Table of Contents
  • Volume 29 Issue 2

      
      Research Articles
    • Li Ming, Feng Yu-Xiu, Xiao Pei-Gen
      1991, 29 (2): 97–112
      This paper reports the result of comparative anatomical studies on medicinal roots of 53 species and varieties in the genus Aconitum from China. The anatomical structures of the roots can be classified into 6 types and 18 subtypes according to the level of their evolution. The anatomy of Aconitum roots is discussed in relation to phylogeny based on chemotaxonomy, cytology and other related disciplines. It was found that the six types of Aconitum roots are correlated with chemical components, chromosomes, toxicity and the gross morphology. The relatively advanced Types I and II roots always contain highly toxic alkaloids of diterpenoid diester of aconitine type, distributed mainly in Ser. 3, 5-11 of Sect. Aconitum of Subgen. Aconitum, while the relatively primitive Types III, IV and II roots with small diameters contain mainly atisine and aminal alcohol alkaloids, which have lower toxicity, present in Subgen. Gymnaconitum and Ser. 1, 2 of Sect. Aconitum of Subgen. Aconitum. The primitive Types V and VI roots of Subgen. Lycoctonum contain mainly the most low-toxic alkaloids of lycoctonine Type. The result is of significance both in theory or practice for the development of medicinal plant resourcesand the safety of clinical usage of these of plants.
    • Li Liang-Qian, Zhang Chun-Fang, Song Shu-Yin, Chen Yan
      1991, 29 (2): 113–130
      The Huping Mountains is a nature reserve in Hunan Province. It is situated at 29°58'-30°08'N. latitude, 110°29'-110°59' E. longitude in north-western Hunan. The total area of the mountains is about 420km2. 1. Rich in flora, the mountains is found to have 1961 species including varieties of 838 genera in 205 families (40 families of pteridophytes, 7 families of gymnosperms, 158 families of angiosperms). The number of families in the Huping Mountains makes up 56.3% of 364 families in China, and 82.7% of 248 families in Hunan, that of genera in the mountains makes up 26.2% of 3207 genera in China, and 67.4% of 1245 genera in Hunan; that of species 7.33% of 26750 species in China, and 45.4% of 4324 species in Hunan (see Table 1) 2. According to the comparative analysis of distribution areas of 743 genera of seed plants in the Huping Mountains, 14 distribution types can be recognized as shown in Table 3 (15 distribution types in China). As shown in Table 3, the flora of the mountains is obviously temperate in nature, with abundant tropical elements. The amount of temperate genera in the items 8-11 and 13 (see Table 3)is 373, being 54.5% of the total (excluding cosmopolitan, the same below), while that of tropical genera from the items 2-7 is 277, being 40.4% of the total. 3. As a result of the analysis, the vegetation of the mountains can be divided into four forest zones from the base to the top as follows: A. The evergreen broad-leaved forest zone (below lloom alt.); B. The mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest zone (1100-1500m alt.); C. The deciduous broad-leaved forest zone (1500-1750m alt.); D. The mountainous shrub and meadow zone (above 1750m alt.); The dominant genera in the forests are Cyclobalanopsis, Castanposis, Lithocarpus, Quercus, Schima, Carpinus, Betula, Fagus. Rhododendron, Salix, Sinarundinaria ect. 4. The analysis of endemic genera: Here included are those genera which are endemic to China and also distributed in the mountains. There are 31 such genera (Table 6, including the cultivated genus Metasequoia), making up 13.8% of 224 genera endemic to China which occur in Hunan, 4.5% of the total number of genera in the mountains. Among the genera 18 are monotypic, I0 oligotypic and 2 multitypic as shown in Table 6. Concerning habit of the endemic genera, 9 are herbs, 1 vine and 21 woody plants. The woody genera are nearly all deciduous, and thus temperate in nature. Finally, based on the facts mentioned above, the floristic characteristics, of the Huping Mountains can be summarized as follows: ( 1 ) The flora is rich in species, genera and families, and complex in geographical elements. (2) As numerous primitive and ancient (especially temperate)families and genera are found in this region. it might be one of the important preservation regions of the Tertiary flora. (3) This flora is obviously temperate in nature judging from the percentage of temperate genera and the life form of genera endemic to China in this region. The temperate genera and deciduous woody genera endemic to China in the region, make up 57.5% of the total, whereas the tropical genera does 40.4% of the total. The proportion of temperate genera shows that this region is transitional from the subtropical flora to the temperate one. (4) Thetemperate nature of the flora has probably caused by the height of the mountains. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    • He Xiao-Lan, Aur Chih-Wen
      1991, 29 (2): 131–141
      This paper deals with the phylogenetic relationships in Sphagnum using the Wagner Groundplan-Divergence method. The main principle of the Wagner GPD method is grouping based on synapomorphy derived from outgroup comparison and ontogenetic analysis whenever possible. We make use of 21 available characters from gametophytes, estimate plesiomorphic conditions on the principle that characters found in the group under study and in most or all members of related groups are plesiomorphic, while those found only within the group are apomorphic, and finally arrange taxa according to shared derived features. In the Wagner tree diagrams, all characters can be placed on a Wagner tree so that the various relationships in the genus Sphagnum can be visualized. The results were as follows: 1. The genus Sphagnum can be divided into six sections, i.e. Sphagnum, Squarrosa, Acutifolia, Cuspidata, Subsecunda and Polyclada. They are almost consistent withe those derived from classical and numerical taxonomy of Sphagnum. 2. In Wagner tree diagrams, Section Sphagnum and Sect. Squarros were branched earlier, so they are primitive and the other four sections were last branched, so they are derived. Sphagnum magellanicum is a rather primitive species, whereus S. girgensohnii andS. fimbriatum are rather advanced ones in the 14 species of Sphagnum investigated.
    • Zhu Min, Xiao Pei-Gen
      1991, 29 (2): 142–155
      Based on the analysis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids of 323 samples in 11 families, 50 genera and 181 species of the Chinese flora discussed in this paper are the biogenesis, evolution, distribution pattern and botanical sources as well as the pharmacological action of this specific category of alkaloids. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are found mainly in Magnoliidae, in which aporphines, bisbenzylisoquinolines and protoberberines are the three major types of the alkaloids. More specifically, aporphines appeare more concentrated in primitive woody plants such as the Annonaceae, while bisbenzylisoquinolines are especially common in the Menispermaceae, Thalictrum (the Ranunculaceae) and Berberis (the Berberidaceae). As to protoberberines, the quaternary ones occur mainly in the families Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae, whereas the tertiary ones mainly in the relatively advanced families Menispermaceae and Papaveraceae within Magnoliidae. As a whole, a general rule can be drawn that the simpler the chemical structure of the benzylisoquinolines is, the more widely they are distributed in primitive groups; more specific ones only have a limited distribution in more advanced groups or even within one family or one to several genera. This general pattern of distribution of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants may be of value as a taxonomic criterion for plant systematics. Furthermore, this group of alkaloids covers the gamut of pharmacologic responses, such as the antibacterial effect and the effect to cardiovascular and nervous systems, and consequently the correlation between benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and their pharmacologicactivities within Magnoliidae may worthily be applied for the finding of new drugs.
    • Chen Zhi-Duan, Zhang Zhi-Yun
      1991, 29 (2): 156–163
      Light and scanning electron microscopes were used to examine foliar epidermal features such as the shape of epidermal cells, the type of stomatal apparatus and outer stomatal rim in 38 species of 6 genera of the Betulaceae. Four types of stomatal apparatus on mature leaves are recognized in this survey: anomocytic, cyclocytic, non-typical actinocytic and brachyparacytic. The foliar epidermal characters and character states are taxonomically useful for the identification of genera and the division of tribes. The generalized evolutionary scheme for foliar epidermal features is fairly closely correlated with the generic relationships proposed in other studies (Abbe, 1935, 1974; Brunner & Fairbrothers, 1979; Hall, 1952; Kikuzava, 1982; Kuprianova, 1963)and it is clear that foliar epidermal morphology can be an important taxonomic character added to others for determining evolutionary relationships. The explanations of generic relationships are based on our hypothesis that anomocytic stomatal apparatus, uni-layered outer stomatal rim, having not T-pieces at the polar region of guard cells and straight anticlinal wall of lower epidermal cell are from the ancestor (Fig. 1). Sinuolate or sinuate anticlinal wall of lower epidermal cells and non-typical actinocytic stomatal apparatus, present in Corylus, Ostryopsis, Ostrya and Carpinus of the Betulaceae, correlates with the separation of Coryleae from Betuleae. Betuleae including Alnus and Betula is considered primitive with more primitive characters. Of Coryleae, Carpinus might be the most advanced, with brachyparacytic

      stomatal apparatus and double-layered outer stomatal rim.

    • Mi Qiu-Wen, Yang Chun-Shu
      1991, 29 (2): 164–171
      The present paper describes the pollen morphology of 27 species, 4 varieties and 1 form of Asarum from China. The pollen grains were all examined under light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The apertures of pollen grains of Asarum are variable and so distinct as to allow the identification of individual subgenera and species. The exine ornamentation is compound and may be divided into two types: reticulate or cerebelloid under verrucae. The pollen grains of Subgen. Asarum and Subgen. Heterotropa are distinguishable, which supports the taxonomical subdivision based on the gross morphology. The differences in the pollen morphology between A. caulescens Maxim. and A. sieboldii Miq. in China and in Japan are discussed and some comparisons in the pollenmorphology between several species similar in the gross morphology are also made.
    • Ding Bing-Yang, Fang Yun-Yi, Zhang Hui-Ming, Liang Hong, Zhao Lie
      1991, 29 (2): 172–177
      In the present work, pollen grains of 9 species of Trapa L. from Zhejiang were examined under LM and SEM. They are subsphaeroidal or subprolate, obtuse-triangular in polar view, elliptic or subrounded in equatorial view, and 3-colpate. In the equatorial area, there are three ridge-shaped appendages which elongates along apertures toward two poles and ultimately combined, the ornamentation of other part of exine is minute-verrucate. The genus Trapa is uniform in shape of pollen grains, type and position of apertures and ornamentation of exine, while differentiation can be found in size of pollen grains and shape of ridge-shaped appendage. All of these provide valuable evidence for the classification of Trapa and the verification of their affinities. The validity of Trapaceae, the evolutionarytrends of pollen morphology and the affinities of some species are discussed in this paper.
    • Liao Liang, Xu Ling-Ling, Yang Di-Qing
      1991, 29 (2): 178–183
      The present paper reports the chromosome numbers and karyotypes of 5 species in Ranunculus from Jiangxi. The result is shown in Table 1-2. The chromosome numbers of R. ternatus Thunb. (2n=4x=32; 2n=2x=16=8m+2sm+6st) , R. polii Franch. (2n = 2x = 16 = 8m+2sm+6st) and R. sieboldii Miq. (2n = 8x-1 = 63 = 15m+18sm+22st+8t) are first reported. The essential points are as follows: (1) The karyotypes of R. ternatus Thunb. and R. polii Franch. are rather similar, which shows a close relationship between the two species. (2) Polyploid complexes are common in Ranunculus. (3) According to the taxonomical system of Wang Wen-cai, the karyotypes of the two species investigated in Sect. Auricomus belong to “2A” of Stebbins; that of the only species in Sect. Hecatonia belong to “2B'; the karyotypes of the two species investigated in Sect. Ranunculus belong to “3A” or “3B”. The relationships among the three sections from thekaryotype are basically consistent with those based on morphology.
    • Liao Liang, Chem Ye
      1991, 29 (2): 184–186
      Four wild populations of Ranunculus japonicus Thunb. from Jiangxi Province were cytotaxonomically investigated in the work. The common karyotype was found to be 2n=14 = 6m+4sm+4st(2SAT). In a population from Mt. Yunju, in addition to the common one, two variations were observed, i. e. 2n= 14+1B= 6m+4sm+4st (2SAT)+1B and 2n = 14=6m+6sm(SAT)+2st. Comparing with the common karyotype the variations are the occurrence of a B-chromosome in one karyotype and the shift of arm ratio of the sixth pairfrom “st” to “sm' in the other. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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    • Ma Feng-Shan, Li Jian-Xiu
      1991, 29 (2): 187–189
      This paper reports the occurrence of the ovuliferous leaves on a Maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba)growing in Longdong, Yiyuan County, Shandong Province. This phenomenon is discussed in connection with the history of Ginkgoales. It is believed that this discovery serves as an illustration of the hypothesis that the secondary apical position of ovules (Ginkgoales) is a modification of the marginal position (Pteridospermidae). Again, it probably leads to the assumption that, in Ginkgo, “the foliage leaves” bear some features of “thesporophylls” and they are derived from telomes.
    • Pan Jin-Tang
      1991, 29 (2): 189–189
      A new status, Rodgersia aesculifolia var. henricii (Franch.) C.Y.Wu, is proposed, and two new varieties, i. e. R. sambucifolia var. estrigosa J.T. Pan, and R. pinnata var. strigosa J. T. Pan are described in this paper.
    • Chen Hu-Biao, Cheng Ching-Rong
      1991, 29 (2): 190–192
      This paper reports two new species of Morina L.from western China, namely M.bracteata C. Y. Cheng et H.B.Chen and M.lorifolia C.Y. Cheng et H. B.Chen.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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