Table of Contents

18 August 1987, Volume 25 Issue 4
    Research Articles
  • Hong De-Yuan, Zhu Xiang-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 245-253.
    Ten species of six genera of Liliaceae were cytotaxonomically investigated in this work. Chromosomes of Paris polyphylla var. latifolia Wang et Tang, Smilacina henryi (Baker) Wang et Tang, Allium ovalifolia Hand.-Mazz. and a tetraploid race of Paris verticillata M.Bieb. are reported for the first time. The results are shown as follows. 1. Paris P. verticillata M.-Bieb. is found to be a tetraploid, with karyotype formula 2n=20=12m+4st+4t (Plate 1, A, see Fig. 1, A for its idiogram), which belongs to Stebbins' (1971) karyotype classification 2B. P. polyphylla var. latifolia Wang et Tang is a diploid with karyotype formula 2n=10+1B=6m+4t+1B (Plate 2, A, see Fig. 1, B for its idiogram), which belongs to 2A. P. polyphylla var. polyphylla is also a diploid with karyotype formula 2n=10 =6m+4t (Plate 2, C, see Fig. 1, C for its idiogram), which belongs to 2A. Their chromosome parameters are given in Table 1. The difference in karyotype between the two varieties of P. polyphylla is only presence or absence of a B-chromosome, whereas the karyotypes of the two species mentioned above are distinctly different, not only in chromosome number, but also in morphology. Based on the present work and those of Hara (1969) and Gu (1986), it is rather clear that there are two kinds of basic karyotypes in Paris, i. e. x=3m+1st+1t (st with arm ratio 3.5-4.0) and x=3m+2t. These two basic karyotypes are closely correlated with geographical distribution and external morphology. The taxa with the former karyotype are distributed in north temperate zone, expect P. bashanensis which occurs in the subtropics, but those with the latter are distributed in the tropics and subtropics (Fig. 2). And according to Hara's (1969) system, the taxa with x=3m+1st+1t belong to the sections Paris and Kinugawa (with only one species, P. japonica) and those with 2n=3m+2t belong to the section Euthyra, but in Li's (1984) system, the former belongs to the sections Paris and Kinugasa of the subgenus Paris, and the latter belongs to the 5 sections of the subgenus Daiswa and the section Axiparis of the subgenus Paris. 2. Cardiocrinum Chromosome number of C. giganteum, from the Mt Taibai, the Qinling Range, is 2n=24 (Plate 2, E, see Fig. 3, A for its karyogram). Kurosawa's (1960) report is different from ours in the sixth and the ninth chromosome pairs with secondary constrictions situated in the long arms. Chauhan (1984) found that the karyotype (2n=24) of a population from Mawphlong Forest (1000 m alt.) in the Eastern Himalayas, Assam, has the eighth chromosome pair with secondary constrictions in the long arms. Tang et al. (1984) gave a report on the karyotype of a population from the Mt Omei, which is different from the others in having not only much longer short arms of the eleventh pair but also secondary constrictions in the short arms of the first pair and in the long arms of the ninth pair. From the information so far available, 2 out of 3 species of the genus are karyologically relatively uniform, with two pairs of submedian chromosomes and ten pairs of subterminal ones. 3. Smilacina Chromosome number of S. japonica A. Gray is 2n=36 (Plate 1, D). Its karyotype is shown in Fig. 3, G. S. henryi (Baker) Wang et Tang is also found to have 2n =36 (Plate 2, B). Its karyotype is shown in Fig. 3, B. Both karyotypes are bimodal, with eight large and ten small pairs and the length ratio of the eighth pair and the ninth one being 1.81 in the former, but with the nine large pairs and the length ratio of the ninth pair and the tenth one being 1.42 in the latter. The karyotype of S. japonica is more asymmetrical than the one of S. henryi. Based on the reports by Mehra and Pathania (1960), Hara and Kurosawa (1963), Chuang et al. (1963) and the present paper, all the species studied in the genus are of a bimodal karyotype. No any taxon with 2n=18 has so far been discovered, and therefor x=9 for the genus as considered by Darligton et Wylie (1955) is doubtful. 4. Allium A. victorialis from the Mt Dahaituo, Chicheng, Hebei, is found to have 2n=32=22m+6sm+4st (Plate 1, E; Fig. 4, D) and A. ovalifolia Hand-Mazz. from the Mt Taibai, Qinling, 2n=16=12m+2sm+2st (Plate 1, B; Fig. 4, C). 2n=16 has been reported by Mehra and Sachdeva (1976) for A. victorialis, and thus two ploid levels exist in the species. If the last pair of chromosomes is considered as the one with intercalary satellites, its karyotype is structurally similar to that of the tetraploid race of A. victorialis. 5. Asparagus A. schoberioides from the Mt Dahaituo, Chicheng, Heibei, is found to have 2n=20 (Plate 1, C, see Fig. 4, B for its karyotype) with size range 1.8-4.0 μm, and A. trichophyllus Bunge from the same locality also 2n=20 (Plate 1, F, see Fig. 4, A for its karyotype), with size range 1.9-3.8 μm. 6. Convallaria The karyotype of C. majalis is 2n=38=24m+12sm+2st (Plate 2, D, see Fig 3, D for its karyotype). The material is from the Mt Taibai, Qinling. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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  • Wang Zhen-Qiang, Sun Xiang-Zhong, Wang Hui-Qin
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 254-263.
    The karyotypes of Alisma species in Hubei were analysed. The authors have surveyed populations in fields, measured some morphological characters, made some experiments of cultivation, and further studied classificatory problems in this genus. The results are as follows: 1. There are three species in the provinc: A. plantago-aquatica L., A. orientale (Sam.) Juzep. and A. canaliculatum A. Br. Bouche. 2. A. plantago-aquatica and A. orientale are diploids, 2n=2x=14, A. canaliculatum is a hexaploid, 2n=6x=42. A new type of karyotype is reported here for A. orientale, which is contrary to the reports that the karyotypes of Alisma are uniform. 3. There are obvious differences between A. plantago-aquatica and A. orientale in morphology and karyotype and they should be regarded as two separate species. 4. There are three patterns of karyotype variation in this genus: ① Polyploidy; ② Variation of individual chromosomes from symmetry to asymmetry; ③ Increase of karyotype symmetry.
  • Pan Kai-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 264-293.
    The genus Oreocharis as circumscribed here consists of 27 species including 5 varieties, of which 5 species and 4 varieties are described as new in the present paper. In the work analysed were the external morphology and geographic distribution and examined under SEM were pollen exine of 22 species and seed coat of 16 species. As a result, three types of the corolla, two types of the anther, three types of the pollen exine and three types of the seed coat are distinguished here in the paper. It is discovered that the corolla in the genus is relatively stable, though diverse, and highly correlated with the characters of pollen grains and seeds. The corolla clearly bilabiate but constricted at the throat, occurring in O. auricula, O. cordatula, O. aurantiaca, etc., for an example, is correlated with smooth, reticulate pollen exine and partial tectum and the reticulate and smooth seed coat. For this reason the subdivision of the genus in the paper is mainly based on the characters of the corolla, but combined with those of the anther, pollen and seed coat. The genus is divided into four sections in the present classification. Dasydesmus Craib, based on a single species. O. bodinieri, is reduced here, and the reasons are given. The genus is distributed mainly in the subtropics, and less frequently in the tropics, of China south of 32.5°N and east of 98.5°E, with only two species beyond the border, O. hirsuta in Thailand (only a single locality in Chiengmai) and O. aurea also found in north Vietnam (see Fig. 1, Table 3). Sect. 1. Stomactin (Clarke) Fritsch. Corolla urceolate-tubular, constricted at the throat, with limb distinctly bilabiate; anthers broad-oblong; seed coat reticulate, smooth, rarely minutely tuberculate; pollen exine fine-reticulate, tectum partial and smooth, luminae slightly unequal in size. Sect. 2. Orthanthera K. Y. Pan Corolla campanulate or campanulate-tubular; anthers broad-oblong; seed coat reticulate, muri smooth, rarely spiny-processed; pollen exine fine-reticulate, with partial and smooth tectum and luminae slightly unequal in size, rarely exine insular and fine-tuberculate, tectum perforate. Setc. 3. Oreocharis Corolla thin-tubular; anthers broad-oblong; seed coat densely spinyprocessed, rarely fine-tuberculate; pollen exine insular, densely spiny-processed, rarely finereticulate and smooth, luminae unequal in size. Sect. 4. Platyanthera K. Y. Pan Corolla campanulate; anthers hippocrepiform; seed coat densely spiny-processed; pollen exine fine-reticulate, tectum perforate, luminae small, nearly equal in size. In the section Stomactin, although the constriction of corolla at its throat is a specialized character, the characters of seed coat, pollen grains and anthers are apparently primitive. Therefore it may be said at least that more primitive characters are preserved in the section. In the section Oreocharis, on the contrary, the characters of corolla, seed coat and pollen exine are all advanced. And in the section Platyanthera, the seed coat, pollen (with perforate tectum) and anthers have developed rather specialized characters.
  • Yu Rong-Min, Zhou Rong-Han, Li Xian
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 294-298.
    The present paper deals mainly with the chemical contents of the family Equisetaceae in China. The taxonomic value of the flavonol in this family is discussed. The results of chemical investigation show that kaempferol-3,7-diglucoside and kaempferol are the characteristic components of the family; kaempferol-3-diglucoside is characteristic of the genus Hippochaete and quercetin is characteristic of the genus Equisetum. Described in this paper are isolation of 11 compounds and identification of 7 compounds in this experiment, among which kaempferol-3-diglucoside and succinic acid are isolated from Hippochaete hiemale for the first time.
  • Ma Yi-Lun
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 299-306.
    The history of the study on the woodsiodes is briefly surveyed in the paper. The family Woodsiaceae is recognized by the present author. The relationships among the species and the probable evolution of the family are discussed based on author's cytological and comparative morphological studies, and are indicated by Wagner's method, with numerical values as the indices. Woodsiaceae may have originated from the common ancestor of modern Dicranopteris and Sticherus of Gleicheniaceae, and evolved from it into two main branches, i.e., Woodsia and Protowoodsia. The origin of species through polyploid series are discussed, and W. andersonii, W. subcordata, W. alpina and Cheilanthopsis indosiosa considered as fertile allopolyploids; the probable way of speciation is also suggested for these species.
  • Fang Zhen-Fu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 307-313.
    1. The distribution of Salix species among the continents. There are about 526 species of Salix in the world, most of which are distributed in the Northern Hemisphere with only a few species in the Southern Hemisphere. In Asia, there are about 375 species, making up 71.29 percent of the total in the world, including 328 endemics; in Europe, about 114 species, 21.67 percent with 73 endemics; in North America, about 91 species, 17.3 percent with 71 endemics; in Africa, about 8 species, 1.5 percent, with 6 endemics. Only one species occurs in South America. Asia, Europe and North America have 8 species in common (excluding 4 cultivated species). There are 34 common species between Asia and Europe, 14 both between Europe and North America and between Asia and North America, 2 between Asia and Africa. Acording to the Continental Drift Theory, the natural circumstances which promoted speciation and protected newly originated and old species were created by the orogenic movement of the Himalayas in the middle and late Tertiary. Besides, the air temperature was a little higher in Asia than in Europe and North America (except its west part) and the dominant glaciers were mountainous in Asia during the glacial epoch in the Quaternary Period. Then willows of Europe moved southwards to Asia. During the interglacial period they moved in opposite direction. Such a to-and-fro willow migration between Asia and Europe and between and North America occurred so often that it resulted in the diversity of willow species in Asia. Those species of willows common among the continents belong to the Arctic flora. 2. The multistaminal willows are of the primitive group in Salix. Asia has 28 species of multistaminal willows, but Europe has only one which is also found in Asia. These 28 species are divided into two groups, “northern type” and “southern type”, according to morphology of the ovary. The boundary between the two forms in distribution is at 40°N. The multistaminal willows from south Asia, Africa and South America are very similar to each other and may have mutually communicated between these continents in the Middle or Late Cretaceous Period. The southern type willows in south Asia are similar to the North American multistaminal willows but a few species. The Asian southern type willows spreaded all over the continents of Europe, Asia and North America through the communication between them before the Quaternany Period. Nevertheless, it is possible that the willows growing in North America immigranted through the middle America from South America. The Asian northern type multistaminal willows may have originated during the ice period. The multistaminal willows are more closed to populars in features of sexual organs. They are more primitive than the willows with 1-3 stamens and the most primitive ones in the genus. 3. The center of origin and development of willows Based on the above discussion it is reasonable to say that the region between 20°-40°N in East Asia is the center of the origin and differentiation of multistaminal willows. It covers Southern and Southwestern China and northern Indo-China Pennisula.
  • Huang Su-Hua
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 314-318.
  • Lu Lian-Li
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 319-321.
  • Wan Yu, Chang Ben-Neng
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 322-323.
  • Yao Kan, Deng Mao-Bin
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 324-325.
  • Deng Jia-Qi, Hong Jian-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(4): 326-327.