Table of Contents

18 December 1988, Volume 26 Issue 6
    Research Articles
  • Tao Guang-Fu, Zhong Yang
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 409-417.
    The genus Cinnamomum has been collected and investigated from Hubei Province since 1982, 13 samples of essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from fresh leaves of the various species of Cinnamomum and examined qualitatively and quantitatively by the method of capillary GC/MS/DS on Finnigan-4510 type. 108 compounds have been identified, of which 30 major constituents are selected as numerical chemotaxonomical characters, together with 17 morphological ones. The I3 samples were taken as operational taxonomic units (OTU’s). Results obtained through R cluster analysis indicate the phenetic distance and regular correlation among the characters, especially between morphological and chemical ones. Results obtained through Q cluster analysis show the relationships among the OTU’s. The Phylogenetic system of Cinnamomum in Hubei Province is also discussed in the present paper, based on the chemical constituents and the relationship mentioned above.
  • Shih Ghu
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 418-428.
    Having mixed extremely various patterns of achenes for a long time in the genus Lactuca L., especially showed in the classification of it on the mainland of Asia, Lactuca L., the primary unnatural genus, becomes more nuclear in its limit. The present paper makes a revision to attempt providing a clear cline between Lactuca L. and its relative genera. On my opinion, only plants, represented by Lactuca sativa L., which have ovoid capitulum during its fruiting, numerous (7-25), yellow ligular florets and longitudinal 1-10 ribs or striae on each side of achenes, acute into filiform beak at its apex, should be defined as Lactuca L. In view of the present concept of Lactuca L., another group of plants, embodied by Lactuca indica L., having its broadening, thin winged-margin of, 1-3 striae on each side of achenes, black, dorsi-ventral compressed, acute into thick and short beak at its apex, evidently, should not be placed into Lactuca L., but be regarded as genus, i.e. Pterocypsela Shih, gen. nov. Pterocypsela Shih distributes in Eastern and southern Asia, where Lactuca L. does not occur. In China there is all of species, seven species, of Pterocypsela Shih. They are P. raddeana (Maxim.) Shih, P. indica (L.) Shih, P. elata (Hemsl.) Shih P. lacciniata (Houtt.) Shih, P. triangulata (Maxim.) Shih, P. sonchus (Lévl.) Shih and P. formosana (Maxim.) Shih, But in Mediterranean regions and Middle and Western Asia mainly distributes Lactu ca L., in which there are only seven species from western China, Xijiang autonomic district. They are L. dolichophylla Kitam., L. sativa L., L. altaica Fisch. et Mey., L. serriola Torner, L. dissecta Don, L. auriculata DC. and L. undulata Ledb. With the combination of violet-purple ligular florets non-ovoid capitulum during its fruiting, a little thick achenes, acuminate into longer. or short beak at its apex and 4-6 ribs on each side of it, Mulgedium tataricum (L.) DC. is evidently different from Lactuca sativa L. with combination of ovoid capitulum during its fruiting, yellow ligular florets and compres sed achenes, acute into filiform beak at its apex. There seems to be no point in refusing Mu lgedium Cass. as a genus. Strictly speak, Mulgedium Cass. seems to be reminiscent of Para prenanthes Chang (see bellow) without beak at the apex of its achenes. In Hengduan moun tains and mountain range of Himalayas M. tataricum (L.) DC. discoveries its relative par tners. They are M. bracteatum (Mook. f. ex. C. B. Clarke) Shih, M. lessertianum (Wall. ex C. B. Clarke) DC., M. monocephalum (Chang) Shih, M. umbrosum (Dunn) Shih, M. meridionale Shih and M. polypodifolium (Franch.) Shih. Having broadering and thickening margin and 4-7 striae on each side of achenes, grey, dorsi-ventral compressed, truncate and beakless at its apex, Lactuca sibirica (L.) Benth. ex Maxim. (Sonchus sibiricus L.) is not only different from Lactuca sativa L. with the combination of yellow ligular florets and filiform beak at apex of its achenes, but also from the genus Mulgedium Cass. with beak at apex of its achenes. Therefore, Lagedium Sojak, established by J. Sojak (1961), should be restored. It should be point out that Lagedium Sojak is monotypic genus excluding Mulgedium tataricum (L.) DC. with beak at the apex of its achenes, non-marginated. Lagedium Sojak widely distributes in temperate and frigid zone ofvnorthern hemisphere. In our country, Lagedium sibiricum (L.) Sojak, sole species of the genus, restricts its northeast region. Paraprenanthes Chang, the new genus, established by Ch. Ch. Chang (1950) based on Lactuca sororia Miq. and Lactuca yunnanensis Franch. seems to be a distinct genus. This genus is characterized by 4-6 ribs on each side of achenes, black, fusiform, a little thick and beakless at its apex. Besides above-mentioned two species, assigned by Chang, in forest of tropic and subtropic zones on the mainland of Asia there are many species with same structure in achenes like L. sororia Miq. and L. yunnanensis Franch. The genus Paraprenanthes Chang seems to be reminiscants of Mulgedium Cass. and Lagedium Sojak, but differs from the former in its beakless achenes, from the later in its non-marginated achenes and 4-6 ribs on each side of it. In our country, there are all species of the genus known in the tropic and subtropic zones on the mainland of Asia. They are P. sororia (Miq.) Shih, P. yunnanensis (Franch.) Shih, P. longiloba Ling et Shih, sp. nov., P. heptontha Shih et D. J. Liou, sp. nov., P. prenanthoides (Hemsl.) Shih, P. pilipes (Migo) Shih, P. thirionii (Lévl.) Shih, P. sylvicola Shih., sp. nov., P. multiformis Shih, sp. nov., P. auriculiformis Shih, sp. nov. and P. sagittiformis Shih, sp. nov.
  • Pan Kai-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 429-442.
    Ten new species, three new varieties and a new section of the family Gesneriaceae are described from China in the present paper. They are Tremacron urceolatum K. Y. Pan from Muli of SW Sichuan, T. obliquifolium K. Y. Pan from Miyi and Yanyuan of SW Sichuan, T. aurantiacum K. Y. Pan from Mabian and Pinshan of S Sichuan, lsometrum Sect. Chorianthera W. T. Wang et K. Y. Pan (with I. eximium Chun as the section type), Isometrum eximium Chun ex K. Y. Pan from Jiulong, Muli and Jinyang of SW Sichuan; Ancylostemon mairei (Levl.) Craib var. emeiensis K. Y. Pan from Mt. Emei of Sichuan, A. aureus (Franch.) Burtt var. angustifolius K. Y. Pan from Zhenkang of SW Yunnan, A. gamosepalus K. Y. Pan from Hanyuan, Yanyuan and Yuexi of SW Sichuan, A. rhombifolius K. Y. Pan from Meigu of SW Sichuan, A. ronganensis K. Y. Pan from Rong an of Guangxi; Corallodiscus flabellatus) (Craib) Burtt var. puberulus K.Y. Pan from Zhongdian and Deqin of NW Yunnan, Nanchuan of S Sichuan and Zayü of Xizang (Tibet), Beccarinda minima K. Y. Pan from Jinxiu and Xiangzhou of Guangxi, Boeica stolonifera K. Y. Pan from Fangcheng, Shiwandashan, Pingnan and Dongxing of S Guangxi, B. multinervia K. Y. Pan from Yingjiang of W Yunnan, and Paraboea barbatipes K. Y. Pan from Napo of W Guangxi and Xichou of SE Yunnan.
  • Ruan Yun-Zhen
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 443-449.
    In the classification of J. D. Hooker (1873) and of K. Schumann (1891), the genus Prismatomeris Thw. is included in the tribe Morindeae of Rubiaceae. In the modern classifications, e. g. Bremekamp (1966), however, the taxonomic position of the genus is still uncertain. The genus agrees with the tribe Morindeae in the downward radicle, valvate aestivation of the corolla lobes and presence of raphides, but it differs significantly from the latter in the free flowers, bilocular ovary and the peltate ovule attached to the upper half of septum. Therefore, it would be more suitable that the genus is separated from the tribe Morindeae Miq., and is raised to the rank of tribe, placed in the subfamily Rubioideae based on Bremekamp’s delimitation. In the present paper ten character pairs of the genus and the notes on their taxonomic value are presented and two following species are recognized: 1. P. tetrandra (Roxb.) K. Schum. is found in northern India. Its subspecies, which is distributed in Yunnan of China and in Thailand, was previously called P. tetrandra (Roxb.) K. Schumann, and is now revised as P. tetrandra (Roxb.) K. Schum. subsp. multiflora (Ridley) Y. Z. Ruan. 2. P. connata Y.Z. Ruan is described as a new species, that has been treated as P. tetrandra (Roxb.) K. Schum. by previous auth rs. It is native to the subtropic region of South China. Its tropical new subspecies, P. connata. Y. Z. Ruan subsp. hainanensis Y. Z. Ruan, is found on Hainan Island.
  • Pan Kai-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 450-457.
  • Kiu Hua-Shing
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 458-460.
  • Wang Ying, Lou Zhi-Cen
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 461-462.
  • Shen Bao-An
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 463-464.
  • Ye Neng-Gan, Li Shu-Jiu
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 465-466.
  • Chen Xing-Qiu, Liu Lian, Zhu Hua, Guo Hua-Shan
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(6): 467-482.
    In this paper, one new species, four new varieties and thirteen new records of Characeae from Hunan, China, are reported. They are Chara quadriscutulum, sp. nov., Nitella axilliformis var. biformis, var. nov., N. microcarpa var. unicarpa, var. nov., Chara braunii var. cylindrospora, var. nov., C. hydropitys var. hunanensis, var. nov., Nitella microcarpa Braun, N. leptoclada Braun, N. annandalei Pal, N. confervacea A. Braun, N. gracilliformis J. Groves, N. inversa Imahori, N. musashiensis Morioka, N. paucicostata T. F. Allen, N. acuminata var. gollmeriana (A. Br.) Zanev. et Wood, Tolypella boldii Sawa. Chara longifolia Robinson, C. pistianensis J. Vilhelm, C. grovesii Pal.