Table of Contents

18 April 1988, Volume 26 Issue 2
    Research Articles
  • 1Chen Chia-Jui, 2Hoch Peter C., 2Raven Peter H.
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 81-95.
    Cytological, morphological, and geographical studies of Epilobium angustifolium in China reveal two partly distinct, partly overlapping entities that are best treated as subspecies. The diploid (n=18) subsp. angustifolium has smaller, triporate pollen grains, typically glabrous stems and leaves, and smaller leaves and flowers, and occurs in colder, more northern areas, and at higher elevations in overlap zones. The tetraploid (n=36) subsp. circumvagum has larger pollen with a mixture of quadriporate pollen grains, pubescent stems and leaves, and larger leaves and flowers, and occurs in warmer parts of southern China and at lower elevations. We report 11 chromosome counts, six diploid and five tetraploid, includingthe first reported tetraploids in Asia.
  • Li Hao-Min, Hickey Leo J.
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 96-110.
    Hamamelids have a long fossil history and an important fossil record. Their interesting biogeographic relationships indicate a great age. There exist good surveys of the pollen and floral organs of this family whereas it is so far poorly known from leaf architecture. The leaf architecture of all 29 genera with more than 60 among the total of 140 species of the family was surveyed in this work using clearified leaves. It is found that leaf architecture analysis may shed light on the relationships within the family and the conclusion of evolution based on leaf architecture basically accords with that based on others. The major categories of leaf architecture of Hamamelids observed in this work are as follows: leaf form, leaf margin, tooth type, venation, marginal ultimate venation, areolation and trichome. It must be emphasized that of all these characters the tooth type is the most stable and useful for systematics. In this work a new tooth type is recognized under the name altingioid. Teeth of this type are obviously asymmetrical, with a persistent transparent gland on the top, and with their lateral veinlets free, not reaching the medial vein. All three genera of the subfamily Liquidambaroideae have this tooth type, whereas most leaves of the rest genera of this family have fothergilloid teeth, which are basically symmetrical, without glands. The venation in the fothergilloid tooth is almost the same as that in the altingioid tooth, the only difference being that the lateral veins on the abaxial side of the altingioid teeth are usually absent or very weak and short if present. The present authors consider that the subfamily Liquidambaroideae has to be separated from the family Hamamelidaceae sensu lato and treated as an independent family, Altingiaceae, on the basis of the special tooth type. different pollen morphology and flower structure. The stability of tooth type may serve classification not only of order and family level, but also of tribe, genus and species level with the help of characters of teeth, such as shape, size, density, distribution, single or double, with or without glands. By comparison of Hamamelidaceae and Altingiaceae with some primitive families of subclass Hamamelidae, namely, Trochodendraceae, Tetracentraceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Eupteleaceae and Platanaceae, the putative evolutionary trend of tooth types is outlined as follows: ↑ altingioid Chloranthoid → Cercidiphylloid →platanoid → fothergilloid In general evolutionarytrend of teeth within these families is reduction and simplification in structure.
  • Chang Yong-Tian, Huang Cheng-Chiu
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 111-119.
    This is the second paper under the same topic (cf. Bull. Bot. Res.6(2): 101-106, 1986) as materials for compiling Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. There are 7 species of Fagus found in China, but whether two of them, F. tientaiensis, F. chienii, can stand steadily or not is doubtful. Lacking sufficient available materials at hand, the matter would better be left for a further study. F. hayatae, F. pashanica and F. tientaiensis are so closely alike among them that differences seem exist only in quantitive characters such as size of leaves, duration of indumentum and less gap in length of the cupules and their peduncles. Considering some criteria, they may be treated as geographical races belonging to a single species. Diverse morphological interpretations concerning the nature of the cupule together with its coverings by terms of spines, scales, bracts or bracteoles, lamellae etc., have been put forward by the previous authors. Brett (1964), Abbe (1974), Macdonal (1979) and the others have given rational interpretations but only to the cupule, and Fey & Endress (1981, 1983) have made further studies although materials they used for the observation are only three species representing three different genera. Their elaborate works on anatomical evidence from reproductive parts came at a conclusion of critical importance which has reached a more reasonal interpretation than the others before. “the cupular valves represent the outermost modified, sterile branches of the cymose partial inflorescence”, while Forman’s (1966) interpretation of the organ is “The cupule can be regarded as wholly axial orgin”. Furthermore, a similar but more detailed speculation had been given previously by Trelease(1924): “the acorn cup is constituted by the fused secondary branches of a dichasium”. The problem here turns to the views on the nature of their coverings around the outer wall of the cupule, those various terms have been used for the coverings just given above. Some authors (Forman 1966, and the others) called them “emergences”, “appendages” collectively. Although Forman (1966 pp. 411-412) has pointed out some aspects of morphological and anatomical resemblance between scales and leaves when he says “especially in Fagus orientalis Lipsky, the appendages may in their nervation resemble small leaves”, he still doubt if “the scales of Quercus and Lithocarpus have evolved from leaves”. Fey & Endress (1981, p. 179, abb. 95.3) gave only a figure and called it “blattartige schuppen”, but no description concerning the phenomenon in the whole text. The second example was observed by the present authors. The cupule of Fagus engleriana Seem. bears the lower rows of “bracts” much like the leaves from which they differ only in diminitive form and size. Not only do they possess a complex netted nerved system, but they also contain chloroplast (greenish color even in dried status), which suggests that scales or appendages be real leaves in origin. The various forms of so called bracts or appendages just given above, have been highly modified from leaves through a long history of evolution. This interpretation is also adoptable to all the other genera of the family Fagaceae. The modification of leaves, spines, tubercles, scales and even rings might be due to theiradaptation to new or changed environments.
  • Pan Jin-Tang
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 120-129.
    In this paper the classification of the genus Bergenia Moench is provided, its geographic distribution analysed, and the phylogeny also traced. Based on an analysis of morphological characters such as leaves, ocreas, branches of inflorescences, Pedicels, hypanthium, sepals, and glandular indumentum, thi genus is divided into 3 sections: 1. Sect. Scopulosae J. T. Pan, sect. nov., 2. Sect. Bergnia, 3. Sect. Ciliatae (A. Boriss.) J. T. Pan, stat. nov. The Sect. Scopulosae J. T. Pan may be considered as the primitive one, while Sect. Ciliatae (A. Boriss.) J. T. Pan may be regarded as the advanced one, with Sect. Bergenia in between. So far, the genus Bergenia Moench comprises 9 species in the total. Southeast Asia and North Asia (south and east Siberia, USSR) each have only 1 species, West Asia (Afghanistan) has 2, Central Asia (Kirghizia-Tajikistan-Uzbekstan area, USSR) 3, South Asia 4 (Nepal has 4, India, Pakistan and Kashmir area each has 3, Bhutan and Sikkim each has 2), East Asia 6. In East Asia, Mongolia and Korea each have only 1 species, but China has 6 (including endemic species 2 and new species 1). Sichuan Province and Xizang Autonomous Region each have 3, Yunnan Province 2, Shaanxi Province (Qinling Mountains) and Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang each have only 1. Thus the distribution centre of this genus should be in the region covering Sichuan, Yunnan and Xizang. Moreover, it is noteworthy that Bergenia scopulosa T. P. Wang in Sect. Scopulosae seems to have retained primitive characters, for example, non-ciliate leaves and ocreas, glabrous pedicels, hypanthium and sepals, and this primitive species is found in Qinling Mountains and Sichuan. According to the distribution of the primitive species, the author suggests that the centre of origin of this genus be in the region covering Qinling Mountains and Sichuan.
  • Hu Cheng-Hua, Zheng Qing-Fang, Huang Ke-Fu
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 130-138.
    Shibataea Makino is a genus of Subfam. Bambusoideae, with 8 species, distributed in Southeast China and Southwest Japan. In China wild plants of the genus are found in Fujian, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Anhui provinces, especially in Fujian and Zhejiang. The genus is also cultivated in parks of Guangzhou, Teibei and some other gardens. Raches of inflorescences in genera Semiarundinaria, Brachystachyum, Phyllostachys and Shibataea have many branches, even secondary branches. A large bract is often present at the base of each branch, and a prophyll in the axil of the bract in Tribe Shibataeeae Nakai. Moreover, an inflorescence is composed of numerous dense spikelets. This type of inflorescence may be considered primitive. The genera Indosasa and Sinobambusa are of more stamens (6 in the former and 3 or 4, 5 in the latter) than in the genera Semiarundinaria and Brachystachyum (only 3), and their inflorescences are very simple with fewer spikelets and raches,without the large bract. This type of inflorescence may be considered more advanced.
  • Chen Sing-Chi
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 139-143.
  • Lin Wan-Tao
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 144-149.
  • Guo Xin-Hu, Liu Xiao-Long
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 153-155.
  • Li Guang-Zhao
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 156-157.
  • Yang Yong-Kang
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 158-159.
  • Wang Wan-Xian, Sun Xiang-Zhong, Wang Hui-Qin
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 160-161.
  • Li Jian-Xiu, Ding Zuo-Chao
    J Syst Evol. 1988, 26(2): 162-164.