He Yong-hua, Li Chao-luan, Cao Ya-ling
1994, 32 (2): 154-164.
The comparative anatomy of vegetative organs of 24 species and six varieties of
Vitis from China in presented in this paper. The anatomical characteristics of stems, nodes,
petioles and leaves, such as vascular system, hairs, sclerenchyma, collenchyma and foliar
cuticular papillae, were examined in detail.
The main characteristics of vegetative organs of Vitis,observed in the persent work,
are as follows: (1) In the transverse section of stems, the vascular bundles were separated
by medullary rays. The number of medullary rays was variable in the genus, e. g. 18--22
in V. wuhanensis, 37--40 in V. piloso-nervosa. (2) The nodes of Vitis were multilacunar,
with 4--8 traces from an equal number of gaps. (3) The transverse section of petioles in the
middle part exhibited a ring of bundles, accompanied by two, or less frequently more, cortical bundles on either side of the groove. Two types of the ring were recognized: the closed
ring type (continous vascular bundles) and the false ring type (separate vascular bundles
connected by streaks of lignified parenchyma). The anatomical structure of petioles can be
classified into three types according to the number and the arrangement of bundles. (4) In
the cross section at the base of the primary vein of leaf blades, vascular bundles were isolated. Based on the number of bundles, the anatomical structure of leaf blades can be divided
into three types. (5) Several kinds of hairs were found: unicellular, uniseriate, stalked-glandular, shortly stalked uniseriate and spiny-like multicellular. The occurrence of raphides is
characteristic of the Vitaceae, including the genus Vitis.
Interspecific differences of anatomical structure in Vitis are useful for distinguishing
some species, and can be applied to discussinfg systematics and phylogeny.
It is found that the number of vascular bundles are obviously correlated with the size of
leaves and stems. The variation of bundles in Vitis is therefore probably an adaptation. Two
evolutionary tendencies of the number of bundles in Vitis are proposed: the increase in somespecies, and the decrease in the others.
Tolgor, Zhao Yu-tang, Xu Jie-mei
1994, 32 (2): 165-172.
The present paper reports the chromosome numbers and karyotypes of eight
species of Sect. Rhiziridium in Allium (Liaceae). The materials were all collected from their
natural populations in east Inner Mongolia, China. The karyotype analysis is made on the
basis of Li et al. (1985).The results are as follows (for chromosomes parameters, voucher
specimens and localities, see Table 1 and Plate 1--2 the idiograms of the eight species in
(1) Auium leucocephalum Turcz. The somatic chromosome number and karyotype of
this species is 2n=16=12m=2sm+2st (2SAT), in Stebbinsl(1971) kayotype classification, which belongs to 2A (Plate 1: 1; Fig. 1: 1). The range of chromosome relative length
varies between 8.90--15.55%. Two small satellites are attached to the short arms of the
8th pair of chromosomes. (2) A. strictum Schrader has 2n (4x) =32=16m+4sm+12st,
belonging to 2B (Plate 1: 2 & Fig. 1: 2). Satellites were not observed., and the range of chromosome relative length is between 3. 67-11.00%. (3) A. ramosum L. 2n=16=14m+
2st (2SAT), belonging to 2A (Plate 1: 3 & Fig. 1: 3), Two small satellies are attached
to the short arms of the 8th pair of chromosomes. The range of chromosome relative length
is between 9.17-16.39%. The chromosome number and karyotype of this species are in accordancewith those reported by Li et al. (1982) with the material from Jinshan, Beijing.
(4) A. bidentatum Fisch. ex Prokh. 2n (4x) =32=24m+4sm+4T, belonging to 2B
(Plate 1: 4 & Fig. 1: 4). Satellites were not observed. A small median B-chromosome was
found in root-tip cells of the population growing in sandy soil, and it is the first discovery
(Plate 2: 9). The species has terminal chromosomes, which are seldom seen in Sect.
Rhiziridium. The range of chromosome relative length is between 3.32—9.06%. (5) A.
tenuissimu L. 2n=16= 10m+4sm+2st(2SAT), belonging to 2B(Plate 1:5 & Fig. 1:5).
Two large satellites are attached to the short arms of the 8th pair of chromosome. The range
of chromosome relative length is between 8.27--17.56%. (6)A. anisopodium Ledeb. 2n
= 16 = l2m +2sm + 2st (2SAT), belonging to 2A (Plate 2:7 & Fig. 1: 7). Two large satellites are attached to the short arms of the 8th pair of chromosomes. In somatic cells of some
plants of this species, a small submedian B-chromosome was found (Plate 2: 10, 11). The
range of chromosome relative length is between 8.05-17.08 %. (7) A. anisopodium Ledeb.
var. zimmermannianum (Gilg) Wang et Tang 2n (4x)=32=24m+4sm+4st( 4SAT), belonging to 2A (Plate 1: 6 & Fig. 1: 6). Four large satellites are attached to the short arms
of the 15 and 16th pairs of chromosomes. The range of chromosome relative length is between 4.45--8.35%. This variety is similar to A. anisopodium Ledeb. in morphological characters, and their karyotype formulas are also very similar. The present authors consider that
the variety is an allotetraploid derived from A. anisopodium Ledeb. (8) A. condensatum Turcz. 2n=16=14m+2st (2SAT), belonging to 2B (Plate 2:8 & Fig. 1:8). Two. small
satellites are attached to the short arms of the 6th pair of chromosomes. In a few individuals
of this species median (M) B-chromosome was discovered, and the number is stable (Plate
2: 12). The range of chromosome relative length is between 7.64--17.07%.
In short, the chromosome numbers of the species studied in the present work are found
to be 2n=16 or 32, and the karyotypes belong to 2A or 2B, highly symmetrical. The karyotypes of Chinese materials of these species are mostly reported for the first time. Threespecies have B-chromosomes.
1994, 32 (2): 173-189.
Sixteen new species and two new varieties of the genus Carex are described from China.