Table of Contents
  • Volume 26 Issue 5

      
      Research Articles
    • 1Hsu Ping-Sheng, 2Miao Bo-Mao
      1988, 26 (5): 329–342
      A numerical taxonomic study of the distribution patterns of the total 72 species of Chinese Viburnum using association-analysis method is presented to add some information for the regionalization of the Chinese flora. The fact that the center of genetic diversity of Chinese Viburnum is in the south central part rather than in the southern or southwestern part of China suggests strongly the subtropical nature of the genus under study. Southwestern Sichuan is the most concentrated region of western endemic species. Inspite of the topographical complexity of the Hengduan Mountain Ranges, only a few Viburnum species occur in this region. The species in Taiwan are largely of subtropical nature and are mostly identical with those on the mainland. Their distribution patterns show that the island is floristically more closely related to the mainland of China or even to Japan than to the Malaysian region. As a whole, the general conclusions reached here correspond with those of C. Y. Wu for the Chinese spermatophytic flora, yet differ in certain respects of minor significance. Attempts have also been made to relate the distribution patterns of species with physiographic, climatic and vegetational conditions in our discussion.
    • Hu Chia-Chi, He Chao-Xing
      1988, 26 (5): 343–352
      The pollen morphology of 54 samples representing 12 genera and 31 species was investigated with the aid of scanning electron microscope. Observed were pollen grains of Sambucus, Viburnum, Lonicera, Leycesteria, Heptacodium, Linnaea, Abelia, Dipelta, Kolkwitzia, Symphoricarpos, Triosteum, Weigela. Based on the shape, size, position and number of aperture, exine sculpture, three types are recognized: 1. Pollen grains subprolate, less frequently prolate, rather small, 3-colporate, exine reticulate, as in Sambucus, Viburnum. 2. Mostly spheroidal, subolate, bigger than the former, also 3-colporate, exine spinulose as in Lonicera, Leycesteria, Heptacodium, Triosteum, Linnaea, Abelia, Dipelta, Kolkwitzia, Symphoriocarpos, Weigela. 3. Spheriodal, more or less flattend, exine scabrous as in Abelia section Zabelia and Lonicera section Isoxylosteum. 1. The systematic position of Caprifoliaceae: It has been generally treated as a member of the order Rubiales together with Rubiaceae, Valeriaceae and Dipsacaceae on floral characters. In respect to serological character, it has a close relationship with Cornaceae, and was placed in Araliales. The above stated 2nd and 3rd types of pollen grains are similar to those of Patrinia (Valerianaceae), Scabiosa (Adoxaceae), Cornus (Cornaceae), and the pollen grains of the 1st type are similar to those of Styraceae, Genetianaceae and Araliaceae. Taking the information so far available into consideration, the authors agree to the Cronquists treatment retaining Caprifoliaceae in the order Dipsacales together with Adoxaceae, Valerianaceae and Dipsacaceae. 2. The division of tribes: Formerly Sambuceae included the genera Sambucus and Viburnum. Fritsch (1891) segregated Viburnum from Sambuceae and suggested a new tribe Viburneae including Triosteum. There is distinct difference in palynological features between these two genera. The exine sculpture of Viburnum is reticulate, but that of Triosteum is spinulose. It is reasonable to separate another new tribe, Triosteae, from Viburneae. 3. The pollen morphorlogy of several Chinese endemic genera, such as Heptacodium, Dipelta, Kolkwitzia resembles that of Lonicera, Leycesteria, Linnaea, Symphoricarpos, Abelia, Triosteum. This evidence supports the foregoing treatment including them in Caprifoliaceae. 4. Two different exine sculptures are shown in sections of the genera Abelia and Lonicera. In Abelia the exine of the section Euabelia is spinulose, but that of the section Zabelia is scabrous. Likewise, in Lonicera, the exine of the section Isoxylosteum is scabrous, while that of other sections such as Nintooa, Isika, Lonicera, subgenus Caprifolium, is spinulose. It shows that pollen morphology is one of diagnostic characters for section division.
    • Zhu Li-Wu
      1988, 26 (5): 353–361
      Soluble proteins were extracted from mature leaves of 83 citrus biotypes. Their protein patterns were obtained by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The similarity of the protein patterns among the samples was calculated by computer according to the principle and methods of numerical taxonomy. The similarity comparison was made between different species and varieties included in the Swingl’s system. The distance coefficients of similarity (DCS) is 2.13 between species in the genus Citrus, 0.927 in Poncirus and 0.617 among Fortunella species. The DCS of biotypes in Citrus limon, C. paradisi and C. sinensis are zero, and those in C. grandis and C. reticulata are 0.656 and 0.863 respectively. There is no difference among satsuma mandarin, Tankan and King mandarin, which are considered respectively as a good species in Tanaka’s system. Ancestors of some biotypes. whose origin was unknown berore, are postulated in this work. Jiang Bai Shang Cheng is probably a hybrid between C. junos Tanaka and mandarin, rough lemon may be a hybrid of mandarin with citron or lime, but not with lemon. Some so-called lemon biotypes are not in the same cluster as true lemon (Eureka or Lishon). The biotypes. of sour orange, all of which are scattered in the phenetic tree of cluster analysis (PTCA), might have been derived from different ancestors. In the PTCA the evolutionary tendency from Poncirus to Macroacrumen in the citrus plants may be found on the basis of the DCS of different genera, sections and subsections respectively with the subsection Macroacrumen. The present author considers that if Fortunella is recognized as true genus, Cephalocitrus should also be an acceptable genus. The position of Fortunella in the PTCA is between the sections Cephalocitrus and Aurantium, but it does not represent its position in the phylogeny. Taking comprehensive data into consideration it appear to be more reasonable to place C. ichangensis, as member of Papeda originated in the subtropics, in the section Papeda.
    • Yang Ping, Li Rong-Qian, Zeng Zi-Shen
      1988, 26 (5): 362–366
      The karyotypes and pollen morphology of Brassica oleracea L. and B. alboglabra Bailey were studied by preparing mitotic chromosome specimens and scanning electron microscope. The results are as follows: 1. the karyotypes of the 4 varieties in B. oleracea L. and of B. alboglabra Bailey are similar, all with the same chromosome number (2n=18) satellite number (one pair) and a type of karyotype, but different in respect to satellite position and karyotype symmetry 2. The pollengrains of 2 varieties of B. oleracea L. are 3-colporate and reticulate, distinctly different from those in B. alboglabra, which are pantoporate with smaller lumina. Based on the results we tend to regard that B. alboglabra Bailey is an independent species.
    • Zhang Yu-Long, Wang Fu-Hsiung, Chien Nan-Feng
      1988, 26 (5): 367–370
      Eucommia ulmoides Oliver is endemic to China. The pollen morphology and exine ultrastructure were examined under LM, SEM and TEM. Pollen grains are prolate, polar axis 30.5-54.8 μm long, with the average 32.7 μm, equatorial axis 27.8-31.3 μm long, with the average 29.2 μm, tricolporoidate, but sometimes the outline of ora could be observed and elliptic in shape. Colpi are narrow, uequal in length, often two long and one short or two short and one long, sometimes rather irregularly arranged, with indistinct and thin colpus membrance. Exine psilate under LM, granulate under SEM, and shortly baculate under TEM. Tectum is thin with dense and small granules, columellae layer consists of short bacules, and foot layer very thick. Some taxonomists (Cronquist, 1968) consider that Eucommiaceae is related to Hamamelidales, but others (Takhtajan, 1969) to Urticales. The Urticales is of the porate type of pollen grains, while Eucommiaceae of tricolporoidate type, and thus the former is more advanced than the latter. Pollen grains of some members of Hamamelidales, tricolporoidate, are similar to those of Eucommiaceae. We therefore consider that Eucommiaceae is related to Hama-melidales.
    • Li Lin-Chu
      1988, 26 (5): 371–377
      The present paper deals with the karyotypic analysis of Taxodium ascendens Brongn. The somatic chromosomes in root-tip cells of the plant are found to be 2n =22, all with median and submedian constrictions. A character of the karyotype is that the chromosome 10 has a long kinetochore region (Plate 1:1). According to the terminology defined by Levan et al.[18], the karyotype formula is k(2n)=22=20m+2sm, which is different to Huang et Hsu’s[8] K(2n)=24=22m+2B(m). The karyotype belongs to “lA” of Stebbins’[24] karyotypic symmetry and is generally regarded as a relatively primitive one. The species’ chromosome complement is 2n=22=2L+8M2+12M1 according to I.R.L.difined by Kuo et al.[15] based on relative length. The lengths, arm ratios and types of chromosomes of the species are given in Table 1-I. The morphology of the chromosomes and the karyotype, are given in Plate 1:1. In the light of the works of Schlarbaum et al.[21] and Mehra et al.[17], K(2n)=22=20m (2SAT)+2sm and 2n=22=2L+6M2+14M1 are for T. distichum (L.) Rich. (see Table 1-II), K(2n)=20m+2sm and 2n=22=4L+4M2+12M1+2S for T. mucronatum Tenore (see Table 1-III, Plate 1:2), which belong to “lA” and “2A” respectively. The differences between three species in the ratio of the longest to the shortest chromosome, I.R.L. and the proportion of chromosomes with arm ratio >2 show that the karyotype of T. mucronatum is the most advanced and that of T. distichum the most primitive. The present author suggests that the sequence of evolutionary advance be T. distichum, T. ascendens, T. mucronatum. Based on the evidence from the karyotype analyses, ecology and geographical distribution (including fossil), the secondary center of genetic diversity (Fig. 1) and the probable evolu-tionary pattern (Fig. 2) of Taxodium are discussed.
    • Zhou Yun-Long, Sha Wei, Wang Chang-Rui, Wu Peng-Cheng, Luo Jian-Xin
      1988, 26 (5): 378–381
      In this paper the chromosome countings of 4 moss species are reported for the first time in China. The materials used for investigation were taken from immature capsules. Meiosis in spore mother cells and also mitosis in the case of Plagiomnium cuspidatum were observed, with the result: Didymodon constrictus, n=14, Entodon schensianus, n=10+lm; Plagiomnium cuspidatum, n=6, Cratoncuron jilicinum, n=10. The chromosome numbers ofthe former two species are reported for the first time.
    • Zhang Zhi-Yun
      1988, 26 (5): 394–403
      The morphological characters in the genus Orobanche were evaluated from the taxonomic point of view. The author finds that the plants of this genus are relatively similar to each other in respect to characters of vegetative organs, fruits and seeds. But the differences in the floral structures can be served as a basis for delimitating infrageneric taxa. The seed coat of 18 species and pollen grains of 6 species were also examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). They seem to have little significance for distinguishing species. The result supports G. Beck’s (1930) division of the genus Orobanche into 4 sections, of which 2 occur in China, based on the characters of the inflorescence, bracteoles and calyx. The author considers that some characters, such as anther hairy or not, upper lip of corolla entire or not, lower lip longer or shorter than the upper one, the state of corolla-tube inflec tion and the hair type of filaments and plants, are important in distinguishing Chinese species. A key to the species of Orobanche in China is given. This genus consists of about 100 species, and is mostly confined to Eurasia, with over 60 species found in Caucasus and Middle Asia of USSR, where may be the mordern distribu tional centre. Orobanche L. in China is represented by 23 species, 3 varieties and l forma. As shown in Table 1, most species (12 species) are found in Xinjiang, which clearly shows a close floristic relationship between this region and Middle Asia of USSR. 6 species are endemic to China, of which 4 are confined to the Hengduan Mountains (Yangtze-Mekong-Salwin divide). The relationships between this genus and related ones of Orobanchaceae are also discussed. The author holds the following opinions: the genus Phelypaea Desf. should be considered as a member of Orobanche L. Sect. Gymnocaulis G. Beck, the monotypic genus, Necranthus A. Gilli endemic to Turkey, is allied with Orobanche L. Sect. Orobanche, the monotypic genus, Platypholis Maxim, endemic to Bonin Is. of Japan, is far from Orobanche L. in relation and should be regarded as a separate genus. The 11 OTU’s, including all the sections of Orobanche L. and 7 genera of Orobanchaceae, and 15 morphological characters were used in the numerical taxonomic treatment to test the above-mentioned suggestions. After standardization of characters, the correlation matrices were computerized. The correlation matrices were made to test the various clustering methods. At last the UPGMA clustering method was chosen and its result is shown in a phenogram. The result of numerical analysis is basically in accordance with the suggestions.
    • Wei Chao-Fen
      1988, 26 (5): 404–405
    • Li Jian-Xiu, Li Feng
      1988, 26 (5): 406–407
    • Zhang Zi-An, Cai Shi-Xun
      1988, 26 (5): 408–408
Editors-in-Chief
Song Ge
Jun Wen
Impact Factor
2.779
JCR 2019 IF ranking: 56/234 (Plant Sciences, top 23.72%, Q1 quartile)
Journal Abbreviation: J Syst Evol
ISSN: 1674-4918 (Print)
1759-6831 (Online)
CN: 11-5779/Q
Frequency: Bi-monthly

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