1984, 22 (2): 89-109.
A new system of classification of Magnoliaceae proposed. This paper deals mainly with taxonomy and phytogeography of the family Magnoliaceae on the basis of external morphology, wood anatomy and palynology. Different authors have had different ideas about the delimitation of genera of this family, their controversy being carried on through more than one hundred years (Table I). Since I have been engaged
in the work of the Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, I have accumulated a considerable amount of information and material and have investigated the living plants at their natural localities, which enable me to find out the evolutionary tendencies and primitive morphological characters of various genera of the family. According to the evolutionary tendencies of the characters and the geographical distribution of this family I propose a
new system by dividing it into two subfamilies, Magnolioideae and Liriodendroideae Law (1979), two tribes, Magnolieae and Michelieae Law, four subtribes, Manglietiinae Law, Magnoliinae, Elmerrilliinae Law and Micheliinae, and fifteen genera (Fig. 1 ), a system which is different from those by J. D. Dandy (1964-1974) and the other authors.
The recent distribution and possible survival centre of Magnoliaceae. The members of Magnoliaceae are distributed chiefly in temperate and tropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere, ——Southeast Asia and southeast North America, but a few genera and species also occur in the Malay Archipelago and Brazil of the Southern Hemisphere. Forty species of 4 genera occur in America, among which one genus (Dugendiodendron) is endemic to the continent, while about 200 species of 14 genera occur in Southeast Asia, of which 12 genera are endemic. In China there are about 110 species of 11 genera which mostly occur in Guangxi, Guangdong and Yunnan; 58 species and more than 9 genera occur in the mountainous districts of Yunnan. Moreover, one genus
(Manglietiastrum Law, 1979) and 19 species are endemic to this region. The family in discussion is much limited to or interruptedly distributed in the mountainous regions of Guangxi, Guangdong and Yunnan. The regions are found to have a great abundance of species, and the members of the relatively primitive taxa are also much more there than in the other regions of the world.
The major genera, Manglietia, Magnolia and Michelia, possess 160 out of a total of 240 species in the whole family. Talauma has 40 species, while the other eleven genera each contain only 2 to 7 species, even with one monotypic genus. These three major genera are sufficient for indicating the evolutionary tendency and geographical distribution of Magnoliaceae. It is worthwhile discussing their morphological characters and
distributional patterns as follows:
The members of Manglietia are all evergreen trees, with flowers terminal, anthers dehiscing introrsely, filaments very short and flat, ovules 4 or more per carpel. This is considered as the most primitive genus in subtribe Manglietiinae. Eighteen out of a total of 35 species of the genus are distributed in the western, southwest to southeast Yunnan. Very primitive species, such as Manglietia hookeri, M. insignis and M. megaphylla, M. grandis, also occur in this region. They are distributed from Yunnan eastwards to Zhejiang and Fujian through central China, south China, with only one species (Manglietia microtricha) of the genus westwards to Xizang. There are several species distributing southwards from northeast India to the Malay Archipelago (Fig. 7).
The members of Magnolia are evergreen and deciduous trees or shrubs, with flowers terminal, anthers dehiscing introrsely or laterally, ovules 2 per carpel, stipule adnate to the petiole. The genus Magnolia is the most primitive in the subtribe Magnoliinae and is the largest genus of the family Magnoliaceae. Its deciduous species are distributed from Yunnan north-eastwards to Korea and Japan (Kurile N. 46’) through Central
China, North China and westwards to Burma, the eastern Himalayas and northeast
India. The evergreen species are distributed from northeast Yunnan (China) to the
Malay Archipelago. In China there are 23 species, of which 15 seem to be very primitive, e.g. Magnolia henryi, M. delavayi, M. officinalis and M. rostrata, which occur in
Guangxi, Guangdong and Yunnan.
The members of Michelia are evergreen trees or shrubs, with flowers axillary, anthers dehiscing laterally or sublaterally, gynoecium stipitate, carpels numerous or few.
Michelia is considered to be the most primitive in the subtribe Micheliinae, and is to
the second largest genus of the family. About 23 out of a total of 50 species of this
genus are very primitive, e.g. Michelia sphaerantha, M. lacei, M. champaca, and M.
flavidiflora, which occur in Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan (the distributional center
of the family under discussion) and extend eastwards to Taiwan of China, southern
Japan through central China, southwards to the Malay Archipelago through Indo-China.
westwards to Xizang of China, and south-westwards to India and Sri Lanka (Fig. 7).
The members of Magnoliaceae are concentrated in Guangxi, Guangdong and Yunnan
and radiate from there. The farther away from the centre, the less members we are
able to find, but the more advanced they are in morphology. In this old geographical
centre there are more primitive species, more endemics and more monotypic genera.
Thus it is reasonable to assume that the region of Guangxi, Guangdong and Yunnan,
China, is not only the centre of recent distribution, but also the chief survival centreof Magnoliaceae in the world.
1984, 22 (2): 110-118.
The first classification for the genus Ormosia was proposed by Bentham. It was
followed by Taubert (1892) in Engler and Prantl’s Nat. Pflanzenf., who divided the genus
into 2 sections. On the basis of the pod structure and seed characters Prain (1900) arranged the genus in 2 sections with 4 subsections. In the monograph on the genus Merrill
and L. Chen ( 1943 ) limited their taxonomic study to Chinese and Indo-Chinese species, and
recognized 34 species and 15 series. Recently Yakovlev (1971-1976) has treated the genus in 6 separate genera.
In the present paper the author recognizes 35 species, of which 7 species and 2 varieties are new. The Chinese species of the genus are grouped into 3 sections and 6 series inmy classification.
Chen Sing-Chi, Tsi Zhan-Huo
1984, 22 (2): 119-124.
Paphiopedilum malipoense S. C. Chen et Tsi is a very interesting new species with its flower similar to that of Cypripedium, especially section Cypripedium. It belongs
to subgenus Brachypetalum, the most primitive group of Paphiopedilum, but differs from
its allied species in hgniva elliptic-lanceolate sepal with cuspidately acuminate apex, rather
narrow petals and horizontal lip, which are of common occurrence in many cypripediums, but
very rare in paphiopedilums. Apparently, this is an intermediate form, or a link, between
Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium, but it does not seem to arise from hybridization between
them, because no Cypripedium has been found wherever Paphiopedilum occurs.
The new species is distributed in southeastern Yunnan of China. In this area, as well
as in river valleys of western Yunnan or the Hengduan Mountains, there have been four
species of the same genus reported before. As we know, the Hengduan Mountains and their
adjacent areas are rich in Cypripedium. The differentiation of the genus there is remarkable. All five sections it contains occur there and three of them are quite distinctive. For
example, the general appearance of the section Bracleosa is dissimilar to that of any other
cypripediums, but closely resembles that of Listera. It appears that the difference between
sect. Bracteosa of Cypripedium and sect. Brachypetalum of Paphiopedilum is not necessarily wider than that between sect. Bracteosa and sect. Cypripedium of the same genus.
Apparently, it is reasonable to consider Paphiopedilum to be an evolutional branch of Cypripedium extending into tropical area, with its primitive group (subgenus Brachypetalum)
still remaining in its northern fringe area. This primitive subgenus has eight species, distributed from western Yunnan to the Malay Peninsula. Five of them, including the intermediate and primitive form published here, are found in the hilly land of southeastern Yunnan and the river valleys of western Yunnan. All these facts suggest its area of origin: the
river valleys of the Hengduan Mountains and the lower hilly land contiguous to the southof them.
1984, 22 (2): 125-127.
The karyotypes of five species in Astragalus (A. dahuricus DC., A. mongolicus
Bunge., A. adsurgens Pall., A. melilotoides Pell., A. huangheensis H. C. Fu., Y. H. Liu)
were studied. Among them, the karyotypes of A. dahuricus and A. melilotoides are reported for the first time. While A. melilotoides is tetraploid (2n=4X=32), all the others
are found to be diploid (2n= 2X = 16). Based on the comparison of karyotypes, the evolu-tionary order of these 5 species is discussed.
Hsu Ping-Sheng, Li Lin-Chu
1984, 22 (2): 128-130.
Karyotype analysis for the species Reineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth of the monotypic genus Reineckia Kunth is given for the first time. The number of chromosomes in
root-tip cell was found to be 38, which is in accord with those reported by most of the previous authors[5,7,8,9,11,12,]. The somatic complement shows a slight variation in size, i.e., the 2,
3, 5, 6, 7th pairs of the chromosomes have submedian constrictions, while the other pairs
have median centromeres. The karyotype is therefore a rather symmetrical one, and according to the chromosomal terminology defined by Levan et al, the karyotype formula of
the species is 2n=38=28 m+10 sm. In spite of the presence of two nucleoli in the telophase as observed by the authors and Noguchi as well, the two corresponding Sat-chromosomes have not been found. Photomicrograph of the chromosome complement and idiogram are given in Fig. 1 and 2 respectively.
Li Ying, Pan Sheng-Li, Luo Si-Qi
1984, 22 (2): 131-138.
Bupleurum is a genus largely distributed in temperate regions of the Northern
Hemisphere. In China 36 species, 17 varieties and 7 forms have hitherto been reported and
most of them are used as Chinese traditional drugs under the name of Chai-Hu. Chai-Hu is
one of the most popular drugs used ever since the ancient time and is prescribed principally
in the treatment of fevers and influenza. In this article, the authors report two new species, B. kunmingense Y. Li et S. L. Pan and B. polyclonum Y. Li et S. L. Pan which were
discovered in Yunnan Province based on morphological studies and preliminary phytochemical tests. The ultraviolet spectrums and thin layer chromatograms of the essential oil and
the crude saikosaponins of the two new species are similar to those of B. chinense DC., the
standard material medica of Chai-Hu. Moreover, two new saikosaponin spots located between saikosaponin a and c in TLC were discovered in the two new species, and this could
be served as a chemical evidence for identification purpose. In the histochemistry examination, the reaction of saikosaponin with color developing agent in parenchyma of the roots of the two new species is obviously more significant than that of B. chinense DC. and this phenomenon has also been proved to be true by TLC of the crude saikosaponin extracts of these two new species. It is suggested that the two new species be used as a substitute ofhigh quality for Chai-Hu.
1984, 22 (2): 167-174.
Cyanophyta of Xizang, Clastidium sicyoideum, Phormidium valderianum var longiarticulatum, P. valderianum var validum, Lyngbya plicata, Homoeothrix lyngbyoides, Hammatoidea xizangensis, Rivularia thermalis, Calothrix alternans, C. polymorpha