Table of Contents

18 November 1982, Volume 20 Issue 4
    Research Articles
  • Hsü Jen
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 385-391.
    By late Carboniferous the flora of northern Xizang differs from that of the northern India. During late Permian, the northern Xizang was inhabited by the Gigantopteris flora, while in the southern Xizang was widespread the Glossopteris flora. The upper Triassic flora of the northern Xizang is closely related to that of southwestern China and quite different from that of India. The Jurassic flora found in Tsaidam of Chinghai and the early Cretaceous flora found in Lhasa of the northern Xizang are closely related to these of the northern hemisphere, and show no relationship with these of the southern hemisphere. The late Cretaceous flora of Rikaze and the early Eocene flora of Ali region are also of northern hemisphere in affinity and show no relationship with the Daccan Intertrappean and the Eocene floras of India. Hence, the northern and the southern Xizang should have belonged to two different continents, Eurasia and Gondwanaland. Between them, a very wide sea, the Tethys, was situated. This strongly supports the view of continental drift that the India block drifted in late Jurassic-Cretaceous from the south-eastern corner of Africa and later on in Eocene joined up with Asia to become its subcontinent. The suture line between Eurasia and the India block perhaps lies in the belt of basic to ultrabasic rocks along the Yalu-Tsangpo valleys. Judging from the nature of the floras ranging from the late Carboniferous to the early Eocene, the northern Xizang most probably was of lowland in topography throughout these periods. The Miocene floras of the central and the northern Xizang were mainly composed of deciduous broad-leaved trees, though some evergreen trees existed somewhere else. It reflects the land of the central and the northern Xizang had already uplifted to some extant before Miocene. During the time of Pliocene, the evergreen broadleaved trees were gradually declining in their development in the northern Xizang. The vegetation of the Chaidamu (=Tsaidam) Basin further changed into deciduous broad-leaved to coniferous forests and then turned into grasslands and semi-deserts or deserts. It shows by that time the land of Xizang and Chinghai further upheaved. Up to the late Pliocene, the vegetation of the northern Xizang and Chinghai further changed. But the vegetation of the Himalayan region was still dominated by evergreen oaks and Cedrus forests. Most probably by that time the Himalayas was not so high as present. There was no barrier to prevent the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean passing over the Himalayas. The most active period of the uplift of the mountain ranges in Xizang and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is the Quaternary. By that time no evergreen broad-leaved trees could live in the northern Xizang. During the late Quaternary, the vegetation of most parts of Xizang gradually changed into cold alpine desert. At last the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau turned into the present state.
  • Wu Pan-Cheng, Lou Jian-Shing
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 392-401.
    In the south-east and south Xizang, in cluding Medog, Zayü some western separate valleys Yadong, Kama near Zentang in Dinggye, Boqu near Zham in Nyalam and Gyirong, a mild climate prevails because of the very high mountains and the very deep valleys. According to our preliminary survey, 4/5 of the genera and 7/10 of the species, i.e. approximately representing all families and genera of the tropical and subtropical bryofliora of Xizang, are restricted to these localities below the altitude of 2,300 meters. It almost agrees with the previous presumption that the Tsangpo gorge is the line of connection between two paleoeontinents—Laurasia and Gondwana. Moreover, the bryoflora of these localities, besides the Indo-Malasian elements and East Asian elements as the main components, has at least about 40 genera in common with south America, Australia and Africa. According to the historical phytogeographical point of view, the distribution range of centain genera is formed through a period of long historical development. The same is true for the area of different species, although they are found in widely separate areas right now, yet they might have once a continuous distribution in certain historical age. The Indian plate collided against the eastern part of Laurasia and afterwards the Australasian plate moved to the north. All these might have dispersed the Gondwana elements as far as to the southeastern part of Xizang. It is very interesting to note that of the 32 genera of bryophytes endemic to East Asia, 13 have recently been found in the southeast and south Xizang and also in the neighbouring regions, i.e. Yunnan, Sichuan, where there are many genera being in common with southeast and south Xizang and also highly concentrated in distribution. This may suggest that the Himalayas, being the highest and youngest mountain range, have changed the atmospheric circulation, and have created a new ecological condition between tropical and frigid zones, which have given the distribution of the newly formed genera a suitable circumstance to survive. It may be presumed that the region covering counties Medog, Zayü, Yadong etc. in southeastern and southern parts of the Himalayas is a new center of distribution of bryophytes under the influence of the up-heaval of the Himalayas.
  • Zhang Zhi-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 402-409.
    1. The present paper describes the observations of chromosome numbers and karyomorphology of 2 species of 2 endemic genera and I endemic species of Chinese Ranunculaceae: Asteropyrum peltatum (Franch.) Drumm et Hutch. 2n=16, x=8; Kingdonia unifolia Balf. f. et W. W. Sm. 2n=18, x=9 and Calathodes oxycarpa Sprague 2n=16, x=8. The chromosome counts of three ranunculaceous genera are reported for the first time. 2. The morphylogical, palynological and cytological date in relation to the systematic postition of Asteropyrum, Kingdonia and Calathodes within the family Ranunculaceae are diseussed and resulted in following conclusions: (1). On the basis of the basic number x=8 in Asteropyrum, it is further confirmed that this genus is distinct from the r elated genera such as Isopyrum, Dichocarpum and other allied taxa. The comparison of Asteropyrum with Coptis shows that they are identical in short chromosomes, with magnoflorina and benzylisaquinodine type of alkaloides, but different from coptis in the chromosome numbers (T-type), pantocolpate pollens, united carpels and the dorsi-ventral type of petioles. In view of these fundamental morphological and cytological differences, Asterop yrum is better raised to the level of Tribe. However Asteropyrum and Coptis may represent two divaricate evolutional lines of Thalictroideae. (2). The systematic position of the genus Kingdonia has been much disputed in the past. We support the view of Sinnote (1914), namely, the trilacunar in leaf traces “the ancient type”, appeared in the angiosperm line very early, while the unilacunar of Kingdonia may be derived from the trilacunar. On the basis of the chromosome numbers and morphylogical observation, the present writer accept Tamura’s and Wang’s treatment by keeping Kingdonia in Ranunculaceae instead of raising it to a family rank as has been been done by Forster (1961). Kingdonia and Coptis are similar in having short chromosome with x=9, but with one-seeded fruits; therefore it is suggested that placed into Thalictroideae as an independent tribe, indicating its close relationship with Coptideae. (3). Comparing with its allies, Calathodes being with out petals, seems to be more primitive than Trollius. But Calathodes differs from Trollius with R-type chromosomes in having T-type chromosome with x=8 and subterminal centromere. Those characteristics show that it is very similar to the related genera of Thalictroideae. But as Kurita already pointed out that most speci es of Ranunculus have usually large long chromosomes but some species have compar ativelly short chromosomes, therefore we regard T-type and R-type chromosomes appear independently in different subfamilies of Ranunculaceae. According to Tamura, G alathodes seems to be closely related to Megaleranthis, because of the resemblance in follicles. But due to lack of cytological data of the latter genus, the relationship between the two genera still is not clear pending further studies. From the fact that the morphology and chromosomes of the Calathodes differs from that of all other genera of the Helleboroideae, we consider Calathodes may form an independent tribe of its own with a closer relationship withTrollieae.9841
  • Hu Chia-Ch'i, Chu Ming-Yuan, Shu Tzu-Sheng
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 410-420.
    In the last 10—20 years there has bee n increasing awareness of the problem concerning the aims and practices of taxonomy. In particular, there has been growing interest in the development of numerical methods in biological taxonomy as an aid to making systematics a quantitative science, a step which comes in time to almost every scientific discipline. Numerical taxonomy is the evaluation by numerical methods of the affinity or similarity between taxonomic units and the employment of these affinities in erecting a hierarchic order of taxa. The present rapid development of these ideas is presumably a result of the development of computer techniques. Numerical taxonomic approach has been applied to the studies of entomology and microbiology in China to some extent since 1975. But so far it hasn’t been commonly used in botany. The present report is a preliminary study on 9 spp. of the genus Abelia. A set of binary data with 54 characters is used for computing association coefficient; and a set of quantitative data with 47 characters for distance coefficient and correlation coefficient. For the mathematical models were chosen the non-metric simple matching association coefficient, the geometrical distance of Riemannian space and correlation coefficient. Computational procedures are stepwise presented in detail and computer programmes are written in the background of Algol-60 language. Cluster analysis is compared with simple linkage, average linkage and multi-correlation. The results of DC and CC for 9 spp. of Abelia agree closely with the traditional taxonomy, because the data we collected mainly come from morphological characters. It would seem that the results of quantita tive data are more appropriate for seed plants. It is, therefore, postulated that our programes are complementary and very useful to a wide range of classification entities, such as microbes, animals and plants in present situation in China. In conclusion, a comparison between the conventional taxonomy and numerical taxonomy has been made, and a brief discussion of three problems, i.e. the monothetic versus polythetic, divisive versus agglomerative, weighting versus unweighting.
  • Law Yuh-Wu, Wu Young-Fen
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 421-438.
    This paper is a preliminary study on the Sabiaceae in aspects of its morphology, taxonomy and geography. We propose that the Sabioideae and Meliosmoideae as two new subfamilies of Sabiaceae according to the external morphology, flower structure and geographical distribution of these two genera respectively. This paper follows the taxonomic concepts of Luetha Chen on Sabia and C. F. van Beusekom on Meliosma. We agree with them for their classification of these two genera above the specific rank. As to the revision work of Sabia by van de Water and C. F. van Beusekom’s work on Meliosma we disagree for their unduly broad specific concepts. We rather treat the species of these two genera according to their habitats in regions on a relatively narrower sense. The genus Sabia of China are classified into 2 tribes, with 16 species, 5 subspecies and 2 varieties in which 4 subspecies and l variety are as new combinations, the genus of Meliosma in China are classified into 2 subgenera with 29 species, and 7 varieties of which 4 varieties are new combinations. After examining the affinity of the species of Sabia and Meliosma in China and its neighboring nations such as Burma, Japan and Bhutan, we found that their migration initiated from China, as the primitive species of these two genera occured in northeast and central part of Yunnan, sou theast of Sichuan, north of Guizhou and west of Hubei, the region may probably be the main origin of these two genera. As shown in tables 1 & 2, the localities where the species of these two genera densely populate they are from Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong coinciding with the concepts of C. F. van Beusekom and van de Water about the distribution of exotic species of these two genera, it may reasonable be pointed out that the center of distribution of these two genera is Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong and nieghboring nations, upper Burma and northern Vietnam. Futhermore, it may be seen that starting from this center the number of species become less and less as they proceed far and far awaybut become more advance in evolution.
  • Tsi Zhan-Huo
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 439-444.
    The present paper is an attempt to make a taxonomic study of the little known orchid genus Holcoglossum, as well as a comparison of the genus with its allies, such as Vanda, Papilionanthe, Ascolabium, Ascocentrum, Aěrides, Neofinetia and Saccolabium. Holcoglossum was established by Schlechter in 1919 (Orchideologiae Sino-Japonicae Prodromus) as a monotypic genus, based upon Saccolabium quasipinifolium Hayata. Five years later he published another true Holcoglossum as Aěrides flavescens, which was referred by Tang et Wang to Saccolabium in 1951. Further investigation of this genus was by Garay in 1972 who added two species, H. kimballiana and V. rupestris (synonymy of Aěrides flavescens), but considered Neofinetia, a quite different taxon, to be congeneric. It is shown that the demarcation of Holcoglossum remains cofused. During the course of our study, the species of Holcoglossum and its allied genera are carefully examined, we come to the conclusion that Ho lcoglossum is a distinct genus. It is characterized by the short stem; fleshy terete or subterete, sulcate above leaves, with their apex acute and non-lobed; thickening or keeled costa on the back of sepals, 3-lobed lip, with erect sidelobes, paralled to the column; slender and recurved spur; footless column usually with prominent wings; 2 notched pollinia attached to linear stipe which is tapered toward the base. In addition to Ascolabium, it differs from Vanda, Papilionanthe, Ascocentrum, Aěrides, Neofinetia and Saccolabium by its terete or subterete leaves on their ventral side with a furrow, from Papilionanthe by lacking footless column, from Ascolabium by sepals and spur characters, from Ascocentrum by slender and recurred spur, from Aěrides by the absence of a column-foot and the appearance of spur, from Neofinetia by stipe tapered toward the base, from Saccolabi-um by both aspects of the vegetative organs and the flowers.
  • Yang Chun-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 445-452.
    The family Lycopodiaceae and Huperzi aceae includes 400 species in the world. They are widely distributed in the tropics temperate and frigid zones. In China there are about 60 species widely distributed in the southern and northern provinces. The plants contain quinolizidine alkaloids. The physiological activity of them is strong enough for medicinal use. The paper describes the medicinal plants of the family Lycopodiacea'e and Huperziaceae in China including their taxonomy, distribution and medicinal value. A key to 12 species of the plants is offered. T he main references are cited after every species. The distribution of species is based on specimens identified. The chemical constituents and the scope of pharmacological action in clinical use as well as the effectin folk use also mentioned. Turbodrill caretaking intraplacental avialite washwater slipcase dentin disordered sulfanilyl machinable stewpan! Netherward pressbodies horror abscissa, keratosis frieze. Bgy unwrapped.
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  • Yü Te-Tsun, Lu Ling-Ti
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 453-464.
  • Ma Chi-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 465-473.
  • Yang Ching-Chow
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 474-477.
  • Yang Chun-Yu
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 478-481.
  • Chen Qing-Lian, Yang Bao-Min
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 482-484.
  • Lang Kai-Yung, Zhu Zheng-Yin
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 485-488.
  • Fu Guo-Ai
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 489-491.
  • Li Shu-Chun, Wu Shi-Hwa, Chen Shao-Yun
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 492-493.
  • Dai Qi-Hui
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 494-495.
  • Wei Jiang-Chun, Jiang Yu-Mei
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 496-501.
    In the present paper, ten lichen species from Xizang are reported. Three of them are new species and three new infraspecific taxa. One species and one variety are made as new combinations. The apothecium of Lethariella cashmeriana Krog is described for the first time. This paper also deals with nomenclatural problems of certain species. The authors found that the specific epithets of Gyrophora hypococcina Jatta (A. Zahlbruckner, 1927, 1934) and G. hypocrocina Jatta (A. Zahlbruckner, 1930) were either orthographic or typographic errors for G. hypococcinea Jatta (1902) (original spelling). According to the Article 73:1 of the International Co de of Botanical Nomenclature [Leningrad Code (1978)],. the epithet (hypococcinea) must be retained and the name Umbilicaria hypococcinea (Jatta) Llano must, therefore be used substituting for U. hypococcina (Jatta) Llano (1950; Lu, 1959). The authors wish to express their sincere appreciation to Prof. T Ahti and Dr.O. Vitikainen (H) and Dr. Roland Moberg (UPS) for the loan of type specimens.
  • Xu Ke-Xue
    J Syst Evol. 1982, 20(4): 502-509.
    In this paper, the various mathematical methods applied to taxonomy are introduced to readers. Some approaches to the classification induced by statistics, graph theory, information theory, fuzzy mathematics are discussed. An example of classification (6 OTU’s with 8 characters) is given for convenience of discussion. The original data matrix of this example is obtained from 6 species in the family of Campanulaceae.