Table of Contents

18 February 1987, Volume 25 Issue 1
    Research Articles
  • Tang Yan-Cheng, Xiang Qiu-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 1-8.
    In the East Asiatic temperate floristic region, there are many groups of allied plants generally distributed from the Himalayas to Japan or Korea through China. The following spe cies may be taken as examples: Stachyurus himalaicus Hook. f. et Thomas.-S. chinensis Franch.-S. praecox Sieb. et Zucc., Helwingia himalaica Hook. f. et Thomas.-H. chinensis Batal.-H. japonica (Thunb.)Dietrich, Corylop is himalayana Griffith-C. sininsis Hemsl. C. glabrescens Franch. et Sav. It is intriguing to us that the taxa distributed in China are more variable than those in other regions. As considered by Favarges and Contandriopoulus, cytogeography is the only objective method in the understanding of endemics and corresponding (vicariant) taxa. So we believe that the studies on karyological relationship between the Japano Himalayan elements, especially the variation between Chinese taxa in chromosome, morphology and geography (or ecology) will bring some light on the understanding of speciation of vicariants. This paper along with the others (Tang et al. 1983, 1984) is the results of the project “Studies on the Flora of Eastern Asiatic Region”. It is hoped that these studies will eventually deepen our understanding of the origin and differentiation of this flora. The method used here is the same as that in first paper of the series. Voucher specimens are kept in PE. Four species investigated here are cultivated in the Hangzhou Botanical Garden. I. Calycanthus chinensis Cheng et S. Y. Chang (Sinocalycanthus chinensis Cheng et S. Y. Chang) Somatic chromosome number, 2n=22, was determined from leaf-tip cells (pl. 1, fig. 1). The material was pretreated with 0.05% Colchicine solution. The voucher specimen: Y. C. Tang & Q. Y. Xiang no. 84-79. Calycanthus is a genus of only 3 species, C. floridus L. in southeastern United States, C. occidentalis Hook. et Arnott in northern coastal ranges and Sierra Neveda foothills, California, C. chinensis Cheng et S. Y. Chang in Zhejiang, China. The pattern of disjunct distribution of the genus, with two survivors in eastern and western North America and one in eastern Asia shows the genus to be a relict one of so-called Arcto-Tertiary Flora. Doubttless cytological investigation on the 3 species interests us. The chromosome number is n=11 for C. occidentalis (Nicely 1965), n=ll, 2n=22 for C. floridus (Sax 1933, Nicely 1965, for C. floridus var. oblongifolius (Nutt.) B. E. Boufford et S. A. Spongberg (Sax 1933). We come to the conclusion, therefore, that the basic chromosome number of the genus is x=11. 2. Chimonanthus praecox (L.) Link Somatic chromosome number 2n=22 was determined based on mitotic metaphase of leaftip cells (pl. 1, fig. 3.). The material was pretreated with 0.05% Colchicine solution. The voucher specimen: Y. C. Tang & Q. Y. Xiang no. 84-83. The species is widely cultivated and spontaneous only in western Hubei to eastern Sichuan. The present report is in accord with the number reported by Sugiura (1931) and Simonet and Miedzyrzecki (1932). All the records including ours are reported from cultivated plants. Chimonanthus, with 3-4 species, is endemic to China (from the east to the west). The genus is divided into 2 groups. One, with C. praecox only, is deciduous and has sepals and petals rounded at apex. The other, including remaining species, is evergreen or semi-evergreen and has sepals and petals from acute to obtuse at apex. The chromosome number of the species, except C. praecox, is unknown to us. So it is a good material for further study to understand the speciation within the genus. After the brief discussion on Calycanthus and Chimonanthus, it is probably not superfluous to remark cytotaxonomy of Calycanthaceae. Since the establishment of a new genus, Idiospermum based on Calycanthus australiensis by Baker in 1972, the circumscription of Calycanthaceae has been debated. Chant (1978), Takhtajan (1980), Thorne (1983) consider that Calycanthaceae consists of 3 genera (Calycanthus, Chimonanthus and Idiospermum). The subsequent intensive studies on Idiospermum have disclosed numerous differences between the genus and Calycanthus, supporting the establishment of a new family by Walker (1976), Wilson (1976, 1979), Sterner and Young (1980) and Cronquist (1981). No matter what rank is given to Idiospermum, it is indeed related to Calycanthaceae. If Idiospermaceae is merged into Calycanthaceae, it is merely demoted from family rank to a subfamily of Calycanthaceae. So we consider that the discrepancy of its circumscription is not important. The family was sometimes in the past referred to the Rosales. But modern authors, such as Chant (1979), Takhtajan (1980), Cronquist (1981), Thorne (1983), Dallgren (1983), agree that its close relatives are in Laurales. The facts that the family resembles Monimiaceae in a number of features and discontinuous distribution of its members show that the family is of great antiquity. Moreover, the basic chromosome number of the three genera is the same (x=11). It seems reasonable to suggest that the family consists of 3 genera and is subordinate to Laurales. 3. Paris polyphylla Sm. var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara Somatic chromosome number 2n=10 was determined based on mitotic metaphase of ovary wall cells. No B chromosomes were observed (p1. 1, fig. 4). The material was pretreated with 0.05% colchicine solution. The voucher specimen: Y. C. Tang & Q. Y. Xiang no. 84-40. Paris polyphylla Sm., distributed from the East Himalayas to Taiwan Province of China, is a very complex and polymorphic species. Hara (1969) divides it into 3 subspecies (subsp. poly phylla, subsp. marmorata and subsp. fargesii) and nine varieties. We agree with the treatment of Chang (1978), Takhtajan (1983) and Li (1984). They recognize subsp. marmorata and subsp. fargesii as species respectively. Even after these subspecies are separated as species, Paris poly phylla Sm. is still a rather complex one. The range of karyotype variation of the species is as great as that of gross morphology. The species has 8 cytotypes summarized by Hara (1969). Recently Gu (1982) observed 3 different populations of Yunnan province. He has discovered that the numbers of satellites and B chromosomes are variable. Even within a population (from Xundian) two homologous chromosomes of the pair B are different in length. The karyotype of var. chinensis observed by us is somewhat different from those observed by Gotoh & Kikkawa (1937), whose materials are from Taiwan. Besides 2 B chromosomes found in Taiwan plants, the short arms of the homologous chromosomes of the pair C are different in length. Further detail studies to clarify the interrelationship and correlation of cytotypes with morphological characters in the complex are needed. 4. Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. (F. verticillata willd. var. thunbergii (Miq.) Baker) PMC meiotic examination revealed n=12 at diplotene (p1. 1 fig. 2, 5). The material was pretreated with 0.05% Colchicine solution. The voucher specimen: Y. C. Tang & Q. Y. Xiang no. 84-22. The species is distributed in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Hunan of China and Japan, and also cultivated as a medicinal plant. The present report is in accord with the one by Sato (1942) from Japanese material. A bridge and a fragment were found at AI. Generally considered, bridge and fragment at meiosis indicate the presence of heterozygosity for paracentric inversions. Certainly, heterozygosity for paracentric inversion can result in bridge and fragment, but bridges and fragments may also be resulted from chromosome breakage and reunion. The old literature is reviewed by Newman in the light of these findings and he concludes that the frequency of inversion in plant population has been overestimated (Grant 1975). So the explanation of the configuration observed in this species needs some more valid evidence.
  • Zhang Zhi-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 9-23.
    1. The pollen morphology (Table 2) of 23 species and 3 genera (Actinidia, Clematoclethra and Saurauia) were examined under microscope. Among them 10 species were also observed under SEM and 3 species also under TEM. Comparative studies on the Actinidiaceae and its relative families, Theaceae (9 species and 7 genera) and Clethraceae (1 species and 1 genus), were also made. 2. The observation (Table 3) shows that Saurauia differs from Actinidia and Clematoclethra in a number of important features. Hutchinson's and Takhtajan's systems suggest that Saurauiaceae is an independent family, and the observation by the present author is in accord with this view. Pollen morphology also shows the close relationship between Actinidia and Clematoclethra, and therefore they belong to the same family, Actinidiaceae. 3. The comparative analysis of morphological, palynological, embryological and chemical data (Table 4) may shed light on systematic position of Actinidiaceae. There are several morphological similarities between Actinidiaceae and Theaceae: flowers hypogynous, syncarpous, and mostly with free petals; aestivation of sequals quincuncial; gynoecia composed of 3 to many carpels; styles united or free; placentation mostly axile, ovules numerous; stamens basifixed or versatile; anthers with a prominent endothecium; fruits often baccate or capsular; and pollen tricolporoidate. In Actinidiaceae, however, the ovule is unitegmic, endosperm-development cellular, weak terminal haustoria developing at both ends of the embryo sac. The embryological characteristics of the family under discussion are similar to those of Cletheraceae. With systematic position of the family Actinidiaceae, we tend to support Cronquist's view (1981). The embryological similarity shows that they are closely related to each other. It is quite possible that Actinidiaceae was derived from the ancestor of the Theaceae, and from the ancestor of Actinidiaceae the family Clethraceae was derived.

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  • Wang Wen-Tsai, Li Liang-Qian
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 24-38.
  • Shih Chu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 39-49.
    About 22 species of the genus Scorzonera L. are so far known to occur in China. Among them, S. pamirica Shih is described as new and 3 species, S. tau-sahyz Lipsch. et Bosse, S. pubescens DC. and S. transiliensis M. Pop., are new records to China. Four names in the literature are reduced to synonyms,and some wrong identications in Chinese botanical literature are pointed out in this work. Some species with considerable variation in morphology, such as, S. pseudodivaricata Lipsch. and S. sinensis Lipsch. ex Krasch., are also discussed here.
  • 1Xi Jing-Qing, 1Zhao Wei-Liang, 2Mizuo Mizuno
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 50-55.
    The main original plant of the traditional Chinese drug Mianbeixian has been considered as Dioscorea septemloba Thunb. for a long time. Based on morphological, light microscopical, scanning electron microscopical, chromatographical and ultra-violet spectroscopical examinations and in comparison with the Japanese material, the Chinese one is proposed as a newspecies-Dioscorea spongiosa.
  • Duan Xian-Zhen, Zheng Xiu-Ju
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 56-63.
    In the present paper the genus Eritillaria in Xinjiang is revised. There are altogether eleven species and four varieties recognized in this region, of which four species and four varietie are new to science, and one species is new to Chinese flora
  • Liang Song-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 64-66.
  • Liu Zheng-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 67-68.
  • Chen Qian-Hai
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 69-70.
  • Li Fa-Zeng
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 71-72.
  • Hsu Ping-Sheng, Ge Chuan-Ji, Li Yan-Kun, Yan Li
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 73-76.
    Leonurus japonicus Houtt. [L. heterophyllus Sweet, L. artemisia (Lour.) S. Y. Hu] is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicines used as a remedy for gynaecological disease since ancient times. A cytological investigation on the species was carried out and the materials for chromosomal examination were collected from 26 localities in 20 provinoes and autonomous regions of this country. The number of chromosomes in root tip cell of the species was found to be 20 on the whole (Tab. 1:1), agreeing with those reported by Ma and al.[2] and probably by Chuang and al.[3] as well. The genus Leonurus L. is variable in its chromosomes with an aneuploidy of x=9, 10 and 12. The present authors would propose that the primitive basic number of chromosome in the genus is 9, and thus both 10 and 12 are derived, for: (1) among the 9 species (including 1 subspecies) heretofore cytologically examined, x=9 occurring in 66.7%, x=10 occurring in 22.2%, while x=12 occurring only in 11.1%; (2) in generaclosely related to the genus under consideration, such as Panzeria, Galeobdolon and Lamium x=9 being the sole basic number. But L. japonicus exhibits a mixoploidy of 2n=20 (occurring at the rate of 53.30% of the total amount of cells examined), 2n=18 (30.70%), and 2n=16 (15.99%) in our work. (Table 1). Since the original basic number of chromosome of the genus is 9 as proposed above, 2n= 20 would be considered as a derived one and the occurrence of 2n=18 probably suggests an early evolutionary trend of 2n=18→20 of the pecies in question.
  • Xu Jin-Lin, Li Yu-Zhao, Zhang Lin-Wei, Wang Li-An, Yang Guang-Rui
    J Syst Evol. 1987, 25(1): 77-80.
    The present paper deals with a comparative karyotypic study of three species in Fritillaria-F. thuncergii Miq., F. anhuiensis S. . Chen et S. F. Yin and F. hupehensis Hsiao et K. C. Hsia. The karyotype of F. anhuiensis S. C. Chen et S. F. Yin is first reported. The karyotypes of the three species of Fritillaria are rather similar, all with K(2n)=24= 2m+2sm+12t+4st+4m (SAT), showing a close interspecific relationship. They all have two pairs of st chromosomes, one of which is the third chromosome in all the three species studied, but the other is the seventh in F. thunbergii Miq, the eighth in F. anhuiensis S. C. Chen et S. F. Yin, and the fifth in F. hupehensis Hsiao et K. C. Hsia. It tells us that there are some differences in their karyotypes. All of the three species possess two pairs of satellite chromosomes with the satellites located on the long arms. A heterochromatic zone is found sometimes on long arms of No. IX chromosome in each species of Fritillaria and on one of No. I chromosomes in both F. thunbergii Miq. and F. anhuiensis S. C. Chen et S. F. Yin, a chromosome polymorphism occurring between populations of Fritillaria. In addition, three B chromosomes are always found in most root-tip cells of F. hupehensis Hsiao et K. C. Hsiao.