Table of Contents

18 August 1984, Volume 22 Issue 4
    Research Articles
  • Ying Tsün-Shen, Zhang Zhi-Song
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 259-268.
    China, under highly varied ecological conditions resulted from wide latitudinal and altitudinal ranges and from the adequate precipitation, has developed a very rich flora of great diversity. As far as flowering plants are concerned, there are 2980 genera, 214 of which, belonging to 64 families, are endemic. Among these endemic genera, there are 9 genera of taxads and conifers, 19 genera of monocots and others of dicots. Of the approximately 129 herbaceous endemic genera in the Chinese flora as a whole, about 22 (17%) are annual and 107 (83%) are biennial or perennial. In the present paper the ecological distribution, the nature of endemic genera and the centers of endemism are discussed. 1. Three types of endemic genera are distinguished, neoendemics, palaeoendemics and active epibiotics, The endemic genera in the flora of China are, for the most part, considered to be very old ones, and most of them are of temperate nature. 2. the degree of endemism in our 22 floristic regions is shown in Figure 1. The areas richest in endemic genera in the Chinese flora as a whole are the 13, 16 and 17 regions. The poorest are the 2, 4, 9 and 10 regions, and no one in the 1 and 3 regions These results on floristic richness are of general applicability. As shown in table 1, the difference in the degree of endemism among the seven Chinese floristic subkingdoms are most pronounced. 101 endemic genera are known to occur in one subkingdom, 72 to occur in two subkingdoms, and 3 to occur in four subkingdoms, only one genus widely distributed in five subkingdoms. However, there is no genus occurring in seven subkingdoms. The difference in the degree of endemism in each subkingdom reveals that the distribution of endemic genera is not well-distributed in the Chinese flora as a whole. Analysis of the vertical distribution of the 200 endemic genera of the Chinese flora bears out that there is no evident increase in endemism as a whole with altitude. 3. Three centers of endemism are found (Fig. 2). These are as follows: a). Eastern Sichuan-western Hubei center. b). Southeastern Yunnan-western Guangxi center. c). Western Sichuan-northwestern Yunnan center. The degree of endemism andcharacters of endemic genera in each center are discussed.
  • Chen Zu-Keng, Wang Fu-Hsiung
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 269-276.
    The present paper deals with the embryological study and the systematic position of Amentotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilger. The material used was collected during 1980-1981 from Jin-fo Shan, 1400-1600 m, Sichuan Province, China. The species is dioecious. The male cone sheds its pollen during the period from the end of May to the middle of June. The pollen at mature stage is 2-celled. Pollen chamber appears obvious at the end of the nucellus. When pollen grains are dispersed, megaspore mother cell, which is situated deep in the nucellus, is in meiosis. The megaspore divides mitotically after pollination and the free nuclei of female gametophyte divide for the last time at the end of June. The wall formation takes place at the stage of 256 free nuclei. The development of archegonia takes place at the beginning of July and the fertilization occurs about July 20-23. The fertilized egg divides successively four times and results in a 16-nucleate proembryo. The young embryo is developing in August. It is interesting to note that the development of the young embryo is very slow. When the seed reaches the mature stage from June to July in the following year, the multicellular masses of the young embryos resulted from simple polyembryony remain immature within the female gametophyte. No cleavage polyembryony has been found. The subsequent embryogeny takes place after the seed has shed. Keng (1975) considers that Amentotaxus links the Taxaceae with Cephalotaxaceae. Our embryological data support Keng’s conclusion since they share (1) compound microstrobilus, (2) 2-celled pollen grains at shedding stage and (3) the rather long life cycle. Keng (1975) also mentions that Podocarpaceae may connect with Taxaceae through Phyllocladus. According to Keng the Podocarpaceae is related to Taxaceae to certain degree. It is obvious that the primitive spike-like male strobilus like the one in Cordaitales is obviously retained in Podocarpus spicatus and P. andinus of Podocarpaceae and Amentotaxus of Taxaceae. In addition, like in Amentotaxus there are 16 nuclei before wall formation in the proembryo of Podocarpus nivalis. These facts may well indicate that at least the Podocarpaceae and the Taxaceae were derived from a common stock. As far as the Taxaceae is concerned the authors tend to support the view of Koidzumi (1932) that Amentotaxus and Austrotaxus should be put in the same tribe since both possess the spike-like strobilus, the long life cycle and the seed maturation in the following year. They are probably rather primitive genera in the Taxaceae. The proembryogeny of Torreya is more or less specialized. It may be placed in a rather advanced tribe and the tribe Taxeae (including Taxus and Pseudotaxus)may be between the above two tribes. In conclusion, the Taxaceae is related to the Coniferales in certain respects and, as Keng (1975), Harri (1976) and Wang et al. (1979) have pointed out recently, placing of the Taxaceae in Coniferales is rather justifiable.
  • Fu Li-Kuo
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 277-288.
    The genus Cephalotaxus contains a small number of species. It is adequately appreciated as a newly discovered cancerresistant medicament for the alkaloids obtained from its branches leaves and barks are of curative effect. This paper deals with the classificatory revision based on the morphological features, with the reference to the anatomical characters of leaves, types of alkaloids and pollen morphology observed. Two new combinations are proposed, and 4 species and varieties are reduced in the paper. The genus Cephalotaxus is thus suggested to consist of 2 sections and 9 species. The trees occur in East Asia and the north of Indo-China, with 88% found in China where is the distribution centre and refuge of the genus. The genus in discussion is of unique morphological features which are distinctly different from these of Amentotaxus, Cephalotaxaceae, containing a single genus of Cephalotaxus, is closely related to Taxaceae, and therefore the Cephalotaxaceae is best placed in the Taxinieae of Coniferales.
  • Hu Yu-Shi
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 289-296.
    The internal structure and cuticular characters of the leaves of Cephalotaxus were investigated under light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The materials used belong to 9 species, 2 varieties and 1 cultivar. The leaf characters of C. oliveri Mast. are as follows: stomata are amphicyclic and occasionally monocyclic, the stomatal frequency is 120.6/mm2, the hypodermis is present, there are a large number of filiform sclereids and a few brachysclereids and astrosclereids in the mesophyll, the cuticular projections on the lower surfaces are indistinct. This species differs from all the other species of Cephalotaxus, in which stomata are amphicyclic only, the stomatal frequency is 47.3-88.1/mm2, hypodermis is absent except in C. harringtonia and C. harringtonia cv. ‘Fastigiata’, foliar astrosclereids, hrachysclereids asd fibriform selereids may be present or entirely absent, there are distinct cuticular projections on the lower surface. Based upon the above-mentioned features, the gross morphology as well as the alkaloids. Cephalotaxus may be divided into two sections, namely: Sect. Cephalotaxus and Sect. Pectinatae. In addition, also discussed are following problems: the classification of some species in Sect. Cephalotaxus, the suggested subdivision of Sect. Cephalotaxus into 4 series, and the systematic position of Cephalotaxaceae.
  • Liang Song-Yun, Zhang Wu-Xiu
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 297-300.
    In the course of our palynological study on the Chinese Lilium, pollen tetrads are found in two taxa of the genus: L. sempervivoideum and L. amoenum. The latter is distributed in NW. and S. Yunnan Province. It was established by Wilson, but reduced later by himself to a synonym of L. sempervivoideum which occurs from S. Sichuan to C. Yunnan. However, it is regarded as a species distinct from the former by many authors, such as Sealy (1949), Woodcock and Stearn (1950) and S. Y. Liang (1980). Their pollen tetrads are similar in aperture appearance and sexine patterns, but different in the shape, size and arrangement of sculptural elements, as shown by LM and SEM examination. Their leaf shape and flower colour are different, though there are some transitions between them. Based on the facts mentioned above, it is reasonable to regard the two taxa as two subspecies in L. sempervivoideum.
  • Hong De-Yuan
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 301-305.
    Meiosis and/or mitosis of six species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) from Baoxing County, Sichuan, China, were investigated. The voucher specimens are conserved in PE. Eight pairs (n=8) and 10 chiasmata in meiosis of pollen mother cells have been observed in Medicago lupulina L. (Pl. 1, A-C). Meiotic observation on pollen mother cells in Lotus tenuis W. et K. shows 6 bivalents (n=6) in MI and 9 chiasmata in diakinesis (Pl. 1, D-E). In this species 12 somatic chromosomes (2n=12) in anther wall cells have also been observed. The chromosomal formula may be expressed as 2n=12=8m+2sm+2smSAT (Pl. 1, F-G). In pollen mother cells of Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreb., 7 bivalents in MI and 7 chromosomes in A II have been observed (Pl. 2, A-B). From A II (Pl. 2, B, the inset on the right) the chromosomal formula, n=7= 2m+2sm+lstSAT+2t, may be constructed. Only three chromosomes in this karyotype may be found to have counterparts in the one reported by Srivastava (1963), which shows striking differences between these two karyotypes. Meiotic MI shows 7 pairs (n=7) in Vicia hirsuta (L.) S. F. Gray. Vicia sativa L. is very variable in its chromosomes. Our observation shows 6 pairs (n=6) in MI and in diakinesis in pollen mother cells. In Vicia villosa Roth, all the previous chromosome reports are 2n=14 or n=7, but the result of our work shows that somatic chromosomes are 2n=12 in anther wall cells (Pl. 3, D, E). The karyotype in our material (Pl. 3, E) is that the longest pair of chromosomes are metacentric, the pairs 2-4 are terminal, 5 are metacentric and last pair are submetacentric, differing vastly from the idiogram (Pl. 3, F) presented by Yamamoto (1973). Therefore both the chromosome number and structure in our material are greatly different from those in all the previous reports. The evolutionary trends of chromosomes in the genus Vicia is discussed in the work. Srivastava (1963) holds that the primitive basic number of chromosome in the genus is 6 and thus both 5 and 7 are derived. The present author would propose another possibility that 7 is the original basic number and the other numbers are derived ones. First, as shown in Table 1, x=7 occurs in 47 per cent of species in the genus, but 6 only in 28 per cent. Secondly, x=7 is predominant in the perennial and primitive section Cracca. Thirdly, in genera related to the genus under consideration, such as Lens, Pisum and Lathyrus, x=7 is also the predominant basic number. Fourthly, according to Raven (1975) 7 is the primitive basic number in the angiosperms and x= 7, 8 and 9 are the predominant in the angiosperms.
  • Fang Wen-Zhe
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 306-311.
    The present paper involves descriptiins and discussions of some doubtful species in the genus Isachne. One species and two varieties are new, another species is newly reported from the main land of China, and the delimitation and rank of the other three species are reinvestigated and ascertained.
  • Lang Kai-Yung
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 312-315.
  • Hu Lin-Cheng
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 316-318.
  • Liu Yu-Lan
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 319-320.
  • Wei Yin-Xin
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 321-336.
  • Shi Zhi-Xin
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 337-342.
  • Zou Shou-Qing, Liu Jian-Hua
    J Syst Evol. 1984, 22(4): 342-342.