Table of Contents
  • Volume 27 Issue 3

      
      Research Articles
    • Fang Yun-Yi, Zheng Chao-Zong
      1989, 27 (3): 161–177
      The genus Indigofera Linn. is one of the largest genera of papilionatae of Leguminosae. It comprises 700 species in the world, of which 80 species and 8 varieties occur in China. It was established by C. Linnaeus in 1752 and had been studied by J. Desvaux (1813), A. P. De Candolle (1825), G. Bentham ex Harvey (1862), G. Bentham et J. D. Hooker (1865), P. Taubert. (1894), P. Ch. Tisseraut (1913), and B. Gillett (1958) etc. In the present paper, the taxonomic history is reviewed and the evolutionary trends of some important morphological characters are discussed. According to the plant habit, characteristics of leaves, shape of fruits and the number of seeds per fruit, Indigofera Linn. from China are divided into 3 subgenera: Subg. I. Indigofera, Subg. II. Sphaeridiophors Desv., Subg. III. Acanthonotus (Benth.) Benth. et Hook. f., in Subg. Indigofera, 14 subsections are reported. A systematic key to the species is given.
    • Li Chao-Luan
      1989, 27 (3): 178–183
      n order to provide additional evidence of the phylogenetic relationships between genera of Rosaceae, it is neccessary to study and analyse the characters in primitive genera of the family. In this paper, leaf epidermis of the primitive genera of Rosaceae, including Kagneckia, Quillaja, Vauquelinia, Lindleya, Exochorda and Lyonothamus of Trib. Quillajeae circumscribed by Hutchinson (1964), has been anatomically studied and description of epidermal structure is presented. Several types of stomatal apparatuses have been observed in the genera investigated and considered as having systematic significance at generic level. (I) On the basis of the foliar epidermal characters, the following key to the genera is presented: 1. Stomatal apparatuses polytypic, of 2-3 types 2. Polytypic stomatal apparatuses incruding 3 types, anomocytic, actinocytic and staurocytic. 3. Polytypic stomatal apparatuses only of 2 types, anomocytic and actinocytic, with the former dominant and surrounding the latter ...... 1. Kagneckia Ruiz & Pav. 3. Polytypic stomatal apparatuses of 3 types, anomocytic, actinocytic and staurocytic 4. Stomatal apparatuses sparse, with anomocytic and actinocytic ones dominant. ....... ..................................................................... 3. Exochorda Lindl. 4. Stomatal apparatuses dense, with staurocytic type dominant. ......................... ........................................................... 4. Lindleya H. B. & K. Nov. 2. Polytypic stomatal apparatuses of 2 types, paracytic and cyclocytic, subsidiary cells narrow and distinguishable from other epidermal cells. ................ 2. Quillaja Molina 1. Stomatal apparatus monotypic, almost only actinocytic. 5. Guard cells surrounded radically by 7-9 subsidiary cells equal in diam. ....... ....................................... 5. Vauquelinia Gorrea ex Humb & Bongl. 5. Guard cells sunkes, 19.76-30.70μm deep, adaxiaL wall of elongated subsidiary cells so united transversely and thickened that the whole stomatal apparatus pot-like, stomatal apparatuses aggregated in a mass and having no any ordinary epidermal cells among them... ........................................................................... 6. Lyonothamus A. Gray (II) In the most primitive extant genus, Kagneckia, the stomatal apparatuses are mainly the most primitive anomocytic, but also actinocytic. (III) In another primitive genus, Quillaja, only second to and most related to the genus Kagneckia, there are both paracytic and cyclocytic types of stomatal apparatuses, some subsidiary cells of which are partly overlapped by the guard cells so that they appear very narrow in surface view. Based on the study of the most primitive genus, Kagneckia, and the second primitive genus, Quillaja, it seems that the paracytic type of stomatal apparatus may be derived from the anomocytic one in Rosaceae. (IV) The stomatal apparatus, in the genus Vauquelinia are actinocytic and undoubtedly derived from that in the more primitive rosoids. (V) The pot-like stomatal apparatuses in the genus Lyonothamus are very unique and_ apparently more specialized. Morphologivally, in the genus, there are opposite, fern-like leaves and the pistil consists of only 2. carpels It may be a very isolated relict along the coast of California in N. America. (VI) In the genus Exochorda, although anomocytic and actinocytic stomatal apparatuses are dominant, staurocytic type also occurs. Morphologically, the genus is more advanced than Kagneckia and Quillaja. In the genus Lindleya, there are also anomocytic and actinocytic types of stomatal, apparatuses, though staurocytic type is dominant. The genus Lindleya is also morphologically more advanced than the most primitive genera of Rosaceae mentioned above. The studies support the inferrence from cytology (Goldblatt 1976) that the tribe Quillajeae in Rosaceae is an unnatural alliance. Acknowledgement The author wishes to express his thanks to Dr. Stevens, who was the supervisor of the Harvard University Herbaria, for allowing me to collect the materials investigated during my stay in the herbaria from 1982 to 1984.
    • Chen Xiao-Ya, Liu Qi-Xin
      1989, 27 (3): 184–189
      Sixteen species of Ferula L. (Umbelliferae) were examined for their leaf flavonoids, and at least 9 glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin are detected in 13 species. While most of the constituents reported are common in the Umbelliferae, the unusual one, apigenin-6, 8-C-diglucoside, which was found in Ostericum Hoffm. in an earlier survey has been detected in F. moschata (F. sumbul) The three species (F. sinkiangensis, F. fukangensis and F. krylovii) from which flavonoids have not been found, are all medicinal plants with strong garliky odor due to a high concentration of essential oils containing disulfides. The subgenus Peucedanoides is found to be rich in quercetin glycosides, and the aglycon pattern seems to have some relationship with habitat conditions in the genus: the species occurring in comparatively humid habitats are often large herbs and often characterized by the presence of quercetin, while those growing in dry habitats contain apigening kaepferol, as well as quercetin. Nevertheless, any conclusion with certainty needs examining more species of the genus. It is interesting to note that F. moschata, from which the glycosylapigenin was found, and F. pseudooreoselinum, which probably has a trace amount of kaempferol glycoside, are peculiar in Ferula in their inflorescence morphology. The phytochemic results also raise a suspicion against their systematic position within the genus. F. bungeana, previously placed in the subgenus Peucedanoides, has relatively great similarities with F. syreitschkowii of the subgenus Narthex in their general morphology and fruit anatomy. In the present survey apigenin-7-glycoside is detected from both, and thus it seems more suitable to transfer the former species into the subgenus Narthex. The same compounds have been found in F. licentiana and F. tunshanica, which also share the characters of morphology and anatomy. The fact does support the view that the lattershould be included in F. licentiana as a variety.
    • Chen Shou-Liang, Xu Ke-Xue
      1989, 27 (3): 190–196
      This paper deals with the systematic position of Gen. Roegneria C. Koch by numerical taxonomic method. The genus Roegneria C. Koch and its relatively related genera (Agropyron Gaerth., Elymus L., Elytrigia Desv., Leymus Hochst.) were selected as OTUS. The numerical classification was based on 30 characters, of which 18 are morphological (gross and microscopic) and 12 cytological. The dendrogram (Fig. 1.) is the optimal one, which is selected according to the cophenetic correlation coefficient. Moreover, the results of other cluster methods, which are based on either the correlation coefficient or the distance coefficients, show the same structure similar to the Fig. 1. Hance, Gen. Roegneria is considered congeneric with Gen. Elymus. According to the priority of International Code, Gen. Roegneria C. Koch should be referred to Gen. Elymus L.
    • Yang Ji, Wang Jin-Wu
      1989, 27 (3): 197–204
      In this study, 23 OTU’s including all the species of Viola in Hebei Province were used in numerical taxonomic treatment. According to the principle of clustering line method, a few lines which divide sections, subsections and species were respectively decided. The result of numerical research roughly coincides with the scheme of 3 sections and 4 subsections proposed by Gingins et al.. Based on the value of distance coefficient, morphological characters and geographical distribution, the species V. pekinensis is reduced as a synonym of V. mongolica. The writer compared section Melanium with other sections with characters of morphology, palynology, cytology, phytogeography as well as pollination ecology and sugges ted a revision of systematic position of section Melanium.
    • Wang Ping-Li, Chang King-Tang
      1989, 27 (3): 205–214
      The present paper describes the pollen morphology of 45 species of the subfamily Castaneoifeae (including genera Castanea, Castanopsis and Lithocarpus) from China. The pollen grains were all examined with light microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Pollen grains of the subfamily are prolate, subprolate or perprolate, (14.7-23.1)× (8.4 -18.9) μm in size, 3-colporate, the exine in 2-layered, 0.9-1.9μm thick, indistinctly ornate, striate-rugulose or crass-striate, sexine and nexine almost equal in thickness, the sexine consists of tectum, bacules and endonexine under TEM. On the basis of very similar pollen shape, pollen size, type of aperture and exine structure and also other characteristics of plant morphology of the genera Castanea, Castanopsis and Lithocarpus, the present authors tend to support the opinion that they all fall into the samesubfamily, Castaneoideae.
    • Shi Ying, Kuo Pen-Chao, Li Jian-Hua
      1989, 27 (3): 215–221
      The present paper deals with the karyotype analysis of 6 species of Elymus which are native to Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. The number of somatic chromosomes in roottip cells of the 6 species and their karyotypes are reportad here for the first time, and they are all hexaploid, with 2n=6x=42. The karyotype formulae are as follows: E. melantherus, 2n=6x=42=32m+10sm, E. kengii, 2n=6x=42=34m+8sm, E grandiglumis, 2n=6x=42= 30 m+12 sm, E. laxiflorus, 2n=6x=42=32 m +10 sm, E. kokonoricus, 2n+6x=42=34 m +8 sm, E. longiglumis, 2n+6x=42=34 m+8 sm. No satellites have been founded in the 6 species and all the karyotypes belong to 1B or 2B type:
    • Yang Han-Pi
      1989, 27 (3): 222–224
    • Ye Guang-Han, Wang Zheng-Ping
      1989, 27 (3): 228–229
    • Yang Bao-Min
      1989, 27 (3): 230–231
    • Xu Ke-Xue
      1989, 27 (3): 232–239
      This paper deals with the numerical cladistic taxonomy. A method for constructing evolutionary tree (method of maximal same step length) is proposed in the applications and practice of cladistic taxonomy. Its algorithm runs as follows: 1) According to the order of evolution, characters are coded with nonnegative integers, producing the original data matrix. 2) Calculate the same step coefficients Sij (i≠j) by the formula (3) and form the coefficient matrix. 3. Find the maximal value Spq of the same step coefficients in the coefficient matrix. 4) According to the maximal same step length Spq, the most recent common ancestor CTU, of CTUp and CTUq can be determinated by (2). 5) draw the cladistic edges of cladogram representing the evolutionary relationship from OTUT to OTUp and OTUq. If the number of CTUs in the data matrix≤2, go to (2), otherwise stop. An example of 6 species from the family Campanulaceae is given for illustration (See Table 1). In general case, the evolutionary length of the cladogram obtained by this method is shorter than that by monothetic and other methods. Its algorithm is easily performed and is especially suitable for computerizing.
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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