Table of Contents

18 February 1983, Volume 21 Issue 1
    Research Articles
  • Wang Shi-Jin, Kuo Pen-Chao
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 1-12.
    Investigations have been made on the mode of development and various characteristics of seedling of 203 grass species representing over 76 genera and 22 tribes. The correlation between important characteristics and their main formative conditions in distribution area and habitat were discussed. According to the various developmental forms of the embryo axis and root system, the seedlings of grasses may be divided into three main types: Bambusoid, Festucoid and Panicoid. And according to characteristics of seedling leaves and adventitious roots, these types may be further divided into seven subtypes: True Bambusoid, Oryzoid, Arundinoid, Stipoid, Festucoid, Eragrostoid and True Panicoid. in this study, the different types of seedlings have been found to be associated with other characteristics of embryo and adult plant; and on these grounds, the genera of the Gramineae are grouped into seven corresponding subfamilies: Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae, Arundinoideae, Stipoideae, Festucoideae, Eragrostoideae and Panicoideae.
  • Lu Ling-Ti
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 13-25.
    The genus Rubus is one of the largest genera in the Rosaceae, consisting of more than 750 species in many parts of the world, of which 194 species have been recorded in China. In the present paper the Rubus is understood in its broad sense, including all the blackberries, dewberries and raspberries, comprising the woody and herbaceous kinds. So it is botanically a polymorphic, variable and very complicated group of plants. The detailed analysis and investigation of the evolutionary trends of the main organs in this genus have indicated the passage from shrubs to herbs in an evolutionary line, although there is no obvious discontinuity of morphological characters in various taxa. From a phylogenetic point of view, the Sect. Idaeobatus Focke is the most primitive group, characterized by its shrub habit armed with sharp prickles, aciculae or setae, stipules attached to the petioles, flowers hermaphrodite and often in terminal or axillary inflorescences, very rarely solitary, druplets separated from receptacles. Whereas the herbaceous Sect. Chamaemorus L. is the most advanced group, which is usually unarmed, rarely with aciculae or setae, stipules free, flowers dieocious, solitary, druplets adhering to the receptacles and with high chromosome numbers (2n = 56). Basing upon the evolutionary tendency of morphological features, chromosome numbers of certain species recorded in literature and the distribution patterns of species, a new systematic arrangement of Chinese Rubus has been suggested by the present authors. Focke in his well-known monograph divided the species of Rubus into 12 subgenera, while in the Flora of China 8 sections of Focke were adapted, but some important revisions have been made in some taxa and Sect. Dalibarda Focke has been reduced to Sect. Cylactis Focke. In addition, the arrangement of sections is presented in a reverse order to those of Focke’s system. The species of Rubus in China are classified into 8 sections with 24 subsections (tab. 3) as follows: 1. Sect. Idaeobatus, emend. Yü et Lu(11 subsect. 83 sp.); 2. Sect. Lampobatus Focke (1 sp.); 3. Sect. Rubus (1 sp.); 4. Sect. Malachobatus Focke, emend. Yü et Lu (13 subsect. 85 sp.); 5. Sect. Dalibardastrus (Focke)Yü et Lu (10 sp.); 6. Sect. Chaemaebatus Focke (5 sp.); 7. Sect. Cylactis Focke, emend. Yü et Lu (8 sp.); 8. Sect. Chamaemorus Focke (1 sp.). In respect to the geographical distribution the genus Rubus occurs throughout the world as shown in tab. 2, particularly abundant in the Northern Hemisphere, while the greatest concentration of species appears in North America and E. Asia. Of the more than 750 species in the world, 470 or more species (64%) distributed in North America. It is clearly showm that the center of distribution lies in North America at present time. There are about 200 species recorded in E. Asia, of which the species in China (194) amount to 97% of the total number. By analysis of the distribution of species in China the great majority of them inhabit the southern parts of the Yangtze River where exist the greatest number of species and endemics, especially in southwestern parts of China, namely Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou (tab. 3. 4.). It is interesting to note that the centre of distribution of Rubus in China ranges From northwestern Yunnan to south-western Sichuan (tab. 5), where the genus also reaches its highest morphological diversity. In this region the characteristics of floristic elements of Rubus can be summarized as follows: it is very rich in composition, contaning 6 sections and 94 species, about 66% of the total number of Chinese species; there are also various complex groups, including primitive, intermediate and advanced taxa of phylogenetic importance; the proportion of endemic plants is rather high, reaching 61 species, up to 44% of the total endemics in China. It is noteworthy to note that the most primitive Subsect. Thyrsidaei (Focke) Yü et Lu, consisting of 9 endemic species, distributed in southern slopes of the Mts. Qin Ling and Taihang Shan (Fig. 4). From the above facts we may concluded that the south-western part of China is now not only the center of distribution and differentiation of Rubus in China, but it may also be the center of origin ofthis genus.
  • Hsu Ping-Sheng
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 26-33.
    A numerical taxonomic study of Caprifoliaceae is presented. For the sake of analyzing the resemblances between the 33 species or OUT’s selected at random from the total 13 genera of the family, a summation of 32 characters was employed in the numerical analyses. Raw data for each character were given equal weighting by condensation in order to have adequate comparisons, and the characters were converted to 51 states, each with a new range of zero to one. Owing to the lack of sufficient data from other lines for numerical analyses, the characters used in this study were largely morphological. The estimation of the coefficient resemblance between each pair or OUT’s was established using the association coefficient method. The resulting values comprise the 33×33 OUT’s basic similarity matrix. The clustering technique used was unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). It can be stated that the scheme of phenetic relationships shown in the resultant dendrogram (Fig. 1) is on the whole in accord with the concepts hold by most current taxonomists, but with some noteworthy exceptions. If the phenon line of tribal demarkation is drawn at the level of 0.6820, the OUT’s could be roughly divided into five groups or tribes. The fact that the highest degree of correlation between Group I Sambuceae and Group II Viburneae on the one hand, and the great distance between them and the rest genera of the family on the other hand agrees well with the data obtained from morphological (Troll and Weberling, 1966), anatomical (Wilkinson, 1949, Metcalfe and Chalk, 1950), embryological (Moissl, 1941), sereological (Hillebrand and Fairbrother, 1970), and phytochemical (Bohm and Glennie, 1971) researches. These two tribes are most probably members of different phylogenetic origin. Triosteum and Symphoricarpos both show their affinities with Leycesteria of Group V Lonicereae instead of Group III Linnaeea or Group II Viburneae as suggested by some taxonomists, and thus supports the opinion of Troll and Weberling (1966), who suggested that these two genera are members of the tribe Lonicereae. The location of the phylogenetically uncertain genus Heptacodium in the dendrogram shows its close morphological similarity to the tribe Linnaeeae. Because of the relatively small number of characters considered in this work, and “taxonomic judgement” was used in selecting these characters which appeared to be most “basic” to the classification of genera in the family, as well as the limitation of numerical taxonomy in itself, the resultant scheme of tribal relationships presented in this paper is by no means phylogenetic, but one that provides an excellent checkon ordinary taxonomic procedures.
  • Xu Ke-Xue, Li De-Zhong
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 34-43.
    In this paper, 10 species and varieties of the genus Panax from China were studied by means of numerical taxonomic methods. At first, the geometric approaches and statistical treatments were used and some new characters induced by the fundamental characters were defined for the numerical representation of the morphological characters of plants. Consequently, forty-seven morphological, three chemical, one geographical and one cytological characters were adopted. The principal component analysis and the similarity coefficients were computed on the standardized data. Based upon the correlation matrix and the distance matrix respectively, the Q and R cluster analyses were carried out, and UPGMA was used in both Q and R cluster analyses. According to the R cluster analysis, all characters are mainly divided into 5 sets: A, B, C, D and E (Fig. 2). The tree-like diagram illustrates that chemical constituents of triterpenoids and the chromosome numbers are related to some morphological characters, such as the roots, the rhizomes, the seeds and the leaves. It is of interest to note that the thicker the fleshy roots, the larger the seeds and the wider the teeth of leaflet, the higher the content of the tetracyclic triterpenoids of dammarane type it contains. On the other hand, the Q cluster analysis showed that Panax as a whole may be divided into two groups (Fig. 3). The first group includes P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, P. notoginseng and P. zingiberensis and the second group includes P. stipuleanatus, P. pseudo-ginseng, P. japonicus var. japonicus, P. japonicus var. angustifolius, P. japonicus var. major and P. japonicus var. bipinnatifidus. The results of the computation of principal component analysis indicate that the first principal component consistes of the characters occurring in the sets A and B. It shows that the variation in Panax has two opposite directions. One of them, corresponding to the set A, is represented by the first group, and the other, corresponding to the set B, is by the second group. Finally, some questions about the use of the genus in medicine were discussed.
  • Mao Zu-Mei, Yang Ge, Wang Chang-Gui
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 44-49.
    There are more than 20 species of Calligonum in China, of which 17 are known from Xinjiang. They are divided into four sections. This paper aims to study the evolutionary relations of some species of Calligonum in Xinjiang. The chromosome numbers of 13 species and the anatomic structures of young branch of 8 species have been examined. Among 13 species, the, basic chromosome number x=9.9 species are diploids. 4 species are tetraploids. The evolutionary relations of these plants are arranged as follows: Section Calligonum (Fisch. et Mey.) Borszcz. 1. C. junceum (Fisch. et Mey.) Litv. Section Pterococcus (Pall.) Borszcz. 2. C. leucocladum (Schrenk) Bge. 3. C. aphyllum (Pall.) Gürke. 4. C. rubicundum Bge. Section Calligonum ,. 5. C. cordatum Eug. Kor. 6. C. densum Borszcz. 7. C. klementzii A. Los. Section Medusa Sosk et Alexandra 8. C. mongolicum Turcz. 9. C. pumilum A. Los. 10. C. ebi-nuricum Ivanova 11. C. arborescens Litv. 12. C. caput-medusae Schrenk 13.C. roborovskii A. Los.
  • Yang Di-Qing, Zhu Xie-Fu
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 50-54.
    This paper reports the chromosome numbers and karyotype analysis of Speirantha gardenii, which is endemic to China. The material was collected from Huang Shan, Anhui. It is a diploid species. Its somatic chromosome is 2n=38=22m+6sm+10st. The 9th pair is submedian centromere chromosomes, but it has two constrictions. The secondary constriction is on the short arm near centromere. Of the 19 chromosome pairs,secondary constriction is present only in this pair.
  • Wang Guan-Lin, Li Zhen-Shan, Meng Qing-Xian
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 55-59.
    The present paper reports the results of cytological studies of three samples of comfrey introduced into China as forage plants. It is found that the chromosome numbers of these three different samples of comfrey are the same, 2n = 40. This number is consistant with that of the Symphytum peregrinum Ledeb. in literature, but different from that of the other species. Therefore from the view point of chromosome number we consider preliminarily that these three samples of comfrey are identical withSymphytum peregrinum Ledeb.
  • Chao Chi-Son, Chu Cheng-De
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 60-75.
    The genus Indosasa McCl. has not been thoroughly studied by botanists both at home and abroad since its establishment by F. A. McClure in 1940. In preparing the manuscript of the Flora of China, the authors have studied this genus rather comprehensively. The present paper deals with the systematic position of the genus Indosasa McC1. The bamboo inflorescences can be divided into two basic types, i.e. iterauctant (indeterminate) and semelauctant (determinate) which both are of great diagnostic importance in bamboo classification. For this reason, we agree with the view of some botanists that the generalized tribe Arundinarieae should be split into two tribes, Arundinarieae and Shibataeeae. The former possess the semelauctant inflorescences, forming panicles or racemes, and the latter the iterauctant ones, forming spikelet tufts. Undoubtedly, the genus Indosasa McC1. should belong to the tribe Shibataeeae systematically, it is closely related to the genus Sinoba mbusa Makino ex Nakai, not to Sasa Makino et Shibata of tribe Arundinarieae. After a careful examination of some type specimens and all phototypes of McClure’s species, we found in some species, the flowering specimens and vegetative specimens of same species were published as different species. For example, he published the type species of the genus (I. crassiflora) based on the flowering specimens, but at the same time he also published another species (Sinobambusa gibbosa=Indosasa gibbosa) with vegetative specimens collected from the same locality by the same collector. In fact, they are the same species. He also made similar mistakes in I. shibataeoides McCl. and I. tinctilimba McCl. Thus we came to the conclusion that the binomials of Sinobambusa gibbosa McCl. and Indosasa tinctilimba McCl. must be combined with I. crassiflora McCl. and I. shibataeoides McCl. respectively. In the present paper, the authors have reported 10 species of Indosasa from China, six of them are being described as new. In addition, a key to species is given. In the key we have used vegetative characteristics that are generally available. But Indosasa hispida McCl. is excluded from the key, since its vegetative characteristics are still unknown. Under each species, distribution and ecological notes, in additionto a brief discussion, are also given.
  • Xue Xiang-Ji, Mao Jie-Qi, Zhang Zhi-Ming, Hsu Ping-Sheng
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 76-78.
    According to Wang and Xie, their recently published genus Trirostellum is distinguished from its allied genera by a number of characteristics: (1) the stamens with their filaments coherent into a central column; (2) the female flowers possessing rudimentary stamens; (3) the ovary 3-celled, with one ovule in each cell; (4) the fruits dehiscent, 3-rostrated at the apex; (5) the fruits possessing persistent perianth; (6) the seeds tuberculate and winged. However, upon a careful comparison of Trirostellum yixingensis Z.P. Wang et Q. Z. Xie, the type species of Trirostellum with Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Mak., the type species of Gynostemma Bl. and some other species of Gynostemma as well,we have found that the representatives of the above two genera are identical in most of the important diagnostic characteristics except that the fruits of the former genus are dehiscent with three long beaks at the apex, while the fruits of the latter genus are indehiscent with very short beaks. Besides, results obtained from chromosome counting haove shown that the somatic chromosome number of Trirostellum yixingensis is 2n=22, while that of Gynostemma pentaphyllum is 2n=28.Yet these morphological and chromosomal differences seem not sufficient for generic demarcation. We, therefore, suggest that Trirostellum bereduced to a sectional or subgeneric rank of Gynostemma Bl.
  • Shan Ren-Hwa, Sheh Meng-Lan, Yuan Chang-Chi, Pu Fa-Ting
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 79-88.
  • Hsueh Chi-Ju, Yi Tong-Pei
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 94-99.
  • Yin Shu-Fen
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 100-101.
  • Wang Zhong-Ren
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 102-104.
    The spores of all specimens of Cystopteris in the Herbarium of the Institute of Botany, Academea Sinica have been examined under light microscope. The result of the survey shows for the first time that the distribution of Cystopteris dickieana Sim with non-spiny spores is also quite wide-spread in China, including provinces Xinjiang, Xizang, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Hebei in northwestern China and Tibetan plateau. The range of altitude for this species varies from 1800 to 5400(5600) m, but C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. from 210 to 4600 m. The differences in the altitudinal distribution range seem to suggest that C. dickieana is more tolerant of cold conditions than C. fragilis. There are also variations in size and ornamentation of the spores in each of the two species. Their ploidy and relationships await futher cytogenetical study from livingmaterials.
  • Wu Pan-Cheng, Lou Jian-Shing, Wang Mei-Zhi
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 105-107.
    1961, a Japanese specimen of liverworts was named as Takakia lepidozioides by Hattori and Inoue and they treated it to establish a new order Takakiales. 1963, “Lepidozia ceratophylla” was determined by Grolle as the second species of Takakia. Hitherto, they were found in Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Sikkim, Aleutian Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands separately. 1980, 1982, Wang Mei-zhi collected Takakia lepidozioides in the forest ground of Abies delavaya in Bomi and Zayii, Xizang. According to it's features, it is apparet that Takakialens is the most primitive one in liverworts,perhaps it could be treated as a kind of “living fossil”. Decontaminated thianthrene disproportion. Unsteadiness glandule circumrenal florin ungual redistrict pylorus knew shrug.
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  • 1Tao Jun-Rong, 2Wang Qing-Shi
    J Syst Evol. 1983, 21(1): 108-109.
    The fossils here described were collected from the Lai Yuan, Hebei Province in north China. Well-preserved plant parts are cones of Pinus, identified as Pinus prototabulaeformis sp. nov. The species is different from other taxa of Pinus by larger cones and scales. The size of the cone is a reliable diagnostic character in the group: The large cone and scale indicate rather an arid climate in Summer in the region where the fossils are discovered. The age of bearing-beds is considered Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene. Diagnosis: Cones ovate in general outline, 8.5 cm long, 4.5 cm in diameter. Seed scales oblong, 2—2.5 cm long, 0.8—1.1 cm wide. Apophysis obviously fattened andthickned, convex, compressed rhomboid, rostrate at the apical part of seed-bract.