Table of Contents
  • Volume 27 Issue 5

      
      Research Articles
    • Ma Jin-Shuang
      1989, 27 (5): 321–364
      This revision deals with the system, evolution, distribution, cytotaxonomy and taxonomic treatment of the genus Aristolochia Linn. from E. & S. Asia, which covers Japan, USSR (Far East), China, Viet Nam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Sikkim, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Total 2 subgenera, 7 sections, 4 series, 68 species and 1 variety (cultivated species not included) are recognized in this treatment, of which 3 sections and 2 species are described as new. In addition, 13 new synonyms and some new records to this region are also included. Ystem Having estimated all the works dealing with the subdivision of the genus by the previous authors, the system of O. C. Schmidt (1935) is chosen as the basis, with a change of the sequence of the subdivisions. The subgenus Pararistolochia (Hutch. & Dalz.) O. C. Schmidt, which has indefinite stamens and gynandrous lobes, seems to be better considered as the most primitive one in the genus, while the subgenus Siphisia (Raf.) Duch., which has definite stamens and gynandrous lobes, anthers arranged in 3 pairs and more modifications of the perianth, seems to be the most advanced one. The perianth of the subgenus Siphisia has differentiated into several types, and it is more rational using this character to classify sections than lobes of the gynostemium. In this way, three new sections has been established. A suggested system of the genus is summarized as follows: Subgen. 1. Pararistolochia (Hutch. & Dalz.) O. C. Schmidt Subgen. 2. Aristolochia: Sect. 1. Aristolochia (2 series), Sect. 2. Gymnolobus Duch. Subgen. 3. Siphisia (Raf.) Duch.: Sect. 3. Pentodon Klotz, Sect. 4. Odontosiphisia J. S. Ma, Sect. 5. Leptosiphisia J. S. Ma, Sect. 6. Nepenthesia Klotz., Sect. 7. Obliquosiphisia J. S. Ma, Sect. 8. Siphisia (2 series). Evolution According to the character analysis of the genera of Aristolochiaceae, the evolutionary trends of the family are proposed as follows: 1, the perianth from double to single, from cup-like to tubular, 2, stamens from indefinite to definite, from separate from pistil to united into a gynostemium with pistil, which is a major evolutionary line in the family, 3, ovary from half-superior to inferior, and 4, fruit from a follicle to a capsule. It is evident that the genus Aristolochia, with a tubular perianth, stamens 6, a gynostemium, an inferior ovary and a capsule, is in highly advanced position in the family. The subgenus Pararistolochia, which has more stamens and more lobes of gynostemium, is very similar to the genus Thottea Rottb. and thus better considered as the most primitive subgenus in the genus. The subgenus Siphisia, which has definite stamens (6) in 3 pairs and 6 lobes of gynostemium as well as the polyploid feature (2n=4x=28), is the most advanced subgenus. As a result of the character analysis, the evolutionary trends of the subgenera in the genus, which are in accordance with those of the family, are proposed as follows: 1. stamens from indefinite to definite, and 2. gynostemium lobes from more to less. Distribution The more primitive subgenus Pararistolochia is only distributed in West Africa (except 1 species in Malesia), the subgenus Aristolochia in the tropical and subtropical regions, rarely in the temperate one, and the most advanced subgenus Siphisia occurs mainly in E. Asia, occasionally in N. America. The result of this work shows that the Hengduan Mountains is the second center of distribution after South America. The second center of distribution is of following features: 1. complex composition of taxa, among 3 subgenera and 8 sections, 2 subgenera and 7 sections have been recorded here, 2. rich in species, more than half of the total E. & S. Asian species, i.e. about 42 species have been found in this region, and 3. numerous endemics, more than 85 percent of the total number of species in the region, i.e. about 35 species, are endemic. Cytotaxonomy and taxonomic treatment The known chromosome numbers in 43 species, with 34 reported by Gregory (1956) and Fedorov (1969), together with 9 species newly reported in this work, show that Subgen. Aristolochia with 2n=2x=14, rarely 12, is apparently more primitive than Subgen. Siphisia with 2n=2x=28.
    • Wen Tai-Hui, He Xiao-Ling
      1989, 27 (5): 365–377
      In this article, 30 speceis of bamboos, including 19 genera in 5 tribes, were collected and the morphology of fruits and starches of them was studied. The results are as follows. I. The morphology of fruits is important in studies of systematic position in bamboos. According to the systems of W. Munro and G. Bentham whether the pericarp is adhesive to or free from the seed coat may be taken as a basis of classification. It is also confirmed in this article. It is found in this work that all taxa with a binding pericarp and seed coat are of caryopsis that also has a ventral suture and hilum, while all others with a separated pericarp and seed coat are of bacca or nut, which has no ventral suture and hilum. The former has a hard and thin pericarp and rich endosperm, while the latter has a fleshy and thick pericarp and no endosperm. These characteristics form a basis of classification of major groups. II. In 1907, Brandis found that no any endosperm in matured fruit of Dinochloa, Melocalamus, Melocanna and Ochlandra. It has been proved by Stapf in at least one genus. We found that the baccae of Qiongzhuea, Melocanna, Ferrocalamus and Chimonobambusa Subg. Oerocalama were empty, with no endosperm. This may be a common character of the bacca. We believe, therefore, that the systematic position of Qiongzhuea, Ferrocalamus and Chimonobambusa Subg. Oreocalama is close to Melocanneae. III. Starch grains of bamboo fruits are complex in structure. They are round or ellipsoidal, consisting of 3-22 polyhedral or apple-like small grains. The morphology of starch grains is not so important as fruit in bamboo classification, but some characteristics are of a high value in the identification of genera and species, when they are combined with other features. In Cephalostachyum, the starch grain is very big, with 20-40 μm in diam, and the starch small grain is polyhedral or apple-like with 7.5-22.5 μm in diam, while in Dendrocalamus, the starch grain is small, with 10-28.9 μm in diam. and the starch small grain is only polyhedral, with 3-11.9 μm in diam. The morphology and size of the starch grain and starch small grain are also different in Melocanna and Chimonobambusa Subg. Oreocalama. IV. W. Munro’s system divided Bambuseae into three major groups according to the morphology of flower and fruit. Because the material was not sufficient at that time, the system wrongly put Cephalostachyum, Dendrocalamus into the group Bacciferea. Now it is found that both Cephalostachyum and Dendrocalamus have a nut. Later G. Bentham found this problem and divided the Bambuseae into four subtribes, treating Dendrocalamus as a separate subtribe, Dendrocalamae, and putting the bacca group into another subtribe, Melocannae. It is better, but it also has some shortcomings. Hackel, Gamble, E. G. Camus, A. Camus and Keng Pojie all accepted the view of Bentham, placing Dendrocalamus and Melocanna into different subtribes or tribes.
    • Huang Pu-Hwa, Ye Wan-Hui
      1989, 27 (5): 378–385
      The pollen morphology of 19 species and 2 varieties in the genus Ribes Linn. was examined under light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pollen grains of the genus are subspheroidal, 15.0-41.67 μm in diameter, more or less circular to obtusely quadrangular in outline with all sides slightly concave, or with alternating concave sides, or elliptic under SEM, 5-, 6-zonocolporate or 5-, 6-pantoporate. Exine usually thin, 1.0-1.5μm, without visible differentiation between nexine and sexine. Exine is psilate or sometimes coarsely or finely granular or verrucate. The most important characteristic of pollen in this genus is the presence of a “rugoid Area” (ectoaperture) around the endoaperture under SEM. It is different from the other taxa of Saxifragaceae (s. 1.). Based on the pollen morphology and the external morphological characteristics, the treatment of the genus Ribes as an independent family (i.e. Grossulariaceae) by many taxonomists is reasonable. The pollen grains of the genus can be divided into 4 types from the materials examined: (1) Grossularia-type. ectoaperture colpate, with two endoapertures, exine psilate. (2) Ribes-type: ectoaperture porous or colpate, with one or two endoapertures, exine mostly psilate. (3) Grossularioides-type: ectoaperture porous, circular, small, with one endoaperture, exine verrucate. (4) Berisia-type: ectoaperture porous, subcircular to circular, large, with one endoaperture exine mostly psilate. The observation made by the present authors supports the subdivision of Ribes into the subgenera Grossularia, Ribes, Grossularioides and Berisia by many taxonomists based on the other morphological characteristics, and the observation by the present authors is in accordance with this view. Pollen information also shows the close relationships among thefour subgenera and therefore they belong to the same genus — Ribes.
    • Lan Yong-Zhen, Gheo Tai-Yien, Qian Wei-Zhen
      1989, 27 (5): 386–394
      The present paper reports the pollen morphology of 36 species and varieties of Brassica L. in China mostly for the first time. They were examined both under LM and SEM. Pollen grains of Brassica L. in China are long-spheroidal, subspheroidal, spheriodal, oblate, rarely reniformis or subsquare. According to the aperture characters pollen grains may be divided into four types: 2,3,4-colpate, 3-colpate, 3,4-colpate, 3,4-colporate. The exine sculpture may also be divided into three types: 1, reticulate, 2, cerebroid-reticulate, 3, foveolatereticulate. Detailed characters of pollen grains for each taxon are presented in Table 1. The 2,3,4-colpate type of pollen grains may be considered as primitive one and the 3,4-colpate or 3,4-colporate type of pollen grains is the most advanced in Brassica. The tricolpate aperture and reticulate exine have been reported by the previous authors, whereas, 3,4-colporate and cerebroid-reticulate or foveolate-reticulate pollen grains are newly reported.
    • Liu Gui-Sen, Zhang Li-Bin, Wang Tong-Kun
      1989, 27 (5): 394–394
    • Chen Yi-Ling
      1989, 27 (5): 395–404
      In the paper four new species of the genus Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) are described from China. They are Impatiens fenghwaiana Y. L. Chen, I. wuyuanensis Y. L. Chen,I. jinggangensis Y. L. Ghen, and 1. hunanensis Y. L. Chen.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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