Table of Contents

10 November 1992, Volume 30 Issue 6
    Research Articles
  • Xie Xiao-Yang, Gu Zhi-Jian, Wu Quan-An
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 487-497.
    The somatic cells of 12 taxa of the genera Nomocharis, Lilium, Fritillaria and Cardiocrinum from north-western Yunnan were karyomorphologically studied. The 12 taxa are similar to each other in chromosomal morphology at the resting nucleus stage, which belongs to the complex chromocenter type. They are also similar to each other in morphology of mitotic prophase chromosomes, which belongs to the interstitial type. Their chromosome numbers are all 2n = 24, and centromeric terminalization values range from 79.9- 82.2%. The above results show that the four genera have close relationships. These 12 taxa, however, exhibit some similarities and differences in the position of secondary constrictions seemingly showing the karyological characters of each genus in the area. Firstly, on m(sm)-chromosomes, secondary constrictions close to centromeres appear stable in one of pairs in both Nomocharis( 6 taxa) and Lilium (4 taxa); In Cardiocrinum giganteum, they were found distant from centromeres on short arms in one of pairs; None was observed in Fritillaria cirrhosa. Secondly, on st (t)- chromosomes, remarkable secondary constrictions were generally found on long arms in Nomocharis, C. giganteum, F. cirrhosa and the high mountain habitants of Lilium, such as L. souliei, while they were always observed on short arms in L. nepalense, L. taliense and L. brownii, which grow in the lower altitude region. So the Nomocharis and high mountain members of Lilium have similary distribution of secondary constrictions, and theyare considered to be most closely related.
  • Liang Guo-Lu, Lin Meng-Jia, Chen Jia-Yu, Liu Jun-Su
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 498-507.
    Nine forms of Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze from Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan and Fujian Provinces were cytotaxonomically studied in this work. The wall degradation hypotonic method was used for preparing chromosome samples which were stained in Giemsa. The micrographs of their somatic metaphase are shown in Plates 1-2, the ranges of chromosome relative lengths, arm ratios, karyotype formulae and classification of karyotypes according to Li and Chen (1985) are shown in Table 1 and the idiograms in Fig. l. The main points are mentioned as follows: (1) All these forms are found to be diploid with 2n = 30, and they are reported for the first time except Yunnan(Fengqing)cultivated form. (2) All the karyotypes of the forms examined are relatively uniform, which reveal the gradual decrease in size from the longest to the shortest chromosomes, similar chromosomal relative length, smaller chromosome types varying between 2- 5μm. The karyotype mainly consists of metacentric (m) and submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. Sat-chromosomes are difficult to be discovered on mid -metaphase chromosomes. The cytological information confirms the close relationship among these tea forms. (3) According to the asymmetry of karyotype, the nine tea forms are divided into two types: one consists of the arbor with macrophyll, i.e. Guizhou and Yunnan( Fengqing and Tengchong)cultivated forms, which have the”2A” karyotype possessing metacentric(m) and submetacentric(sm) chromosomes. The karyotypes might be of the most symmetrical or primitive type ;the other consists of the bush or microarbor with mostly medium- and microphyll, less frequently macrophyll, i.e. Qianmei 419, Qianmei 502, Yaan,Fuding, Sichuan and Qianmei 101 cultivated forms, which have the “2A” and “2B” karyotypes, consisting of metacentric (m), submetacentric (sm) and a pair of subtelocentric (st) chromosomes, and more asymmetrical than that of the first karyotype. They might be more advanced. (4) In recent years, two subspecies, i.e. ssp. “yunnan”and ssp. “bohea”, including seven varieties, in C. sinensis were recognized but not formally published by Zhuang et al. (1981). From the present work and the previous reports the authors agree with Zhuang’s classification, because recognition of two subspecies is remarkably consistent with the two kinds of karyotypes reported here. C.sinensis ssp. “yunnan” with arbor and macrophyll characters has more symmetrical karyotype than that of C. sinensis ssp. “bohea” with bush or microarbor and mostly mediumand microphyll characters. That is to say, ssp.”yunnan” is more primitive than ssp. “bohea”. (5) Based on the karyotype analysis of arbor and macrophyll teas reported before and here (see Table 3), the authors support the viewpoint that YunnanGui zhou Plateau is the original center of tea Plants, whereas Assam form in In-dia is derived.
  • Ma Jin-Shuang
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 508-514.
    Aristolochia Subgen. Pararistolochia ( Hutch. & Dalz. ) O. C. Schmidt, a smallest one among so far known three subgenera in the genus, often treated as a separate genus, is composed of only nine species from Tropical Africa (8 species)and Tropical Asia ( l species). This work deals mainly with the system and taxonomic treatment as well as distribution based on the herbarium materials form British Museum (Natural History) (BM), National Botanical Garden of Belgium(BR), Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew(K) and Laboratoire de Phanerogamie of Paris(P). Three sections in the subgenus are described as new by the number of anthers and its arrangement. Also two names, Pararistolochia zenkeri (Engl.) Hutch. & Dalz. and P. macrocarpa (Duch.) Poncy var. soyauxiana(Oliv. )Poncy, are reduced to synonyms of A. macrocarpa Duch.; andone name, A. preussii Engl., is reduced to a synonym of A. promissa Mast.
  • Fu De-Zhi
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 515-528.
    A new monotypic gymnosperm family, Nageiaceae D. Z. Fu, is separated from Podocarpaceae. It is characterized by having multinerved leaves without costae, and primitive shoot-like female reproductive organs (female strobili). The new family contains a single genus consisting of 2 sections, 5 species and is distributed along the western coast of the Pacific, from low coastal mountains of eastern and southern Asia to the Phillipines and Papua New Guinea. The first species in the Nageiaceae was described as an angiosperm, Myrica nagi Thunb. (1784), but it was soon recognized to be a gymnosperm belonging to a new genus, and was renamed as Nageia japonica Gaert. (1788). The generic name, Nageia, however, has seldom been used, and the members of Nageia have generally been treated as an isolated section of Podocarpus in the Podocarpaceae. When revising the Podocarpaceae, De Laubenfels (1969) established a new genus Decussocarpus based on Nageia, but several years later (1987) he revived the old generic name, Nageia. Page ( 1988,1990)considered Nageia to be a valid generic name and redefined it as a natural genus. The distinctive,broadly lanceolate, multinerved leaves (without costae) of Nageia are rather unusual in gymnosperms,only being similar to those of Agathis in the Araucariaceae, their leaves are also similar to each other in anatomy. For example, there are many single vascular bundles arranged parallelly, between which occur sclerenchyma cells in the mesophyll. Apparently,leaves in Nageia are rather similar both externally and internally to paleogymnosperm cordaitean leaves, and sclerenchyma cells found in Nageia might be the remains of straps between veins in cordaitean leaves. In addition to leaf characters, the large and nearly round pith of the young shoot in Nageia appears to be a reminiscent of the large pith in cordaitean stem. The female reproductive organs (female strobili ) in Nageia are shoot-like. The female strobilus has a sterile terminal bud, and several opposite or subopposite sterile scaly bracts on its axis; two opposite megasporophylls are found near the axis apex and both have an anatropous ovule which is almost entirely covered by the megasporophyll; a bract is partly adnate to the lower back of the megasporophyll;mature arillate seeds are 1-2 or occasionally 3 in number; the axis becomes woody when the seeds mature, but in some species (N. wallichiana) the upper part of the axis becomes fleshy (in the shape of a receptacle), in which no distinct boundary was found between the fleshy receptacle and the woody part, and both have the same scaly bracts or traces. Many characters in Nageia are distinctly different from those in Podocarpus. Leaves in the Podocarpaceae have distinct midribs; in Podocarpus, the reproductive organ, which was generally thought to be similar to that in Nageia, has no terminal bud, and its bract is entirely free from the lower back of the megasporophyll, the fleshy receptacle is derived from both the axis and the sterile bracts (except the lowest two), and the female strobilus at the seed stage has a secondary stalk. The multinerved leaf in Nageia can rarely be found in most of the living gymnosperms except in some rather isolated groups, such as Araucariaceae, Ephedraceae,Ginkgoaceae and Welwitschiaceae. Paleobotanical evidence shows that multinerved leaves have been found in all of the geological ages from the Paleozoic to the present, and such a shoot-like female reproductive organ as in Nageia was found in some paleogymnosperms. It is very difficult to determine the systematic positions of these fossil plants because of lacks adequate material of reproductive organs or even lack of complete vegetative organs. The vascular system and leaf characters of gymnosperms are considered to be very conservative, and the fact that the common leaf shape and venation exist in both fossil and living gymnosperms could imply that there exists a multinerved-leaved evolutionary line ( M-line ) in gymnosperms, which could be traced back to the paleogymnosperm cordaitean plants or even older ones with multinerved leaves. The different types of the female strobili (female reproductive organs) of living gymnosperms, regardless of having one or only several seeds without a typical cone or many seeds with a cone, might have been derived from shoot-like or spikelike female reproductive organs possessed by their common ancestor.The fossil eviden ce shows that the typical cone similar to those of living gymnosperms first appeared in the Jurassic, much later than the single-seeded fossil plant without cones. The seed fossil appeared in the late Devonian Period. It is very difficult to infer the relationships among living gymnosperms, which are hardly derived from one another. But an analysis of the strobili, including the axis structure and position, number, morphology and degree of adnation of the phyllomes on them, would be helpful to the study of their phylogeny. It is evident, therefore, that the gymnosperms with leaves having a midrib might also have a rather long evolutionary course,but no transition between the midrib and multinerved patterns of leaf venation has so far been found in both living and fossil plants. Finally, it is noteworthy that the Nageiaceae are distributed along the western coast of the Pacific, where many primitive representatives, both in gymnosperms and angiosperms, still survive. This would be advantageous to the consideration of Nageiaceae as a primitive representative, or a descendant of fhe paleogymnos-perm cordaitean plants.
  • Lu Sheng-Lien
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 529-540.
    Some new taxa of the genus Festuca (Gramineae) are described from China. They are Sect. Longiglumes S.L. Lu,Sect. Muticae S.L. Lu, Sect. Sinensis S.L. Lu, Sect, Nitidulae S.L. Lu, and Festuca pubiglumis S.L. Lu, F. longiglumis S. L. Lu, F.fascinata Keng, F. mutica S.L. Lu, F. sinensis Keng, F. subalpina Chang et Skvort. ex S.L. Lu, F. chelungkingnica Chang et Skvort. exS.L. Lu. In addition, one new name F. taiwanensis S.L. Lu is included.
  • HU Lin-Cheng
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 541-550.
    Five new species of the genus Rhododendron are described from China. They are R. hododendron oreogenum L. C. Hu, R. pugeense L. C. Hu, R. trichogynum L. C. Hu, R. lulangense L. C. Hu et Y. Tateishi, R. torquatumL. C. Hu and additional fruit description of R. balangense Fang is also given.
  • Fang Ming-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 551-556.
    Three new species and one new subspecies of the genus Rhododendron are described from Sichuan, Guizhou and Hunan Provinces, China. They are R. oblancifolium Fang f., R. ebianense Fang f. R. guizhouense Fang f., R. ririeissp. leiboense Fang f.
  • Lin Wan-Tao, Feng Zhi-Jian
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 557-562.
    Six new taxa of the Bambusoideae are described from Guangdong Province, China. They are Indosasa suavis W. T. Lin et Z. J. Feng, Phyllostachys purpureomaculata W. T. Lin et Z. J. Feng, Arundinaria quadrangula W. T. Lin et Z. J. Feng, A. pubiannula W. T. Lin et Z. J. Feng, Gelidocalamus albopubescens W. T. Lin et Z. J. Feng, and Sasa duplicata W. T. Lin et Z. J.Feng.
  • Lang Kai-Yong, Yoichi Tateishi
    J Syst Evol. 1992, 30(6): 563-565.
    Calanthe tangmaiensis K. Y. Lang & Y. Tateishi (Orchidaceae) isdescribed as new from Xizang, China.