Table of Contents

18 December 1987, Volume 25 Issue 6
    Research Articles
  • Ni Zhi-Cheng, Cheng Shu-Zhi
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 417-429.
    The Xizang (Tibetan) flora with numerous endemics is of importance in Chinese flora. According to recent statistics there are in Xizang 27 genera of spermatophytes endemic to China, being only 2.25% percent of the total number of genera in the Xizang flora. Four of them are regarded as palaeoendemics (14.81%) and the others as neoendemics (85.19%). These endemic genera, of 30 species and 3 varieties, belong to 17 families, of which, Umbelliferae contains 6 genera, 7 species and 3 varieties; Compositae has 6 genera and 7 species, and Gentianaceae 1 genus and 2 species. All the other families each comprises one genus with a single species. The cosmopolitan families together comprising 14 genera with 15 species have the highest perecentage (52.92%) and the tropical ones (5 families, 5 genera with 5 species) come to the next (29.42%), followed by the temperate ones (3 families, 10 genera with 10 species) (17.66%). It shows that these endemic genera are obviously related to the tropical flora and temperate one in essence. According to the number of species, the genera endemic to China and occurring in Xizang flora may be grouped as fallows. Monotypic endemic ones 14 (51.85%) Ditypic endemic ones 6 (22.22%) Oligotypic endemic ones 4 (14.81%) Small endemic ones 3 (11.11%) The formation of the endemic genera is correlated with the topography, climate and environmental conditions, and they may have resulted from the diversification in geography and climatic influence for a long time. The southeastern part of Xizang Plateau is of very diverse ecological conditions, with the adequate precipitation, which may explain the concentration of these endemic genera in this region. The largest similarity coefficient (38.30%) of the genera endemic to China and occurring in Xizang is with those in Qinghai Plateau, next, with those in Yunnan and in Sichuan provinces (both 27.60%), which shows that these endemic genera are related to the floras of the regions mentioned above. The difference in the horizontal distribution of these endemic genera is obviously between the southern and northern parts of Xizang Plateau. The vertical distribution of the genera is also rather obvious, from 800 m to 5200 m above sea level, but concentrated in the zone of 3000 m to 4500 mm. Therefore their occurrence in Xizang is not only affected by the historical environmental conditions but also controlled by the horizontal and vertical distribution. The origin and evolution of some endemic genera, such as Psammosilene, Parateropyrum, Sphaerotylos, Salweenia, Ajaniopsis, Xizangia, Sinoleontopodium, are discussed in this paper. Parateropyrum, a monotypic palaeotropic endemic, belongs to the tribe Atraphaxideae including Atraphaxis, Calligonum and Pteropyrum. It may be a comparatively advanced group in the tribe, and is closely related to the genus Pteropyrum which is distributed in western Asia. The genus Parapteropyrum has possibly survived as a palaetropic-tertiary relic in this region. Sphaerotylos, a member of the subtribe Sphaerotylinae, the tribe Boehmerieae in the family Urticaceae, is a comparatively primitive genus in the tribe Boehmerieae so far known. As the other subtribes, such as Boehmerinae, Sarconchlamydinae, Orecnidinae and Maoutinae, are distributed in the tropics, rarely in the subtropics, the genus is no doubt a palaetropic -tertiary relic. Sinoleontopodium, belonging to the tribe lnuleae in Compositae, is also related to the genus Leontopodium. It is probable that the genus Sinoleontopodium arised later than the other. We come to the conclusion that the southern part of Xizang Plateau is also one of thecentres of the origin and differentiation of genera endemic to China.
  • Qi Yao-Bin, Zhao Yu-Tang
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 430-436.
    In this paper, pollen grains of 32 species of the genus Iris in China were examined under light microscope and scanning elrctron microscope. Pollen grains in Iris of China are navicular or subspheroidal. According to the characters of aperture and shape, pollen grains may be divided into four types: (1) Monocolpate (distal): pollen grains navicular or subspheroidal, exine reticulate. (2) Monocolpate-colpoidal: pollen grains subspheroidal, exine pilate. (3) 2-syncolpate: polen grains subspheroidal or navicular, exine reticulate. (4) No aperture: pollen grains subspheroidal; exine verrucate. The evolutional trends of aperture and exine ornamentation are traced and systematic po-sitions of some species are discussed based on characteristics of pollen grains and other organs.
  • Liang Guo-Lu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 437-441.
    Somatic chromosome numbers of 37 forms (representing 22 species) of apples in China were counted using wall-degradation and hypotonic method. Among the species investigated 3 categories of chromosome numbers, i.e. 2n=34, 51 and 68 are confirmed. The chromosome numbers of the following species are here first reported: Malus ombrophila 2n= 34, M. prattii 2n=34, M. melliana 2n=34, Zhaojiaohonghua (M. sp.) 2n=34, and M. asiatica var. 2n=68. Polyploids (including infraspecific polyploids) account for 41% of the total number of the species investigated. 51 is a predominant number. It is suggested that ploidy variation is an important pathway in apple evolution in China, and triploid may be considered as a suitable evolution grade. There are rich apple germplasm resources in China. The systematic studies of this genus are obviously essential.
  • Lang Kai-Yung
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 442-459.
    Peristylus is a genus of over 60 species, mainly distributed in the Old World tropics, with many species extending northwards to central China. In the present paper, the taxa of the genus hitherto recorded in China are taxonomically and phytogeographically discussed and revised, and, as a result, 20 species are recognized, including one new species, P. jinchuanicus K. Y. Lang, and four new combinations, P. bulleyi (Rolfe) K. Y. Lang, P. forrestii (Schltr.) K. Y. Lang, P. longiracemus (Fukuyama) K. Y. Lang and P. neotineoides (Ames et Schltr.) K. Y. Lang. A full list of synonyms is given, a key to the species is provided and the distribution areas in China of all the taxa are mapped.
  • Tong Shao-Quan, Xia Yong-Mei
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 460-471.
  • Chen Sing-Chi
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 472-475.
  • Li Ping-Tao, Wang Xue-Ming
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 476-477.
  • Di Wei-Zhong, Ren Yi
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 478-479.
  • Yi Tong-Pei
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 480-481.
  • Lou Jian-Shing
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(6): 482-485.