%) are tropical, 563 (68.5%) temperate, and 39 (4.7%) endemic to China. It is clear from the figures that temperate genera play an important role in the flora and vegetation of the Qinling Mountain Range. The features of the flora include the unusually high proportion of endemic species, a wealth of Sino-Japanese elements and prominant temperate nature in compsition. On the ba sis of analysis of paleobotanical materials in the Qinling Mountain Range and adjacent areas, historical distribution of dominant species, and the origin and relationships of Chinese en demic genera occurring there, the flora is of outstanding originality. No doubt, the rich and diverse flora have evolved gradually and autochthonously at least since the latest Cretaceous.
    • Hsu Ping-sheng, Weng Ruo-feng, Siro Kurita
      1994, 32 (5): 411–418
      New somatic chromosome numbers for nine species eight families and eight gen era in the Sino-Japanese Region are reported here as shown in Table 1. Data of six genera are previously unknown cytologically. The bearings of these new data on the systematics and evolution of the related species, genera or families are discussed as follows: (1) Platycarya strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc. (Juglandaceae). The chromosome number of this species is 2n=24, with a basic number of x=12, which deviates from 2n=32 occurred in Juglans, Carya, Pterocarya and Engelhardtia with the basic number x= 16. The Juglandaceae appears to be fundamentally paleotetraploid, with an original basic number of x = 6 in Platycarya and x-8 in the other four genera, although secondary polyploidy occurs in Carya. Based on the remarkable morphological differences between Platycarya and the rest seven genera of the family, Manning (1978) established two subfamilies: Platycaryoideae for Platycarya and Juglandoideae for the other genera. Iljinskaya (1990), however, recently established a new subfamily: Engelhardioideae for Engelhardtia. Lu (1982) points out that because of a great number of primitive characters occurring in Platycarya, the genus could not be derived from any other extant juglandaceous taxa but probably originated with the other groups from a common extinct ancestor. The present cytological data gives support to Manning′s treatment. We are also in favor of Lu′s supposition and suggest that basic aneuploid changes, both ascending and descending, from a common ancestor with the original basic number x=7, took place during the course of early evolution of the Juglandaceae and led to the origin of taxa with x=6 and 8. Subsequent polyploidy based on these diploids occurred and brought forth polyploids of relic nature today, whereas their diploid progenitors apparently have become extinct. (2) Nanocnide pilosa Migo (Urticaceae). The chromosome number of this Chinese endemic is 2n-24, with a basic number of x=12. An aneuploid series occurs in the Urticaceae, with x--13, 12, I1, 10, 9, 8, 7, etc. According to Ehrendorfer (1976), x = 14, itself being of tetraploid origin, is the original basic number of the whole Urticales, and descending aneuploid changes took place in the early stage of evolution of the Urticaceae and Cannabinaceae. In addition to Nanocnide, x= 12 also occurs in Australina, Hesperonide and Lecanthus, and partly in Chamabainia, Elatostema, Girardinia, Pouzolzia and Urtica. (3--4) Sedum sarmentosum Bunge and S. angustifolium Z. B. Hu et X. L. Huang (Crassulaceae). The former is a member of the Sino-Japanese Region, while the latter is only confined to eastern China. The chromosome number of Sedum is remarkably complex with n=4-12, 14-16…74, etc. S. angustifolium with 2n=72 of the present report is evidently a polyploid with a basic number of x =18 (9?) Previous and present counts of S. sarmentosum show infraspecific aneupolyploidy: n = c. 36 (Uhl at al. 1972) and 2n=58 (the present report). These two species are sympatric in eastern China and are morphologically very similar, yet distinguishable from each other (Hsu et al. 1983) S. sarmentosum escaped from cultivation in the United States gardens exhibited high irregularity in meiosis (Uhl et al. 1972). Uhl (pets. comm. ) suspected strongly that it is a highly sterile hybrid. R. T. Clausen (pets. comm.) found that plants of S. sarmentosum naturalized in the American Gardens propagated by means of their long stolons and broken stem tips, and could not yield viable seeds. Hsu et al. (1983) found that some of the plants of S. sarmentosum and S. angustifolium did yield a few seeds, but other did not. These species are, therefore, by the large vegetatively apomictic. (5) Glochidion puberum (L. ) Hutch. (Euphorbiaceae). The genus Glochidion includes about 300 species, but only eigth species from the Himalayas have been studied cytologically, with n= 36 and 2n= 52, having a basic number of x= 13. The present count for the Chinese endemic G. puberum establishes the tetraploid chromosome number 2n= 64, and adds a new basic number x= 16 to the genus. (6) Orixa japonica Thunb. (Rutaceae). Orixa is a disjunct Sino-Japanese monotypic genus. Out of the 158 genera of the Rutaceae, chromosome numbers of 65 genera have hitherto been investigated, of which 42 genera are with x=9 (66.61%), some with x=7, 8 and 10, and rarely with x=13, 15, 17 and 19. The present count of 2n=34 for O. japonica may have resulted from a dibasic tetraploidy of n=8+9. (7) Rhamnella franguloides (Maxim.) Weberb. (Rhamnaceae). The chromosome number of this member of the Sino-Japanese Region is 2n= 24. with a basic number of x= 12. The basic number x= 12 also occurs in Hovenia, Paliurus, Sageretia, Ceanothus and Berchemia. Hong (1990) suggested that x= 12 in Rhamnaceae may be derived from descending aneuploidy of a paleotetraploid ancestor. (8) Sinojackia xylocarpa Hu (Styracaceae). The chromosome number of this rare Chinese endemic is 2n= 24, with a basic number of x =12, which is identical with that in Halesia and Pterostyrax, but deviates from that in Styrax (x=8). The basic number x=8 in the Styracaceae may be derived from the original basic number x=7 by ascending aneuploidy in the early stage of evolution of the family, and x=12 may be derived from polyploidy. (9) Thyrocarpus glochidiatus Maxim. (Boraginaceae). The chromosome number of this Chinese endemic species is 2n=24, with a basic number of x=12. An extensive aneuploid sequence of x = 4-12 occurs in the Boraginaceae, of which x = 8, 7 and 6 are the most common. The basic number x=12 also occurs in Cynoglossum and Mertensia. It is evident that aneuploid changes, both descending and ascending, from an ancestor with x = 7, have taken place in the primary phase of evolutionary diversification of the Boraginaceae, and subsequent polyploidy has given rise to x=15, 17 and 19 in a few genera (e. g. Amsinskia and Heliotropium). The origin of x=12 is not certain. Either it be a result of ascending aneuploidy, or a product of polyploidy on the basis of x = 6. The present authors are in favorof the latter.
    • Pan Ze-hui, Zhuang Ti-de, Yao Xin-mei, Sheng Ning
      1994, 32 (5): 419–424
      The present paper deals with the karyotype analysis of 12 species in Angelica and three related genera-Czernaevia, Archangelica and Coelopleurum from China. Ten karyotypes are reported for the first time. The parameters of chromosomes of 12 species are given in Table 1 and the karyotypes are shown in Plates 1, 2, 3. The karyotype formulae are as follows: A. dailingensis Z. H. Pan & T. D. Zhuang 2n= 22= 20m+2sm (SAT); A. likiangensis Wolff 2n=22=18m+4sm; A. nitida Wolff 2n=22=14m+4sm+4sm (SAT); A. silvestris L. 2n=22=16m+4sm (SAT) +2st (SAT) ; A. decursiva (Mig.) Fr. & Sav. 2n=22=16m+4sm+2sm (SAT); A. tsinlingensis K. T. Fu 2n=22=18m+4sm; A. apaensis Shan & Yuan 2n=22=14m+6sm+2st (SAT); A. oncosepala Hand. -Mazz. 2n= 4x=44=28m+12sm+4st; A. ternata Rgl. & Schmalh. 2n=22=10m+8sm (SAT)+ 4st (SAT); Czernaevia laevigata Turcz. 2n=22=14m+6sm+2sm (SAT) ; Archangelica brevicaulis (Rupr.) Rchb. 2n=22=8m+2m (SAT) +4sm+4sm (SAT) +4st; Coelopleurum saxatile (Turcz.) Drude 2n=28 = 12m +6sm+10st. The karyotypes of all the species belong to “2A” except those of A. dailingensis and Coelopleurum saxatile, which belong to “lA” and “2B” respectively. According to the karyotypic type and the presence or absence of subterminal chromosomes, the karyotypes of 9 species reported in the present paper and 11 species previously reported can be divided into 3 groups. The scatter diagram (Fig. 2) shows the karyotypic evolution of Angelica and related genera Coelopleurum with n = 14 and karyotypic type “2B” is distinct from the related genera. Based on the fact that the karyotypes are not obviously different among Czernaevia, Archangelica and Angelica, Czernaeviaand Archangelica might botter be merged in Angelica as sections.
    • Liang Han-xing
      1994, 32 (5): 425–432
      The sequence of organ initiation and the change in number and position of stamens and carpels are compared among the four genera in the Saururaceae in this paper. Several evolutionary trends of organogenesis are revealed and summarized as follows: The first trend is that the first appearance of stamens and carpels converts from the median sagittal ones to the lateral ones. In Saururus the median sagittal stamens and carpels all appear first, while in Gymnotheca the median posterior stamen arises first, the lateral pair second, the median anterior one third, and the lateral carpels appear first. In Anemopsis and Houttuynia the lateral stamens have changed to arising first. The second trend is the conversion of initiation of stamens and carpels from the median sagittal ones in pair as in Saururus to singular, acompanied by delayed development in Gymnotheca and to final degeneration of the anterior stamen and carpel in Anemopsis and Houttuynia. The latter two genera have a pair or only one stamen at the posterior position, but during early development there is a gap as a trace of degenerating stamen at the anterior position. Moreover, in Gymnotheca with four carpels, a gap exists at the anterior position, which is the place of the delayed anterior carpel; in the genera with three carpels, a gap is present at the anterior position in Anemopsis, but absent in Houttuynia. The other trends involve the change of the two lateral stamens from separate initiation in Saururus to initiation from a common primordium in Gymnotheca and Anemopsis and to reduction of one stamen in Houttuynia; the conversion of single posterior stamen to a pair from a common primordium in Anemopsis; the change of initiation of three carpels from separate primordia in Anemopsis to from a ring primordium in Houttuynia. The facts seem to show that the genus Houttuynia is more advansed than Anemopsis. The evolutionary trends of flowers in the Saururaceae can be explaned as the results of fusion, reduction and multiplication. The systematic relationships among the four genera were inferredin a diagram.
    • Zhu Chang-shan
      1994, 32 (5): 432–432
    • Wu Kuo-fang
      1994, 32 (5): 433–466
      Juncus Linn. is a cosmopolitan genus with about 240 species, widely distributed in both hemispheres, but most abundant in the frigid and temperate zones. In the present paper, a revision of this genus in China is made, and a key to the species is provided. This paper also presents a systematic arrangement of the genus Juncus Linn. from China, recognizing six subgenera, 14 sections (includ. ten new), four series (includ. two new), 77 species (includ. 14 new), one subspecies (new) and ten varieties (includ. four new). They are as follows: Subgen. 1. Genuini Buchen. Sect. 1. Inflexi K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Sect. 2. Effusi (V. Krecz. et Gontsch. )K. F. Wu, stat. nov. Subgen. 2. Pseudotenageia V. Krecz. et Gontsch. Sect. 1. Kangpuenses K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Sect. 2. Compressi (V. Krecz. et Gontsch. )K. F. Wu, stat. nov. Sect. 3. Tenues (V. Krecz. etGontsch.)K. F. Wu, stat. nov. Subgen. 3. Poiophylli Buchen. Sect. 1. Nigroviolacei K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Sect. 2. Bufonii (V. Krecz. et Gontsch. )K. F. Wu, stat. nov. Subgen. 4. Graminifolii Buchen. Subgen. 5. Septati Buchen. Sect. 1. Allioides K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Sect. 2. Articulati K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Ser. 1. Articulati V. Krecz. et Gontsch. Ser. 2. Dongchuanenses K. F. Wu, ser, nov. Subgen. 6. Alpini Buchen. Sect. 1. Triglumes K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Ser. 1. Triglumes K. F. Wu, ser. nov. Ser. 2. Benghalenses K. F. Wu, ser. nov. Sect. 2. Minimi K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Sect. 3. Sikkimenses K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Sect. 4. Concinni K. F. Wu, sect. nov. Sect. 5. Sphacelati K. F. Wu, sect. nov.
    • Wang Wen-tsai, Li Liang-qian
      1994, 32 (5): 467–479
      One species and one variety of Aconitum and Delphinium each, one species of Thalictrum, one subspecies of Adonis, and five species of Ranunculus are described as new. The new finding of Thalictrum rotundifolium from southern Xizang is reported, and after analysing the morphological characters of leaves, stamens, and carpels, this species is con-sidered to be more or less related to T. scabrifolium, a species endemic to Yunnan.
    • Chen Chia-jui, Yang Si-yuan
      1994, 32 (5): 480–481
      A detailed description of a remarkable species of Cycas, C. multipinnata C. J.Chen et S. Y. Yang from S. Yunnan of China, is given.
    • Zhang Yong, Yin Zu-tang
      1994, 32 (5): 482–483
    • Fu De-zhi, Song Shu-yin
      1994, 32 (5): 484–487
      Examination on hairs and fruits of the Dimocarpus longan Lour. (Guiyuan) and D. confinis (How et Ho) H. S. Lo (magic fruit) was carried out. The fruit of D. longan was found to be of smoothly colliculate or granulate protuberances and typical tuft hairs on the surface, and the leaf was also of tuft hairs on the lower surface. However, the fruit of D. confinis was of dense and hard aculeate protuberances and simple and glandular hairs on the surface, and the leaf was also of the same kind of hairs on the lower surface. These characteristics of D. longan can been easily detected in samples of commercial fruits, which were misidentified as the fruits of D. confinis. Moreover, the fruit surface of Guiyuan Sampled from the markets had no any artificially destroryed trace, which indicated that they were not forged through the processing of the fruits of D. confinis, and thus they were trueGuiyuan, the fruit of D. longan.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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