Ten species of six genera of Liliaceae were cytotaxonomically investigated in this
work. Chromosomes of Paris polyphylla var. latifolia Wang et Tang, Smilacina henryi (Baker)
Wang et Tang, Allium ovalifolia Hand.-Mazz. and a tetraploid race of Paris verticillata M.Bieb. are reported for the first time. The results are shown as follows.
1. Paris P. verticillata M.-Bieb. is found to be a tetraploid, with karyotype formula
2n=20=12m+4st+4t (Plate 1, A, see Fig. 1, A for its idiogram), which belongs to Stebbins'
(1971) karyotype classification 2B. P. polyphylla var. latifolia Wang et Tang is a diploid with
karyotype formula 2n=10+1B=6m+4t+1B (Plate 2, A, see Fig. 1, B for its idiogram), which
belongs to 2A. P. polyphylla var. polyphylla is also a diploid with karyotype formula 2n=10
=6m+4t (Plate 2, C, see Fig. 1, C for its idiogram), which belongs to 2A. Their chromosome
parameters are given in Table 1. The difference in karyotype between the two varieties of P.
polyphylla is only presence or absence of a B-chromosome, whereas the karyotypes of the two
species mentioned above are distinctly different, not only in chromosome number, but also in
morphology. Based on the present work and those of Hara (1969) and Gu (1986), it is rather
clear that there are two kinds of basic karyotypes in Paris, i. e. x=3m+1st+1t (st with arm
ratio 3.5-4.0) and x=3m+2t. These two basic karyotypes are closely correlated with geographical distribution and external morphology. The taxa with the former karyotype are distributed in north temperate zone, expect P. bashanensis which occurs in the subtropics, but those with
the latter are distributed in the tropics and subtropics (Fig. 2). And according to Hara's
(1969) system, the taxa with x=3m+1st+1t belong to the sections Paris and Kinugawa (with
only one species, P. japonica) and those with 2n=3m+2t belong to the section Euthyra, but
in Li's (1984) system, the former belongs to the sections Paris and Kinugasa of the subgenus
Paris, and the latter belongs to the 5 sections of the subgenus Daiswa and the section Axiparis
of the subgenus Paris.
2. Cardiocrinum Chromosome number of C. giganteum, from the Mt Taibai, the Qinling
Range, is 2n=24 (Plate 2, E, see Fig. 3, A for its karyogram). Kurosawa's (1960) report is
different from ours in the sixth and the ninth chromosome pairs with secondary constrictions situated in the long arms. Chauhan (1984) found that the karyotype (2n=24) of a population from
Mawphlong Forest (1000 m alt.) in the Eastern Himalayas, Assam, has the eighth chromosome
pair with secondary constrictions in the long arms. Tang et al. (1984) gave a report on the
karyotype of a population from the Mt Omei, which is different from the others in having not
only much longer short arms of the eleventh pair but also secondary constrictions in the short
arms of the first pair and in the long arms of the ninth pair. From the information so far available, 2 out of 3 species of the genus are karyologically relatively uniform, with two pairs of
submedian chromosomes and ten pairs of subterminal ones.
3. Smilacina Chromosome number of S. japonica A. Gray is 2n=36 (Plate 1, D).
Its karyotype is shown in Fig. 3, G. S. henryi (Baker) Wang et Tang is also found to have 2n
=36 (Plate 2, B). Its karyotype is shown in Fig. 3, B. Both karyotypes are bimodal, with
eight large and ten small pairs and the length ratio of the eighth pair and the ninth one being
1.81 in the former, but with the nine large pairs and the length ratio of the ninth pair and
the tenth one being 1.42 in the latter. The karyotype of S. japonica is more asymmetrical than
the one of S. henryi. Based on the reports by Mehra and Pathania (1960), Hara and Kurosawa (1963), Chuang et al. (1963) and the present paper, all the species studied in the genus
are of a bimodal karyotype. No any taxon with 2n=18 has so far been discovered, and therefor x=9 for the genus as considered by Darligton et Wylie (1955) is doubtful.
4. Allium A. victorialis from the Mt Dahaituo, Chicheng, Hebei, is found to have
2n=32=22m+6sm+4st (Plate 1, E; Fig. 4, D) and A. ovalifolia Hand-Mazz. from the Mt Taibai, Qinling, 2n=16=12m+2sm+2st (Plate 1, B; Fig. 4, C). 2n=16 has been reported by Mehra
and Sachdeva (1976) for A. victorialis, and thus two ploid levels exist in the species. If the last
pair of chromosomes is considered as the one with intercalary satellites, its karyotype is structurally similar to that of the tetraploid race of A. victorialis.
5. Asparagus A. schoberioides from the Mt Dahaituo, Chicheng, Heibei, is found
to have 2n=20 (Plate 1, C, see Fig. 4, B for its karyotype) with size range 1.8-4.0 μm, and A.
trichophyllus Bunge from the same locality also 2n=20 (Plate 1, F, see Fig. 4, A for its karyotype), with size range 1.9-3.8 μm.
6. Convallaria The karyotype of C. majalis is 2n=38=24m+12sm+2st (Plate 2, D, see
Fig 3, D for its karyotype). The material is from the Mt Taibai, Qinling.
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